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Abstract

Exercise can become a compulsive behaviour and harmful to an individual. This review proposes diagnostic criteria for ‘exercise dependence’ to facilitate recognition in Sports clinics and further research. The importance of diagnosing exercise dependence lies in the prevention of morbidity and rarely mortality if exercise is continued in the presence of illness or injury. There is insufficient evidence to postulate opioid peptides as a physiological basis of dependence. A distinction is made between a primary form of exercise dependence and that which is secondary to an eating disorder.

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... De Coverley Veal (1987) nennt u. a. die folgenden Synonyme für den von ihm verwendeten Begriff der "exercise dependence": "running addiction" (Glasser, 1976), "negative addiction" (Morgan, 1979;Hailey & Bailey, 1982), "obligatory running" (Yates, Leehey & Shisslak, 1983), "morbid exercising" (Chalmers, Catalan, Day & Fairburn, 1985) oder "compulsive running" (Diekhoff, 1984). Imponiert eine Sportsucht als eigenständiges Phänomen und steht die sportliche Aktivität im Vordergrund, spricht man von einer primären Sportsucht (De Coverley Veale, 1987;Veale, 1995;Bamber, Cockerill, Rodgers & Carroll, 2003). Eine Sportsucht kann aber auch -vor allem bei Frauen -im Rahmen einer Essstörung auftreten (Brewerton, Stellefson, Hibbs, Hodges & Cochrane, 1995;Davis et al., 1995;Shroff et al., 2006). ...
... Eine Sportsucht kann aber auch -vor allem bei Frauen -im Rahmen einer Essstörung auftreten (Brewerton, Stellefson, Hibbs, Hodges & Cochrane, 1995;Davis et al., 1995;Shroff et al., 2006). In diesem Fall wird vorgeschlagen von einer sekundären Sportsucht zu sprechen (De Coverley Veale, 1987). Exzessive sportliche Aktivität dient bei einer Essstörung dabei häufig dem Ziel, das Körpergewicht zu kontrollieren und "eine Kalorienschuld abzuarbeiten" (Beumont, Arthur, Russell & Touyz, 1994;Meyer, Taranis, Goodwin, & Haycraft, 2011). ...
... B. der Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES; Davis et al., 1993), fehlte noch der konzeptuelle und theoretische Rahmen. Neuere Tests (EDQ; EDS, EDS-R) basieren auf einem theoretischen Konzept von Sportabhängigkeit, das sich, entsprechend der Definition von De Coverley Veale (1987), an den DSM-Kriterien für Substanzabhängigkeit orientiert. ...
... Exercise addiction can be defined by seven physiological and psychological criteria (i.e., Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, DSM;De Coverley Veale, 1987). Athletes develop a (1) typical tolerance towards the same amount of physical activity. ...
... In this context, exercise addiction can be further divided into primary and secondary addiction. Primary addiction stands for an independent disease, whereas the secondary addiction is related to an eating disorder and is termed as a co-morbid disease (De Coverley Veale, 1987;Hausenblas & Symons Downs, 2002b). ...
... Based on the assumption that physiological aspects cause exercise addiction, researchers focused on endurance sports such as running (De Coverley Veale, 1987), while research in sports such as bodybuilding or fitness training focused more on psychological and socio-theoretical aspects (Hill et al., 2015;Lichtenstein, Christiansen, Elklit, Bilenberg, & Støving, 2013;Murray, McKenzie, Newman, & Brown, 2013). However, data for prevalence rates vary depending on factors such as measurement instruments, or sample structure (Egorov & Szabo, 2013;Hausenblas & Symons Downs, 2002b). ...
Article
Despite typical physiological risks of regular physical activity such as injuries or overtraining, particularly excessive exercise can have psychological side effects and become obsessive. This obsessiveness is often associated with symptoms of addiction (i.e., reduction of other activities, lack of control, withdrawal symptoms). However, the underlying process of developing an exercise addiction is not yet fully understood. Besides the physiological approach, there are several psychological and socio-theoretical models focusing on personal and situational factors. The aim of this research was to explore the role of psycho-social aspects and their influence on symptoms of exercise addiction. 501 participants were asked to record their current sport regarding type, intensity, frequency, and competitive activity. Furthermore, the participants were asked about the motives to exercise as well as their inspiration to start with their current sport. Addictive symptoms were assessed using the Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS). It was expected, that inspiration, competitive activity, as well as the motives achievement striving and catharsis have an influence on the EDS score. The results showed that athletes rating the motives achievement striving, catharsis and enjoyment of movement as important or very important showed significantly higher scores in the EDS. No significant differences were found for inspiration, but competitive activity. The findings suggest an important role of intrinsic motivation on the development of exercise addition, particularly the motive enjoyment of movement. However, the interaction of personal and situational factors needs to be explored further. Keywords: achievement striving, catharsis, competitive athletes, exercise dependence scale, inspiration, physical activity.
... Bamber, Cockerill, & Carroll, 2000;D. J. Bamber, Cockerill, Rodgers, & Carroll, 2003;Cook et al., , 2013Coverley Veale, 1987;Zeulner, Ziemainz, Beyer, Hammon, & Janka, 2016). The validated instruments mostly used to assess exercise dependence are the exercise dependence scale and the exercise addiction inventory (Griffiths, 2005;Szabó, Pinto, Griffiths, Kovácsik, & Demetrovics, 2019). ...
... In previous research, negative perfectionism was associated with personal and interpersonal difficulties, such as negative mental, emotional, physical, and relationship experiences (Hill et al., 2015). In order to improve their individual performance, some athletes train more intensively, which in turn may contribute to exercise dependence (Coverley Veale, 1987). Such increases in training can also be supplemented with a nutritional strategy that focuses on specific foods and/or an adapted body weight. ...
Article
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Objective Food addiction is discussed as a substance-related addictive disorder, which is prevalent in normal and underweight subjects. Addictions often co-occur. It was suggested that food addiction and exercise dependence (behavioral addiction), may co-occur in vulnerable athletes. This assumption was made since the eating behavior of athletes in certain situations is similar to the eating behavior seen in food addiction. In addition, exercise dependence may play a significant role in individuals’ eating related pathologies, and thus possibly also in food addiction. Athletes may be an interesting population to examine the co-occurrence of food and exercise addictions, as athletes represent a group that is potentially at-risk for both, eating problems and exercise dependence. Perfectionism is a construct that has been implicated in both, exercise dependence and eating disorders. Current study explores potential relationships among the two addictive disorders food addiction and exercise dependence—with perfectionism being the common thread between the two. Method A total of 1022 German speaking amateur athletes completed an online questionnaire consisting of the questionnaires Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0, Questionnaire to diagnose exercise-dependence in endurance sports and Multidimensional inventory of perfectionism in sport. Result A mediator effect of exercise dependence on the relationship between perfectionism and food addiction was found. Approximately 4 % (positive)/6 % (negative) of the variance in food addiction were accounted for by the mediator. Conclusion The appearance of food addiction in normal/underweight individuals may partially be explained by sports-related reasons, e.g. exercise dependence and perfectionism.
... Odbacivanje dijagnoze poremećaja hranjenja glavni je preduvjet za razmatranje postojanja primarne ovisnosti o vježbanju, a diferencijacija ovih dvaju poremećaja leži u krajnjem cilju ponašanja pojedinca. U slučaju primarne ovisnosti o vježbanju, tjelesna aktivnost je sama sebi svrha, dok kod sekundarne ovisnosti o vježbanju ona predstavlja kompenzacijsko ponašanje kojim se osobe suočavaju s brigama o težini i nezadovoljstvu tjelesnim izgledom (De Coverley Veale, 1987, 1995Müller, Loeber, Söchtig, Te Wildt i De Zwaan, 2015). Istraživanja pokazuju kako su upravljanje tjeles- nim izgledom i težinom glavni motivi vježbanja u ranijim stadijima poremećaja, a kasnije tu ulogu preuzima regulacija negativnog afekta (Bratland-Sanda i sur., 2011). ...
Article
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Despite the physical and psychological benefits of exercise, recent evidence has been gathered on the downsides of this healthy habit in the form of exercise dependence. Exercise dependence is an uncontrolled urge for exercising and satisfying that urge becomes the ultimate goal in everyday life and, consequently leads to the loss of beneficial effects of exercise. This study contains validation of the Exercise Dependence Scale (Hausenblas & Symon Downs, 2002b) used for the first time on a Croatian sample for measuring exercise dependence symptoms. In an online conducted research 281 women participated, mean age of 22 years (SD = 2.70). The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of perfectionism and disordered eating in explaining exercise dependence symptoms. The conducted analyses identified personal standards, doubt about actions, and dieting as significant individual predictors for exercise dependence. More precisely, participants with higher personal standards, more doubts about their actions, and those who often engage in dieting tend to experience more exercise dependence symptoms. Perfectionism dimensions and disordered eating aspects explained 23% of the exercise dependence variance. © 2018, Institute of Social Sciences Ivo Pilar. All rights reserved.
... uzależnienie behawioralne czyli uzależnienie od czynności. Jego główne objawy jako pierwszy opisał w systematyczny sposób De Coverley Veale (1987) wprowadzając rozróżnienie na uzależnienie pierwotne i wtórne. Wskazał jako kryteria rozpoznania: zawężenie repertuaru ćwiczeń prowadzące do stereotypowych wzorców treningu odbywanych regularnie co najmniej raz dziennie; nadawanie ćwiczeniom wzrastającego i wyraźnego priorytetu w stosunku do innych form aktywności w celu utrzymania wzorca ćwiczeń; narastająca tolerancja liczby ćwiczeń wykonywanych w kolejnych latach; objawy odstawienia związane z zaburzeniami nastroju po przerwie w planowanych ćwiczeniach; unikanie lub łagodzenie objawów odstawienia przez dalsze ćwiczenia; gwałtowny powrót do poprzedniego wzorca ćwiczeń po dłuższym okresie niećwiczenia. ...
Chapter
W pracy przedstawiono podstawy teoretyczne i opisano procedurę konstruowania orygi- nalnych wersji dwóch narzędzi do badania pewności siebie w sporcie: Inwentarza Pewności Siebie w Sporcie (TSCI – Trait Sport-Confidence Inventory) i Kwestionariusza Źródeł Pewności Siebie w Sporcie autorstwa Vealey. Omówiono także szczegółowo ich adaptację do warunków polskich. Oba narzędzia w ich ostatecznych wersjach cechują się dobrą rzetelnością, a moc dyskryminacyjna pozycji jest zadowalająca. Trafność wewnętrzna, teoretyczna i kryterialna jest satysfakcjonująca. SSCQ-PL składa się z 38 pozycji, przypisanych do ośmiu skal: Mistrzostwo, Prezentowanie Umiejętności, Przygotowanie Psychiczne i Fizyczne, Postrzeganie Własnego Ciała, Wsparcie, Doświadczenie Zastępcze, Komfort Środowiskowy, Przywództwo. TSCI-PL składa się z 13 sformułowań. Osoba badana porównuje swoją pewność siebie w przykładowych kontekstach sportowych, do najbardziej pewnego siebie zawodnika, jakiego zna.
... Addiction to making specific physical efforts, which experts have called addiction exercises, is currently not included in the clinical use of diagnosis and assessment manuals [5]. Indeed, numerous studies have shown that this nosological change is associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder [6,7] or addictive processes [8][9][10][11]. Currently, therapeutic approaches to exercise dependency primarily target the use of cognitive-behavioral therapies and methods to lessen other behavioral dependencies [12,13]. These can lead to the desire to over-repeat a physical program for a long period of time, to self-indulge in physical performance, and to permanently improve body image and self-confidence. ...
Article
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Background: The study was focused on identifying the relationship between the incidence of exercise dependence attitudes, the level of body perception, and preferences for use of fitness technology monitoring. Methods: We investigated 241 students from physical education and sports specializations. We used a questionnaire structured in 5 parts: personal information (age, gender, weight, height, and institutional membership), Exercise Dependence Scale-R (EDS-21), the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET), Body perception questionnaire, and Fitness Monitoring Technology. Results: Application of EDS-21 revealed 8.3% with dependence and CET with 13.4%. Body mass index (BMI) in combination with self-image body: 18 (7.4%) of subjects over-estimated themselves, 18 (7.4%) of subjects underestimated themselves, 38.6% of the subjects were satisfied with their appearance, 17% were very satisfied and none were dissatisfied. A total of 36.1% thought they had the correct weight and 8.7% thought of losing weight. The most preferred monitoring technologies were the treadmill and the smartphone’s fitness applications. A total of 11.6% of the subjects always used technologies, and 17% of subjects never did so. Conclusions: In order to identify the level of incidence of exercise dependence, body perception, and preference and frequency of use of monitoring technology, it is necessary to expand the level of knowledge about health and physical activities. The approach would diminish medical incidences of addiction, improve proactive behaviors, and correct prohealth.
... De acordo com Hausenblas e Downs (2002a), a DEF representa um comportamento de excesso de EF que se manifesta através de sintomas fisiológicos e / ou psicológicos. Segundo esses autores, a DEF é caracterizada por um padrão comportamental de EF que está associado com a tolerância, sintomas de abstinência, efeitos de intenção, perda de controle na mediação do tempo gasto com a prática de EF, conflitos (sociais, ocupacionais ou de lazer) e a manutenção do comportamento de EF apesar da presença de lesões (Coverley Veale, 1987;Hausenblas & Downs, 2002a). ...
Article
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The exercise dependence is defined by a behavior of excessive practice of physical exercises that can result in physical and psychological injuries. The objective of the study was to verify the prevalence of exercise dependence in health club's users in the urban area of the city of Uruguaiana, Southern Brazil. An epidemiological survey of the descriptive observational type was carried out with a sample of 496 individuals aged 18 years and over, of both sexes, practicing different modalities offered at 14 health clubs. To assess exercise dependence, the Exercise Dependence Scale was used. This instrument is based on the seven criteria for substance dependence of the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders and allows, according to the score, to distinguish non-dependent asymptomatic, non-dependent symptomatic, and at risk of exercise dependence, as well as the identification of the nature of the dependence, as being physiological or psychosocial. The prevalence of 7.1% (95%CI: 4.84 - 9.36) of individuals at risk of exercise dependence was verified. Higher frequencies among males, white skin color, aged between 18 and 40 years old, single, with education to high school and monthly family income of up to four minimum wages. A greater sensitivity of responses to abstinence and tolerance criteria, and evidence of dependence of physiological order were verified in these spaces. It is concluded that even in a non-expressive way, situations of risk of physical exercise dependence were verified in health clubs, being necessary more studies that approach the subject in more depth.
... This definition equally applies to coaches and athlete entourages addiction, in which weight loss is the objective, with excessive exercise being one of the primary means in achieving the objective. [540][541][542] There is a growing body of clinical evidence that behavioural disorders can be successfully treated. 514 The most common approaches include motivational interviewing and CBT. ...
Article
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Mental health symptoms and disorders are common among elite athletes, may have sport related manifestations within this population and impair performance. Mental health cannot be separated from physical health, as evidenced by mental health symptoms and disorders increasing the risk of physical injury and delaying subsequent recovery. There are no evidence or consensus based guidelines for diagnosis and management of mental health symptoms and disorders in elite athletes. Diagnosis must differentiate character traits particular to elite athletes from psychosocial maladaptations. Management strategies should address all contributors to mental health symptoms and consider biopsychosocial factors relevant to athletes to maximise benefit and minimise harm. Management must involve both treatment of affected individual athletes and optimising environments in which all elite athletes train and compete. To advance a more standardised, evidence based approach to mental health symptoms and disorders in elite athletes, an International Olympic Committee Consensus Work Group critically evaluated the current state of science and provided recommendations.
... This definition equally applies to coaches and athlete entourages addiction, in which weight loss is the objective, with excessive exercise being one of the primary means in achieving the objective. [540][541][542] There is a growing body of clinical evidence that behavioural disorders can be successfully treated. 514 The most common approaches include motivational interviewing and CBT. ...
... These disorders are often comorbid with EXD (e.g., Cunningham et al. 2016;Lejoyeux et al. 2008;Weinstein et al. 2015). A growing body of emperical research links and examines the presence of EXD in individuals with an eating disorder diagnosis, a phenomonon referred to as secondary exercise dependence (De Coverley Veale 1987). However, EXD in the absence of an eating disorder (primary EXD) has been reported in both elite and recreational athletes (Adams 2009;De La Vega et al. 2016). ...
Article
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While a sedentary lifestyle is a one of the most pressing health concern in western society, there appears to be a minority of individuals who exercise compulsively and in excess. Relatively little research has examined the factors leading exercise to transition from a healthy and sociable habit to one that is potentially pathological, addictive, and physically damaging. The present study examined the possible impact of early maladaptive schema (EMS) and implicit self-esteem on exercise dependence (EXD) in a cohort of Australian cyclists. A total of 136 cyclists completed the Young Schema Questionnaire Short-Form Revised, Self-esteem Implicit Association Test and Exercise Dependence Scale Revised to assess EMS, implicit self-esteem and for EXD symptomology. Early maladaptive schema, specifically the domains Bother directedness^ and Bimpaired limits^, accounted for a significant proportion of the variability in self-reported EXD symptomology. Additionally, a significant proportion of this cohort exhibited EXD symptomology irrespective of socio-demographic characteristics. These findings indicate that individuals who have an excessive external focus on the desires and needs of others, and/or are unable to set appropriate internal limits, may be at higher risk of developing EXD symptomology than individuals with lower levels of specific EMS. Therefore, understanding the relationship between EMS and EXD may aid in understanding the etiology of EXD and the development of intervention strategies.
... Nowadays, the multitude of benefits associated with the practice of a sport or physical exercise on a regular basis is known on a physical, psychic, aesthetic and social level [1,2,3,4]. However, in recent decades some new research has emerged on the addiction that sport can create, having negative consequences not only at a physical or physiological level (e.g., abstinence, tolerance) but also psychological (e.g., anxiety, depression) or behavioural (e.g., reduction of other activities) [5,6,7]. ...
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The aim of the research was getting to know the risk of dependency on physical exercising in individual sportspeople and the relationship with body dissatisfaction and motivation. 225 triathletes, swimmers, cyclists and athletes- with ages going from 18 to 63 years old took part in the research, of which 145 were men (M = 35.57 ±10.46 years) and 80 women (M = 32.83 ±10.31 years). The EDS-R was used to study the dependency on exercising, BSQ to study body dissatisfaction, BREQ-3 to know the motivation of participants and BIAQ to analyse conducts of avoidance to body image. The obtained results show that 8.5% of the subjects had risk of dependency on exercising and that 18.2% tend to have corporal dissatisfaction, without meaningful differences in the kind of sport they practiced. However, there were important differences concerning the dependency on physical exercise (15% vs 4.8%) and body dissatisfaction (31.1% vs 11%) in relation to sex, being the higher percentage referring to women. The introjected regulation and the conduct of food restriction were the predictor variables of the dependency on exercising and corporal dissatisfaction.
... Some researchers (e.g., De Coverley Veale, 1987;Hausenblas & Downs, 2002b) suggest that, like dependence on substances, excessive exercise can develop into a dependence on the activity. The exercise dependence literature draws on criteria for previous DSM iterations of substance use disorders (De Coverley Veale, 1987;Hausenblas & Downs, 2002b). ...
... Nowadays, the multitude of benefits associated with participating in a sport or physical exercise on a regular basis are known on physical, psychological, aesthetic and social levels [1][2][3][4]. However, in recent decades, some new research has emerged on the addiction that sport can create, having negative consequences not only at physical or physiological levels (e.g., abstinence, tolerance) but also psychological (e.g., anxiety, depression) or behavioural (e.g., reduction of other activities) levels [5][6][7]. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of dependency on physical exercise in individual sportspeople and the relationship with body dissatisfaction and motivation. Two hundred and twenty-five triathletes, swimmers, cyclists, and athletics competitors aged 18 to 63 years old took part in the study, of which 145 were men (M = 35.57 ± 10.46 years) and 80 were women (M = 32.83 ± 10.31 years). The EDS-R (Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised) was used to study dependency on exercising, the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to study body dissatisfaction, the Behaviour Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-3) was used to determine the participants' motivation and the BIAQ was used to analyse conducts of avoidance to body image. The obtained results show that 8.5% of the subjects have a risk of dependency on exercise and 18.2% tend to have corporal dissatisfaction, without meaningful di↵erences in the kind of sport they practiced. However, there were important di↵erences concerning the dependency on physical exercise (15% vs. 4.8%) and body dissatisfaction (31.1% vs. 11%) in relation to sex, with the higher percentages referring to women. Introjected regulation and the conduct of food restriction were predictor variables of the dependency on exercise and corporal dissatisfaction. Also, the number and duration of sessions; the age of the participants; the integrated, introjected, and external regulations surrounding social activities; and eating restraints could all predict dependence on physical exercise (DPE).
... Early conceptualization in this area suggested a distinction between being highly committed to exercise and EA, with committed, non-EA, subjects exercising mainly for extrinsic rewards, not seeing exercise as central to their life, and suffering fewer and/or less severe symptoms of withdrawal upon cessation [10]. Concurrently, EA subjects exercise for intrinsic rewards, seeing exercise as central to their life, and suffer severe psychological and physiological withdrawal upon cessation [11]. ...
Preprint
Objective: Exercise addiction (EA) is associated with multiple adverse outcomes and can be classified as co-occurring with an eating disorder, or a condition with no evidence of EDs. We conducted a meta-analysis exploring the prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) of EA in adults with and without disordered eating (DE). Methods: A systematic review of major databases was undertaken from inception to 30/04/2019. Studies reporting the prevalence of EA with and without ED in the same adult populations were identified. A random effect meta-analysis was undertaken calculating the prevalence rates and odds ratios (ORs) for EA with and without ED samples. Results: Nine studies with a total sample size of 2140 participants (mean age = 25.06; 70.63% female) were included. Within these, 1732 participants did not have DE (mean age = 26.4; 63.04% female) and 408 had DE (mean age = 23.46; 79.18% female). The prevalence of EA in the non-DE sample was 22.5% (95%CI 14.3-33.6%; I2 =94), and in the DE sample 51.9% (95% CI 36.3-67.2%; I2 =87). The OR for EA in populations with vs. without DE was 3.71 (95% CI 2.00-6.89; I2 = 81.159; p=<0.001). The prevalence of EA in both populations differed according to the tools utilised. Discussion: EA occurs more than three times as often as a comorbidity to DE, rather than in absence of DE. The creation of a single measurement tool able to identify EA risk in both populations would benefit researchers and practitioners by easily classifying samples.
... Early conceptualization in this area suggested a distinction between being highly committed to exercise and EA, with committed, non-EA, subjects exercising mainly for extrinsic rewards, not seeing exercise as central to their life, and suffering fewer and/or less severe symptoms of withdrawal upon cessation [10]. Concurrently, EA subjects exercise for intrinsic rewards, seeing exercise as central to their life, and suffer severe psychological and physiological withdrawal upon cessation [11]. ...
Article
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Background Exercise addiction is associated with multiple adverse outcomes and can be classified as co-occurring with an eating disorder, or a primary condition with no indication of eating disorders. We conducted a meta-analysis exploring the prevalence of exercise addiction in adults with and without indicated eating disorders. Methods A systematic review of major databases and grey literature was undertaken from inception to 30/04/2019. Studies reporting prevalence of exercise addiction with and without indicated eating disorders in adults were identified. A random effect meta-analysis was undertaken, calculating odds ratios for exercise addiction with versus without indicated eating disorders. Results Nine studies with a total sample of 2140 participants (mean age = 25.06; 70.6% female) were included. Within these, 1732 participants did not show indicated eating disorders (mean age = 26.4; 63.0% female) and 408 had indicated eating disorders (mean age = 23.46; 79.2% female). The odds ratio for exercise addiction in populations with versus without indicated eating disorders was 3.71 (95% CI 2.00–6.89; I2 = 81; p ≤ 0.001). Exercise addiction prevalence in both populations differed according to the measurement instrument used. Discussion Exercise addiction occurs more than three and a half times as often as a comorbidity to an eating disorder than in people without an indicated eating disorder. The creation of a measurement tool able to identify exercise addiction risk in both populations would benefit researchers and practitioners by easily classifying samples.
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(1) Background: A large body of research has examined the positive effects of physical activity on physical and mental health. However, for some, excessive exercise can develop into an addiction that is detrimental to their health. In the present study, we examine potential personal (self-control, self-concordance) and social (social support) resources that we assume to be related to exercise dependence. (2) Methods: One hundred and forty athletes from different endurance sports participated in an online survey. Exercise dependence, self-control, self-concordance, and social support were assessed using questionnaires that are well-established in health and sport psychology. Additionally, further sport-relevant and demographic variables were assessed. (3) Results: Correlational analyses supported our hypotheses that exercise dependence is negatively correlated with the personal resources trait, state self-control, and self-concordance. Social support, however, was not significantly correlated with exercise dependence. Furthermore, the results of a mediation analysis revealed that the relationship between both personal traits (self-control, self-concordance) and exercise dependence was mediated by state self-control. (4) Conclusions: Our results indicate that trait self-control and self-concordance might be important personal resources that protect against exercise dependence by making state self-control available.
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Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı elit sporcuların ve spor bilimleri fakültesi öğrencilerinin yaş, spor yaşı, cinsiyet ile egzersiz bağımlılığı düzeylerinin incelenerek değerlendirilmesidir. Yöntem: Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu 2018-2019 eğitim öğretim yılı güz döneminde Gazi üniversitesi Spor Bilimleri Fakültesi'nde eğitimine devam eden öğrenciler ile Türkiye Atletizm Federasyonu'nda lisanslı olarak spor yapan sporcular oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmaya katılan 19-25 yaş grubundaki katılımcılar, hafta en az 4 gün egzersiz yapmaktadır. Veri toplama aracı olarak araştırmacılar tarafından hazırlanan "Kişisel Bilgi Formu" ve "Egzersiz Bağımlılığı Ölçeği" kullanılmıştır. Bulgular: Araştırmada, elit sporcuların egzersiz bağımlılıkları, spor bilimleri fakültesi öğrencilerin düzeylerinden anlamlı düzeyde yüksek bulunmuştur. Elit sporcuların yaş grubu ve spor yaşı ile egzersiz bağımlılık düzeyi arasında pozitif yönde orta düzeyde anlamlı farklılık tespit edilmiştir. Cinsiyete göre ise erkek sporcuların egzersiz bağımlılığı puanlarının anlamlı düzeyde yüksek olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Sonuç: Elit sporcuların bağımlı grup, spor bilimleri fakültesi öğrencilerinin ise az riskli grupta yer aldığı saptanmıştır. Buna göre, egzersiz bağımlılığı ile egzersize daha çok maruz kalma arasında güçlü bir ilişki olduğunu söyleyebilir. Yıllar boyunca düzenli ve artan şiddetteki antrenmanlar uzun yılların sonunda bağımlılığı artırabildiği görülmektedir. Anahtar kelimeler: Egzersiz, bağımlılık, üniversite öğrencileri, elit sporcular. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the age, sport age, sex and exercise addiction levels of elite athletes and sports sciences faculty students. Method: The work group of the research consists of students who study at Gazi University Faculty of Sport Sciences during fall semester of 2018-2019 academic years and licensed sports athletes in the Athletics Federation of Turkey. Participants in the 19 to 25 years age group exercise for at least 4 days a week. "Personal Information Form" prepared by the researchers and Exercise Dependence Scale" were used as data collection tools. Results: The exercise addiction levels of the elite athletes were found to be significantly higher than the levels of sports science faculty students. There was positive directional significant difference at moderate level between the age group and sport age of the elite athletes and their level of exercise addiction. In accordance with gender, the exercise addiction scores of the male athletes were significantly higher.. Conclusion: The elite athletes were in the low-risk group and the students of the sports sciences faculty were in the low-risk group. According to this, it can be said that there is a strong relationship between exercise addiction and more exposure to exercise. Regular exercise and exercise at increasing intensity level over the years can increase addiction at the end of many years.
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Exercise addiction (EA) affects a considerable number of individuals who regularly perform exercise-sport activities. The co-occurrence of EA manifestations and the continuum of disordered eating-eating disorders (EDs) is so common in sports that a deeper understanding of them as comorbidities is warranted. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date overview and synthesis of the research on the relationship between maladaptive exercise and dysfunctional eating in the sport context. A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. A total of 22 empirical studies (23 articles) with young and adult female and male athletes from several sports and competition levels was included. EA in conjunction with eating disturbances is frequent among athletes, yet the prevalence rates are inconsistent. Existing evidence suggests that EA is a relevant outcome of ED pathology among athletes, supporting the classical secondary type of EA. However, research also reveals that excessive exercising plays a central role in the psychopathology of disordered eating. There is a need for further quantitative research addressing the features and correlates of the EA-EDs dyad, qualitative research on the subjective experiences of athletes with disordered exercise and eating, longitudinal and experimental research to establish possible causal paths and attempts to develop comprehensive conceptual models of EA and its co-occurrence with EDs, in order to improve the identification, prevention, and management of this dyadic condition in the sport context.
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Exercise addiction (EA) involves excessive concerns for exercise routines, an abusive practice, and the inability to control one’s own behavior, as well as the presence of psychological processes that are typical of behavioral addictions such as abstinence. EA is further associated with an alteration of the individual’s personal, social, and professional functioning and a higher risk for several pathologies, including physical injury, psychological distress, and eating disorders. The present work presents a narrative scoping review of the state of the art and the main findings of the research on EA, with a focus in the athletic population. The prevalence of EA risk, between 1 and 52% and up to 80% when co-occurring with eating disturbances, is also reviewed. Additionally, some of the explanatory models proposed to date and their power and limitations in terms of their capacity for a consensual operationalization and characterization of EA, and thus for the optimal exploration and management of this condition, are discussed. Finally, some deficiencies in the research on EA are noted which are to be addressed to successfully respond to the intervention and prevention needs that occur both in the general context of exercise-sports practice and the specific context of competitive athletes.
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Background and Aims: Exercise addiction has not yet been designated as an addictive disorder in the DSM-5 due to a lack of detailed research. In particular, associations with other psychiatric diagnoses have received little attention. In this study, individuals with a possible exercise addiction are clinically assessed, in order to establish a profile of co-occurring psychiatric disorders in individuals with exercise addiction. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six individuals who reported exercising more than 10 h a week, and continued to do so despite illness or injury, were recruited for the study. Those who met the cut-off of the Exercise Dependence Scale (n = 32) were invited to participate in a screening with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5 (SCID-5-CV) and personality disorders (SCID-5-PD). Additionally, an interview based on the DSM-5 criteria of non-substance-related addictive disorders was conducted to explore the severity of exercise addiction symptoms. Results: 75% of participants fulfilled the criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder. Depressive disorders (56.3%), personality disorders (46.9%) and obsessive-compulsive disorders (31.3%) were the most common disorders. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between the number of psychiatric disorders and the severity of exercise addiction (r = 0.549, p = 0.002). Discussion: The results showed a variety of mental disorders in individuals with exercise addiction and a correlation between the co-occurrence of mental disorders and the severity of exercise addiction. Exercise addiction differs from other addictive und substance use disorders, as obsessive-compulsive (Cluster C), rather than impulsive (Cluster B) personality traits were most commonly identified. Conclusions: Our results underscore the importance of clinical diagnostics, and indicate that treatment options for individuals with exercise addiction are required. However, the natural history and specific challenges of exercise addiction must be studied in more detail.
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Exercise addiction (EA) has been described as a condition of psychological dysfunction characterized by excessive and obsessive exercise patterns, show withdrawal symptoms when unable to exercise, and experience numerous conflicts and other negative consequences in their social and professional lives, due to the extremely high volumes of exercise. The main objective of the present study was to assess the risk of exercise addiction among a Saudi Arabian sample of regular exercisers and to investigate possible associations between their inability to exercise during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown (due to the closure of public gyms, swimming pools, and health clubs) and depression, anxiety, and loneliness. A total of 388 regular-exercising Saudis participated in an online cross-sectional survey over three months (December to February 2021). The study sample comprised 89.9% (males) and 10.1% (females), with a mean age of 28.59 years (SD ± 6.69). A 36-item online self-report survey was used for data collection. The prevalence of being at risk of exercise addiction among participants of the present study was 13.1%. Positive significant associations were noted between risk of exercise addiction and depression (r = .41; p < .01), risk of exercise addiction and anxiety (r = .20; p < .01), and risk of exercise addiction and loneliness (r = .17; p < .01). The findings of the present study suggest that those individuals at risk of exercise addiction might also be at an elevated risk of developing negative psychological impact owing to the disruption of the amount of exercise engaged in due to COVID-19 pandemic-related restrictions and therefore these high-risk individuals should receive appropriate psychological support to help them overcome the negative impact of the ongoing pandemic. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-022-02892-8.
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Exercise dependence is a psychological problem that cannot be ignored and is positively related to anxiety and depression of college students. However, only a few effective intervention methods are available to deal with exercise dependence. This study aims to investigate the intervention effects of motivation interviewing Chinese modified on the mental health of college students with exercise dependence. Thirty college students with exercise dependence were selected from Hunan University of Science and Technology in Hunan province of China to participate in the experiment. The participants were divided equally into the intervention and control groups. A three-week motivation interviewing Chinese modified session was conducted in the intervention group, whereas no intervention was carried out in the control group. This strategy allowed for the vertical and the horizontal comparison of the intervention objects’ situation before and after the experiment. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and other Scales were used to evaluate the effects of the intervention and explore the intervention effects of motivation interviewing Chinese modified on the mental health of college students with exercise dependence. After three weeks of motivation interviewing Chinese modified, differences in state anxiety, depression, self-satisfaction, negative emotion, energy, and positive emotion in the intervention and control groups before and after the intervention appear to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Motivation interviewing Chinese modified can improve the mental health level of college students with exercise dependence. Hence, motivation interviewing Chinese modified is good for the treatment of addiction behaviors and provides a reliable intervention method for exercise dependence.
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Este es un libro que responde al esfuerzo, dedicación de los autores, quienes de forma articulada pensaron un proyecto de investigación desde la disciplina psicológica y las ciencias afines, útil para los estudiantes de psicología y otros profesionales, y que además asumiera una posición crítica acerca de la intervención, el desarrollo disciplinar de la psicología y las experiencias psicoterapéuticas.
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Although regular physical exercise has multiple positive benefits for the general population, excessive exercise may lead to exercise dependence (EXD), which is harmful to one's physical and mental health. Increasing evidence suggests that stress is a potential risk factor for the onset and development of EXD. However, little is known about the neural substrates of EXD and the underlying neuropsychological mechanism by which stress affects EXD. Herein, we investigate these issues in 86 individuals who exercise regularly by estimating their cortical gray matter volume (GMV) utilizing a voxel-based morphometry method based on structural magnetic resonance imaging. Whole-brain correlation analyses and prediction analyses showed negative relationships between EXD and GMV of the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left subgenual cingulate gyrus (sgCG), and left inferior parietal lobe (IPL). Furthermore, mediation analyses found that the GMV of the right OFC was an important mediator between stress and EXD. Importantly, these results remained significant even when adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, family socioeconomic status, general intelligence and total intracranial volume, as well as depression and anxiety. Collectively, the results of the present study provide crucial evidence of the neuroanatomical basis of EXD and reveal a potential neuropsychological pathway in predicting EXD in which GMV mediates the relationship between stress and EXD.
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The main objective of the study was, on the one hand, to evaluate which variables of intrinsic satisfaction, perception and beliefs about the causes of success in sports influenced in having a profile of high or low sports addiction and, on the other hand, to analyze the differences in the degree of addiction and its subscales according to various training variables. The tests were administered to a volunteer sample of 401 veteran athletes participating in track athletics. It was hypothesized that veterans with higher scores in pleasure and relaxation would normally also obtain positive correlations and high values in the most positive and desirable constructs (task orientation, effort and fun), while veterans with scores higher in tolerance, lack of control and in abstinence and anxiety, they would obtain positive correlations and higher scores in less positive and desirable constructs (use of deception techniques and boredom). The results confirmed the hypothesis and it was concluded that it would be advisable to train in a small group of colleagues who collaborate with each other, without the competitive requirement of a trainer, focusing on the task of skillfully executing the complex movements of their specialty to be able to return to achieve a brand that had not achieved. © Federacion Espanola de Docentes de Educacion Fisica. All rights reserved.
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While a sedentary lifestyle is a one of the most pressing health concern in western society, there appears to be a minority of individuals who exercise compulsively and in excess. Relatively little research has examined the factors leading exercise to transition from a healthy and sociable habit to one that is potentially pathological, addictive, and physically damaging. The present study examined the possible impact of early maladaptive schema (EMS) and implicit self-esteem on exercise dependence (EXD) in a cohort of Australian cyclists. A total of 136 cyclists completed the Young Schema Questionnaire Short-Form Revised, Self-esteem Implicit Association Test and Exercise Dependence Scale Revised to assess EMS, implicit self-esteem and for EXD symptomology. Early maladaptive schema, specifically the domains “other directedness” and “impaired limits”, accounted for a significant proportion of the variability in self-reported EXD symptomology. Additionally, a significant proportion of this cohort exhibited EXD symptomology irrespective of socio-demographic characteristics. These findings indicate that individuals who have an excessive external focus on the desires and needs of others, and/or are unable to set appropriate internal limits, may be at higher risk of developing EXD symptomology than individuals with lower levels of specific EMS. Therefore, understanding the relationship between EMS and EXD may aid in understanding the etiology of EXD and the development of intervention strategies.
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Little research has been done in the area of eating disordered behavior exhibited in recreation facilities on college campuses, however several studies have examined exercise behavior and reasoning. The literature states that for young women, the college subculture seems to be a breeding ground for eating disorders. A logical thesis therefore would be to presume that a recreation facility on a college campus would be a place for primary and secondary prevention of eating disorders. At one midwestern state college, students in academic and non-credit classes offered through the campus recreation department were surveyed using the EAT 26. Nearly 12% of those surveyed indicated symptoms of anorexia nervosa; and another 24% were labeled “at risk.” Four distinct groups emerged. The groups were identified as those at low weight with a desire to lose more weight; those wanting to bulk up; those who were medically obese with a desire to lose weight; and those of normal weight wanting to lose weight. Chronological steps can be taken to aid in the primary and secondary prevention of eating disorders. These steps include: identifying the problem; educating all staff; working with other campus entities in the prevention and intervention process; developing a policy; presenting the policy to affected departments and if necessary obtaining legal approval. It is also important to identify specifically how intervention will take place if it becomes necessary. Legal considerations need to be given attention. Eating disorders are multi-faceted and multidimensional It is important to have qualified professional staff able and willing to work in the prevention and early intervention of eating disordered behavior.
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Introduction : Excessive physical exercise may evolve into physical exercise addiction, a recently identified entity with many yet unclear aspects, such as global prevalence and variability according to different types of physical exercise. Methods : We systematically reviewed the current literature up to June 2018 to collect all studies screening exercise addiction with two of the most frequently used screening scales: the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) and the Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS). Results : We detected forty-eight studies (20 using the EAI, 26 the EDS, and 2 both scales) reporting variable point prevalence of exercise addiction risk, depending on the target population and the investigated sport. The EAI identifies a higher proportion of people at risk for physical exercise addiction among endurance athletes (14,2%) followed by ball games (10,4%), fitness centre attendees (8,2%) and power disciplines (6,4%), while a frequency of 3,0% was reported in the general population. Studies using the EDS found discrepant results. Discussion : This systematic review suggests that sport disciplines are associated with different vulnerability for physical exercise addiction. Besides the different addictive potential of each sport, the heterogeneity of results may be also due to socio-demographic and cultural characteristics of the target populations. The EAI and the EDS identify different proportions of individuals at risk for exercise addiction both in general population and in specific sport categories. As the EAI screens a higher proportion of subjects at risk, especially in endurance disciplines, it could be more appropriate for early detection of at-risk subjects and/or disciplines. Conclusion : Tailored prevention strategies for each discipline could help better preserving benefits of sports. More precision in research methods and the use of the most appropriate scale are required to allow a better comparability of prevalence among physical exercise disciplines and in general population.
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The literature has long highlighted the benefits of sport, but too much sport could indicate a dependence without a substance, namely exercise dependence. The literature has only recently investigated this issue and therefore several questions are open, particularly with regard to psychopathological significance and gender differences. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether young subjects (M = 20 years) with a risk of exercise dependency and non-dependent symptomatic display other behavioural and psychological suffering and discomforts, or whether such an investment in physical activity is compatible with a framework of relative well-being; and if there are differences related to gender. A total of 396 subjects were involved in this study. Exercise Dependence Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and an ad hoc questionnaire with information relating to the consumption of alcohol, soft and hard drugs, quality of sleep and nutrition, affective and friendship relationships, hobbies, presence of psychological or physical disorders, motivations for sporting activity, and any traumatic experiences were used. With regard to the Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS), the prevalence of subjects at risk of exercise dependence was 1.5% and that of non-dependents symptomatic was 31.3%. Considering only men, the percentage of subjects at risk of exercise dependence rose to 3% and that of non-dependents symptomatic to 47.9%. Our data support the hypothesis that the risk of exercise dependence and the symptomatic condition without dependence can occur in situations of relative well-being (happiness, satisfaction, relationships) without significant associations with other problematic behaviours. Modest consumption of soft drugs is reported in non-dependent symptomatic subjects. The hypothesis of increased levels of alexithymia is confirmed but limited to the male gender. Gender differences are confirmed in the frequency and motivation to practice sport and in the risk of dependence. It is important that the assessment of addiction risk is integrated with the assessment of alexithymia and personal and social resources over time.
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This study compared muscle dysmorphia symptoms, body image disturbances (body dissatisfaction, drive for muscularity and body-ideal internalization) and commitment to exercise between sedentary and physical active subjects. For this, we evaluated 265 undergraduate men (22.4±3.7 yrs.). The following measures were applied: sociodemographic data, Muscle Dysmorphia Disorder Inventory (muscle dysmorphia), Male Body Dissatisfaction Scale (body dissatisfaction), Drive for Muscularity Scale (drive for muscularity), Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (body-ideal internalization) and Commitment to Exercise Scale (commitment to exercise). Participants were classified as sedentary, physically active (frequency ranging between one to four times a week) and very active (frequency five times a week or more). Analysis of variance (ANOVA one-way), followed by Tukey post hoc showed significant differences between sedentary and physically very active groups on body dissatisfaction (5.7±1.1 and 5.2±1.0 a.u.; p = .042), drive for muscularity (27.3±10.0 and 33.5±12.1 a.u.; p = .001) and commitment to exercise (259.9±199.6 and 536.3±216.6 a.u.; p = .001). Difference was also observed between active and very active groups, but only to commitment to exercise (440.9±214.2 and 536.3±216.6 a.u.; p = .001). Our results showed that drive for muscularity and commitment to exercise is higher in very active when compared to sedentary subjects. However, sedentary group manifested higher body dissatisfaction than very active. Very active undergraduate men showed higher commitment to exercise than active and sedentary did. Finally, no differences were observed between groups for muscle dysmorphia symptoms and body-ideal internalization. In conclusion, our data add information to the scientific debate demonstrating that there are differences between physically active and sedentary subjects regarding body image disturbances and commitment to exercise. Body dissatisfaction, drive for muscularity and commitment to exercise vary between sedentary and active subjects, and appears to be dose dependent.
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Direct and indirect body-focused self-damaging behaviors are highly prevalent and associated with negative outcomes. Despite progress in understanding the expected consequences (i.e., expectancies) that motivate individuals to engage in these behaviors, less is known about the co-occurrence of, and specific expectancies for, body-focused self-damaging behaviors. The goal of this study was to develop a self-report measure to assess the frequency and co-occurrence of, and individuals’ average expectancies for, body-focused self-damaging behaviors. An initial draft of the Body-focused Self-damaging Behavior Expectancies Questionnaire (BSBEQ) was developed and refined through expert feedback and pilot testing in a student sample (n = 11). The specific body-focused self-damaging behaviors selected for assessment included nonsuicidal self-injury, disordered eating behavior, body-focused repetitive behaviors, and problematic exercise. The factor structure of the BSBEQ was examined initially through exploratory factor analysis in a student sample (n = 349) and then through confirmatory factor analysis in a community sample (n = 443). The final BSBEQ was comprised of 17 items across five subscales: Control, Self-Improvement, Coping with Emotional Pain, Positive Emotion Down-regulation, and Interpersonal Influence. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent and divergent validity of the subscales were generally supported. The BSBEQ represents a flexible tool for assessing the frequency of and average expectancies for body-focused self-damaging behaviors, and can be used for assessment and/or treatment planning by researchers and clinicians working with individuals with a variety of self-damaging behaviors that have a direct or indirect physical effect on the body.
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Background Several behaviors produce short-term reward and may become excessive because of diminished control despite knowledge of adverse consequences. Due to similarities with substance use disorders, certain excessive behaviors may be conceptualized as behavioral addictions.Objective To provide information about the definition, classification and specific manifestations of behavioral addictions.Material and methodsNarrative literature review and expert opinions.ResultsGambling and gaming disorders have been included as “disorders due to addictive behaviours” in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Other specific poorly controlled behaviors, which may be considered as behavioral addictions are sex addiction, buying-shopping disorder and excessive social network use if enough empirical evidence is available.Conclusion Gambling and gaming disorders are recognized as behavioral addictions. Future research should address the question which other specific poorly controllable and therefore problematic activities are of clinical importance and warrant consideration as behavioral addictions.
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Background: Exercise addiction (EA) can be debilitating and can be a symptom of an eating disorder. To date, the prevalence rates of EA without indicated eating disorders in the general population and associated correlates remain unreported. Methods: Two authors searched major databases from inception to 31/12/2018 to identify studies investigating the prevalence of EA in any population without indicated eating disorders. We conducted a random effects meta-analysis to report (i) prevalence rates of EA using the exercise addiction inventory and exercise dependence scale and compare sub-populations, (ii) compare methods of EA measurement and explore heterogeneity, and (iii) report on correlates. Results: A total of 13 studies including 3635 people were included. The prevalence of EA among general exercisers was 8.1% (95% CI 1.5%–34.2%), amateur competitive athletes was 5.0% (95% CI 1.3%–17.3%), and university students was 5.5% (95% CI 1.4–19.1%%). Overall prevalence rates varied depending on the EA measurement tool. EA subjects were more likely to have lower levels of overall wellbeing (only in amateur competitive athletes), higher anxiety levels, and have greater frontal brain activity. Conclusions: EA is prevalent in the absence of indicated eating disorders across populations but varies depending on measurement tool. Further research is needed to explore EA without indicated eating disorders in different populations using homogenous measurement tools, further determine psychological correlates, and examine which measures of EA without indicated eating disorders predict poor health outcomes.
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Background and Aims: While a number of studies have reported on individuals who exercise excessively, and feel unable to stop despite negative consequences, there is still insufficient evidence to categorize exercise as an addictive disorder. The aim of this meta-review is to summarize the published articles and to compile a list of symptoms reported in the qualitative literature in conjunction with excessive exercise. This list is compared with the DSM-5 criteria for gambling disorder, and initial diagnostic criteria for exercise addiction are suggested. Methods: The databases MEDLINE, Web of Science and PsycInfo were searched for qualitative studies or case reports, in which excessive exercise was the main focus. All symptoms reported in conjunction with excessive exercise were extracted from each study and documented. Symptoms were also compared to the diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder. Results: Seventeen studies were included in the review, yielding 56 distinct symptoms. The Critical Appraisal Skills Program tool showed that the majority of the studies were of acceptable quality. Exercise-related symptoms corresponded with seven of the nine DSM-5 criteria for gambling disorder. The ten suggested criteria for exercise addiction are: increasing volume, negative affect, inability to reduce, preoccupation, exercise as coping, continuation despite illness/injury, minimization, jeopardized relationships, continuation despite recognizing consequences, guilt when exercise is missed. Discussion: Our results suggest that excessive exercise may constitute a behavioral addiction, based on the criteria of the DSM-5. Conclusions: Subsequent studies should aim to systematically classify symptoms of excessive exercise; in addition, it should be noted that basic questionnaires may be need to be supplemented with detailed clinical examinations.
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Introduction Exercise addiction is one of several behavioral addictions which has not yet been designated as an addictive disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 (DSM-5). This is in part due to a lack of clarity concerning co-occurring mental disorders of individuals at risk for exercise addiction. The aim of this review is to summarise the spectrum of psychopathology in populations at risk of exercise addiction. Methods The MEDLINE, Web of Science and PsycINFO databases were searched. All studies from the date of database creation until February 2020 were considered eligible. Terms used were “exercise addiction” and other mental disorders mentioned in conjunction with substance-related and addictive disorders. Studies were included if they assessed risk for exercise addiction and at least one other mental disorder. Results Twenty studies were included. The disorders assessed were eating disorders (n=14), depression (n=6), anxiety (n=4), other substance-related and addictive disorders (n=5), and borderline personality disorder (n=1). In thirteen of the studies, evidence was found for higher rates of at least one mental disorder (most commonly eating disorders, anxiety and other addictive disorders) in individuals at risk for exercise addiction, compared to those not at risk. Conclusions Individuals at risk for exercise addiction show a broad range of mental disorders as assessed by self-report, which is in line with sufferers of other addictive disorders. Systematic psychological and clinical assessments in those at risk of exercise addiction are worthwhile, and will serve to characterize the mental health problems of individuals suffering from exercise addiction.
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Points essentiels Si les bienfaits de l’Activité Physique (AP) ne sont plus à démontrer, elle peut parfois entraîner des effets délétères sur la santé lorsqu'elle est pratiquée sans respecter les règles de bonnes pratiques. L’AP problématique peut avoir des conséquences physiques, physiologiques, psychologiques et sociales. Les facteurs de risques liés à l’APP ne font pas consensus dans la littérature, des AP ont cependant été plus étudiées que d’autres (danse, haltérophilie, triathlon…), il est nécessaire de poursuivre les études sur ce sujet. L’APP permet souvent de réguler ou d’éviter les affects négatifs, permettant de trouver un équilibre émotionnel. L’APP peut être liée à d’autres troubles (e.g., troubles du comportement alimentaire, achats compulsifs, abus d’alcool). Il est important de sensibiliser les acteurs évoluant dans le milieu de l’AP à cette pratique problématique pour prévenir, dépister, et prendre en charge rapidement les personnes concernées.
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Despite the many benefits of regular, sustained exercise, there is evidence that exercise can become addictive, to the point where the exerciser experiences negative physiological and psychological symptoms, including withdrawal symptoms upon cessation, training through injury, and the detriment of social relationships. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that the etiology of exercise addiction is different depending on the presence or absence of eating disorders. The aim of this study was to explore to what extent eating disorder status, body dysmorphic disorder, reasons for exercise, social media use, and fitness instructor status were associated with exercise addiction, and to determine differences according to eating disorder status. The key findings showed that the etiology of exercise addiction differed according to eating disorder status, with variables including social media use, exercise motivation, and ethnicity being uniquely correlated with exercise addiction only in populations with indicated eating disorders. Furthermore, body dysmorphic disorder was highly prevalent in subjects without indicated eating disorders, and could be a primary condition in which exercise addiction is a symptom. It is recommended that clinicians and practitioners working with patients who present with symptoms of exercise addiction should be screened for eating disorders and body dysmorphic disorder before treatments are considered.
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Background: Although previous studies suggest that dopamine receptor genes partially affect physical activity-related behaviours, all of these studies were cross-sectional studies that examined the effects of dopamine receptor genes on physical activity-related behaviours at some point in time. Therefore, the nature and extent of this relationship across the lifespan are even more uncertain. Aim: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of dopamine receptor genes (i.e. DRD2, DRD4 and DRD5) on sport participation trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood. Subjects and methods: This study used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data (wave 1–4). Group-based trajectory modelling was used to investigate the effect of dopamine receptor genes on the probability of being in each sport participation trajectory group. Results: A three-group model was the best fitting model for men whereas a two-group model was the best fitting model for women. The more participants possess the A1 allele of the DRD2, the less likely they are to be in the “high-decreasing group” rather than the “low-stable group” in both men and women. In male participants, the more participants carry the A1 allele of the DRD2, the more likely they are to be in the “high-stable group” rather than the “high-decreasing group” (coefficient = 0.206, p<.05). Conclusions: These results can contribute to the literature by providing important information on the effects of dopamine receptor genes on sport participation trajectories from adolescence through young adulthood.
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Exaggerated exercise volumes, lack of control, withdrawal symptoms and conflicts with family and friends are core symptoms of exercise addiction. The condition can lead to health problems and social isolation because exercise is given the highest priority in any situation. The prevalence of the risk of exercise addiction has mostly been assessed in leisure time exercisers such as runners, fitness attendees and cyclists. The prevalence proportion ranges from 3 to 42% depending on the type of sport and the assessment tool. The proportion is greater among elite athletes, and increases with the level of competition. This study's primary aim was to assess the prevalence of exercise addiction among elite athletes competing at national level and its secondary aim was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Exercise Addition Inventory (EAI) in elite sports. Participants (n = 417) from 15 sports disciplines and with 51% women completed an online survey. Results showed that 7.6% were at risk of exercise addiction. This group was younger, exhibited tendency to exercise despite pain and injury, felt guilty if not exercising enough, and reported substantial eating disorder symptoms. The reliability and validity of the EAI was good suggesting that the scale is appropriate for measuring the risk of exercise addiction in elite athletes.
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In the 1970s, the concept of sport addiction appeared in scientific literature, warning of the addictive properties of exercise when taken to extremes. Appearing in over 6500 peer-reviewed articles in Google Scholar from 1979 to 2017, this construct is of interest to the fields of mental health and sport sociology as it provides a heuristic case to consider the conditions which allow for a category-in-the-making to gain meaning despite its absence from leading classification systems. Using Hacking's framework of ecological niches, this review of literature provides a critical examination of “sport addiction” and aims to investigate the driving forces and the means by which social actors from the scientific community negotiate the landscape and boundaries of this emerging disorder. The results highlight the prominence of psychology in the diffusion of the construct and the reticence of the medical world to legitimize it as a mental health category.
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Background and aims: The aim of the present systematic review was to identify psychometric tools developed to assess problematic exercise in order to identify and compare their theoretical conceptualisations on which they are based. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in the electronic databases Web of Science, Scielo, PsychINFO, PsycTEST and SCOPUS from their inception to January 2020. Results: Seventeen assessment instruments met the eligibility criteria to be included in the present review. The instruments were classified according to their conceptualisation into five groups: (i) problematic exercise as an end of an exercise continuum, (ii) problematic exercise as a means of regulating body size and weight, (iii) problematic exercise as dependence, (iv) problematic exercise as a behavioural addiction and (v) no clear conceptualisation. Discussion: The results suggest that the conceptualisations of the assessment instruments have resulted in a strong dichotomy in relation to the primary or secondary character of the problematic exercise that might be limiting the capacity of the instruments to adequately capture the multidimensionality of this construct. Conclusions: Given the interest in understanding the complexity surrounding the problematic exercise, future research should develop more comprehensive definitions of this construct. This would allow a greater conceptual consensus to be reached that would allow progress to be made in the study of the problematic exercise.
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The present research examined whether the associations that narcissistic personality features had with exercise addiction were mediated by particular motives for engaging in exercise in a large Israeli community sample (N = 2629). The results revealed that each aspect of narcissism was positively associated with exercise addiction. Narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry had similar positive indirect associations with exercise addiction through the interpersonal motive for exercise. However, these aspects of narcissism diverged in their indirect associations with exercise addiction through psychological motives, body-related motives, and fitness motives for exercise such that these indirect associations were positive for narcissistic admiration but negative for narcissistic rivalry. Narcissistic vulnerability had positive indirect associations with exercise addiction through body-related motives and fitness motives that were similar to those observed for narcissistic admiration. These results suggest that exercise-related motives may play important roles in the associations that narcissistic personality features have with exercise addiction. The discussion will focus on the implications of these results for understanding the complex connections between narcissism and exercise addiction.
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The purpose of the study was find out the Influence of Surya namaskar practices on back strength among male college students. To achieve the purpose of this study, 20 male inter collegiate male college studentss were randomly selected as subjects from the Mother Teresa College of Physical Education, Pudukkottai, Tamilnadu, India. Their age ranged from 18 to 26 years. The selected participants were randomly divided into two groups such as group 'A' Surya namaskar practices (n=10) and group 'B' acted as control group (n=10). Group 'A' underwent Surya namaskar practices for five days per week and each session lasted for an hour for six week. Control group was not exposed to any specific training but they were participated in regular activities. The "isometric back strength" (in seconds) was used to measure back strength were selected as variables. The pre and post tests data were collected on selected criterion variables prior and immediately after the training program. The pre and post-test scores were statistically examined by the dependent't' test and Analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA). The level of significant was fixed at 0.05 level. It was concluded that the Surya namaskar practices group had shown significantly improved in back strength. However the control group had not shown any significant improvement on back strength.
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Body concerns and stress-related disorders are increasing in the younger population in a wide range of nations. Studies find links between both self-worth, exercise dependence, and self-esteem in relation to stress, but few have considered all three variables in relation to one another. The present study explored whether the co-appearance of high levels of psychological distress, and low levels of self-esteem may be a vulnerability factor for developing exercise dependence by studying the links between self-esteem, psychological stress, and exercise dependence. A standardized cross-sectional questionnaire was completed by 203 regular exercisers attending two gyms (mean age: 35.9 years). The variables self-esteem, psychological distress, and exercise dependence were all significantly correlated with each other, even after weekly exercise amount, age, and gender had been accounted for. Those who exercised for more than 9 h per week had a significantly higher score on stress and exercise dependence symptoms, and a lower score on self-esteem compared with the remaining groups. One could hypothesize that low self-esteem is a vulnerability factor and high psychological stress a maintenance factor for an exercise-dependent person. It is argued that more focus should be directed toward the negative consequences of excessive exercise.
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Individuals with eating disorders often experience compulsive exercise which, if left untreated, can lead to longer treatment and worsened symptoms. Compulsive exercise must be addressed within eating disorder treatment to help individuals establish a healthy relationship with exercise. However, there are currently no standardized guidelines for treating compulsive exercise or a consensus on which forms of treatment are most effective. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to examine interventions that address compulsive exercise and their impact on treating compulsive exercise among individuals with eating disorders. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Eleven studies testing treatments for compulsive exercise were included in this review. Participants were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or EDNOS, and a small portion had BED. Improvements in compulsive exercise and eating psychopathology were observed across all studies. The interventions focused on exercise psychoeducation and often incorporated exercise sessions. The findings highlight the positive impact of treating compulsive exercise, suggesting it should be a standard component of eating disorder treatment. Future studies should examine differences in treatment approaches and outcomes specific to each eating disorder, and specific to males. More consistency across studies in the conceptualization and measurement of compulsive exercises is also needed.
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Purpose Motivations underlying exercise may contribute to the extent to which exercise is maladaptive, independent of exercise frequency. Extrinsic and intrinsic exercise motivation may independently moderate associations between exercise frequency and 1) compulsive and 2) healthy exercise. It was expected that among individuals with high extrinsic motivation, greater exercise frequency would be associated with more compulsive exercise, whereas among individuals with high intrinsic motivation, greater exercise frequency would be associated with more healthy exercise. Methods A total of 446 university students (50.9% female; 67.0% White) completed measures of intrinsic and extrinsic exercise motivations, exercise frequency, compulsive exercise, and healthy exercise. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for exercise were entered as simultaneous independent moderators of the associations between exercise frequency and 1) compulsive exercise and 2) healthy exercise in multiple linear regressions. Results Moderation effects of exercise motivation were not supported for compulsive exercise. Only main effects of frequency (b = 0.04, p < 0.01) and extrinsic motivation (b = 0.27, p < 0.01) were observed. Intrinsic motivation moderated the association between frequency and healthy exercise (b = –0.02, p = 0.03). Among individuals with lower intrinsic motivation, greater frequency was related to more healthy exercise. This association was significantly weaker among individuals with high intrinsic motivation. Conclusion Consistent with theory and extant work, extrinsic motivation was associated with compulsive exercise, while intrinsic motivation was associated with healthy exercise. Clinically, assessing the extent to which exercise is intrinsically or extrinsically motivated may help identify whether individuals may be more likely to engage in compulsive versus healthy exercise. Results support the importance of exploring the exercise motivations as predictors of compulsive and healthy exercise. Level of evidence Level V, Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study.
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To investigate whether runners displayed any of the abnormalities characteristic of patients with anorexia nervosa, we conducted a cross sectional study of 31 high mileage, 18 low mileage runners and 18 non-running controls. Subjects completed a personal data questionnaire, the Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI) and the Eating Attitudes Questionnaire (EAT), underwent a body image test and a blood sample was obtained for measurement of reproductive, thyroid and adrenal hormones. High mileage runners scored significantly higher infrequency scores on the JPI than sedentary controls but there was no evidence of psychopathology. The high mileage runners also significantly overestimated waist width and there were small but statistically significant differences in EAT scores between controls and the runner groups. Ten of 49 runners had EAT scores beyond two standard deviations above the mean of non-running controls. Serum total, free and non-specifically bound testosterone and prolactin levels were significantly lower in high mileage runners than controls. LH, FSH, cortisol and thyroid hormones were not significantly different. There were no significant differences in any hormone between low mileage runners and controls. displayed no clear abnormalities characteristic of patients with anorexia The results suggested that running may have a chronic effect on serum testosterone and prolactin levels in high mileage but not low mileage runners. Although there was no significant evidence of anorexia nervosa on testing the runners with EAT, the overestimation of waist size provided some evidence of a distortion of body image in the high mileage runners. Runners displayed no clear abnormalities characteristic of patients with anorexia nervosa.
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Plasma beta endorphin and met-enkephalin concentrations were measured in response to treadmill exercises in 15 normal women before, during, and after an intensive programme of exercise training. Significant release of beta endorphin occurred in all three test runs, and the pattern and amount of release were not altered by training. Before training dramatic release of met-enkephalin was observed in seven subjects and smaller rises observed in a further four, and this response was almost abolished by training. This represents the first observed "physiological" stimulus to met-enkephalin release. Endogenous opioid peptides play a part in adaptive changes to exercise training and probably contribute to the menstrual disturbances of women athletes.
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SYNOPSIS A population of professional dance ( N = 183) and modelling ( N = 56) students, who by career choice must focus increased attention and control over their body shapes, was studied. Height and weight data were obtained on all subjects. In addition, a questionnaire that is useful in assessing the symptoms of anorexia nervosa, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), was administered. Results of these tests were compared with those of normal female university students ( N = 59), patients with anorexia nervosa ( N = 68), and music students ( N = 35). Anorexia nervosa and excessive dieting concerns were overrepresented in the dance and modelling students. Twelve cases (6·5%) of primary anexoria nervosa were detected in the dance group. All but one case developed the disorder while studying dance. Within the dance group those from the most competitive environments had the greatest frequency of anorexia nervosa. These data suggest that both pressures to be slim and achievement expectations are risk factors in the development of anorexia nervosa. The influence of socio-cultural determinants are discussed within the context of anorexia nervosa as a multidetermined disorder.
Chapter
The notion that about half of the opiate receptors of rat brain are associated with endogenous ligand even after extensive washing of brain membranes at 0 °C explains a number of observations: if brain membranes are subjected to a preliminary incubation at 37 °C, subsequent binding of [3H] opiates is approximately doubled, the assumption being that the endogenous ligand, by dissociating much more rapidly at the higher incubation temperature, makes additional opiate receptor sites available for binding (Pasternak et al., 1975a, b). If sodium chloride is included in the preincubation medium—even at 0 °C—the subsequent binding of [3H] opiates is similarly increased (Simantov et al., 1976). The agonist dihydromorphine, has been shown to dissociate from opiate receptors about three times more rapidly in the presence of sodium ion at 0 °C (Pert and Snyder, 1974), and the assumption is that sodium ion also speeds up the dissociation of the endogenous opiate agonist. In other experiments, membrane preparations from rats injected with low doses of opiate antagonists or high doses of opiate agonists show almost twice as much [3H] opiate binding after extensive washing at 0 °C than saline-injected controls. If the assay is conducted in the presence of sodium, however, the control membrane preparations become elevated to the level of the membranes from opiate-injected rats so that a significant difference between the two is no longer apparent (Pert and Snyder, 1976). These findings can be explained if the opiate alkaloids displace some of the endogenous ligand from opiate receptors in vivo and the remaining endogenous ligand (except in the presence of sodium ion) dissociates much more slowly from opiate receptors during membrane preparation than the opiate alkaloids.
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The discovery of enkephalin, an opiate peptide in the brain, has led to speculation as to its role in the occurrence of the phenomenon known as the 'runner's high'. The authors review current research trends and develop hypothetical proposals regarding the relationship between enkephalin and the euphoric, consciousness altering experience, the 'runner's high'.
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Just like other wonder drugs, running has the potential for abuse. A hard-core exercise addict 'can't live' without daily running, manifests withdrawal symptoms if deprived of exercise, and runs even when his physician says he shouldn't. Exercise addicts may give their daily runs higher priority than job, family, or friends. Running should be a means to an end, and the end should be achievement of positive health-both physical and mental. The running experience should not become an end in itself, because at this point runners may lose perspective, adopt questionable priority systems, move inwardly, and finally, self destruct.
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Recently, the potential abuses of excessive exercise have received a great deal of attention. Several researchers, most notably Yates and colleagues (1983), have suggested that the habitual runner resembles the male equivalent of the patient with anorexia nervosa. Our review of the two modes of behaviour, however, provided little empirical support for the proposed analogy. Indeed, most evidence suggests that while anorexia nervosa represents a serious medical disorder, running is generally an adaptive form of behaviour that often serves to enhance physical and psychological functioning. Instead of a disease model of running, we propose that running represents one method by which individuals learn to regulate their emotional states.
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Age at menarche and menstrual periodicity of 21 college swimmers and 17 runners were studied in relation to the age of initiating training. The 18 premenarche-trained athletes had a mean menarcheal age of 15.1±0.5 years, whereas the 20 postmenarche-trained athletes had a mean menarcheal age of 12.8±0.2 years, similar to that of the college control subjects, 12.7±0.4 years. Each year of training before menarche delayed menarche by five months (0.4 years). Of the premenarche-trained athletes, 61% had irregular menstrual cycles and 22% were amenorrheic, whereas 60% of the postmenarche-trained athletes had regular menstrual cycles and none were amenorrheic. Training increased the incidence of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea among both premenarche- and postmenarche-trained athletes. Metabolic and hormonal changes consequent to an increased lean/fat ratio may explain these findings. (JAMA 1981;246:1559-1563)
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A recent report suggested that compulsive runners share a common set of psychological traits and behavioral dispositions with patients with anorexia nervosa. In an effort to objectively assess the similarity between anorexia nervosa and obligatory running, 43 runners and 24 patients with anorexia nervosa completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Results indicated that the obligatory runners generally scored within the normal range, while the anorectic patients did not. The anorectic patients obtained more pathological scores than the runners on eight of the ten clinical subscales of the MMPI. Fifty percent of the anorectic patients obtained elevations on three or more of the MMPI subscales, while no runners obtained more than two scale elevations. Depression (scale 2) and psychopathy (scale 4) were particularly prevalent in the anorectic group. We conclude that obligatory runners do not suffer from the same degree of psychopathology as do patients with anorexia nervosa.(JAMA 1984;252:520-523)
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33 21–54 yr old Ss who had been running at least a year and ran at least 5 days/wk were randomly assigned to groups according to the Solomon 4-group design. Two groups ran and the other 2 did not on the day of the experiment. Pretests were given to 1 of the running and 1 of the nonrunning groups. Dependent variables were the Profile of Mood States scores and GSR. Overall multivariate analysis showed a significant running by pretest interaction. The nonpretested running group revealed significantly lower depression and GSR scores than the nonpretested nonrunning group. Results suggest that even slight variations from running schedules may have negative effect on habitual runners. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Plasma β-endorphin immunoactivity was measured by RIA in 26 trained long distance runners on 35 occasions before and after running. Mean total β-endorphin immunoactivity increased from 11.8 ± 1.8 (SEM) to 17.6 ± 3.1 pg/m1 in 20 runners after an easy run (p = .067), and from 8.2 ± 1.03 to 28.0 ± 6.3 pg/m1 in 15 runners after a strenuous run (p = .008). Total β-endorphin immunoactivity in the plasma extracts of 7 runners before and after the strenuous run was further characterized by Sephadex G-50 chromatography in order to separate β-endorphin from corssreacting β-lipotropin (β-LPH). A rise in β-endorphin and β-LPH concentrations after running was noted in 5 out of 7 runners.
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The traditional treatments for nonbipolar affective disorders have been pharmacological. Recently, a number of well-designed studies have demonstrated the efficacy of different nonpharmacological treatments for depression. Exercise has been among the more novel approaches to the treatment of depression, and the antidepressant effects of exercise have received considerable popular attention. The early research reports on the effects of exercise on depression suffer from conceptual confusion and methodological problems. An appraisal of recent research, however, provides grounds for cautious optimism regarding the potential therapeutic effects of exercise.
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Obligatory runners and patients with anorexia nervosa share psychologic characteristics. The intensely atheletic person described in this report demonstrated hematologic abnormalities identical to those previously reported in anorexia nervosa. These findings, as well as nonhematologic features of the case, support the contention that obligatory running and anorexia nervosa represent interrelated disorders.
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Six highly trained marathon runners developed myocardial infarction. One of the two cases of clinically diagnosed myocardial infarction was fatal, and there were four cases of angiographically-proven infarction. Two athletes had significant arterial disease of two major coronary arteries, a third had stenosis of the anterior descending and the fourth of the right coronary artery. All these athletes had warning symptoms. Three of them completed marathon races despite symptoms, one athlete running more than 20 miles after the onset of exertional discomfort to complete the 56 mile Comrades Marathon. In spite of developing chest pain, another athlete who died had continued training for three weeks, including a 40 mile run. Two other athletes also continued to train with chest pain. We conclude that the marathon runners studied were not immune to coronary heart disease, nor to coronary atherosclerosis and that high levels of physical fitness did not guarantee the absence of significant cardiovascular disease. In addition, the relationship of exercise and myocardial infarction was complex because two athletes developed myocardial infarction during marathon running in the absence of complete coronary artery occlusion. We stress that marathon runners, like other sportsmen, should be warned of the serious significance of the development of exertional symptoms. Our conclusions do not reflect on the possible value of exercise in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Rather we refute exaggerated claims that marathon running provides complete immunity from coronary heart disease.
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Four features of anorexia nervosa—increased level of physical activity, restricted food intake, depressive symptomatology, and episodes of binge-eating (bulimia)—are examined as they unfolded in two men who developed a manifest eating disorder only after they had become serious long-distance runners. Their cases suggest that extreme exercise, such as long-distance running, can serve as a trigger for eliciting anorexia nervosa in persons who are at risk, psychologically and biologically, for developing an eating disorder. A role for endorphins in mediating this clinical sequence is postulated.
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Recently, the potential abuses of excessive exercise have received a great deal of attention. Several researchers, most notably Yates and colleagues (1983), have suggested that the habitual runner resembles the male equivalent of the patient with anorexia nervosa. Our review of the two modes of behaviour, however, provided little empirical support for the proposed analogy. Indeed, most evidence suggests that while anorexia nervosa represents a serious medical disorder, running is generally an adaptive form of behaviour that often serves to enhance physical and psychological functioning. Instead of a disease model of running, we propose that running represents one method by which individuals learn to regulate their emotional states.
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The authors describe changes in DSM-III substance use disorders to be included in the revised version, DSM-III-R. Major revisions include removal of the distinction between "abuse" and "dependence" and broadening the definition of "dependence" to a syndrome of clinically significant behaviors that indicate a serious degree of involvement with psychoactive drugs; creation of a new category of "psychoactive substance neuroadaptation syndrome" for individuals whose physiological adaptations to high doses of psychoactive substances did not arise from their own behavior; use of an identical set of symptoms and behaviors to determine dependence on all different classes of psychoactive substances; and provision of a system for rating severity of dependence.
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To the Editor.— In challenging the hypothesis that obligatory running is an analogue of anorexia nervosa, Blumenthal et al1 commit errors of their own. It is legitimate to point out the speculation and imprecision characterizing the article by Yates et al.2 Yet the critique by Blumenthal and colleagues fails to appreciate the exploratory nature of the original piece and overinterprets the results of their subsequent empirical study.First, Blumenthal et al examine only one of the variety of proposed analogies between obligatory running and anorexia nervosa. Yates and collegues discussed several possibilities: (1) obligatory runners and anorexic women share certain personality characteristics and extreme concern about body size and shape, (2) obligatory running and anorexia nervosa provide individuals with a sense of control, euphoria, and enhanced self-esteem, (3) obligatory runners and anorexic persons deny physical needs, at times endangering their health and lives, and (4) cultural factors affect
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Features important in the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa were common in a sample of 100 ballet students. Defining a "case" of anorexia nervosa proved difficult. Follow-up one year later showed that seven girls who were designated "possible cases" had continued to dance and were considerably improved in their physical status without medical intervention.
Article
In order to investigate the effects of long-term exercise training on brain endorphin systems, and the latter's possible effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, female Wistar rats were subjected to daily treadmill running. A sedentary control group was also employed. After 8 weeks of training, and just prior to sacrifice, one-half of each group received a final fatiguing bout of exercise. Thus the final four groups consisted of a trained-fatigued (TF), trained-nonfatigued (TN), control-fatigued (CF), and control-nonfatigued (CN) group. Regional brain levels of beta-endorphin (beta E), methionine enkephalin and leucine enkephalin (LE) were assayed with independent RIAs from the nucleus accumbens, cortex, caudate-putamen, septum, amygdala, anterior and posterior hypothalamus, substantia nigra and ventral tegmentum. Diestrus serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone and prolactin (PRL) were also determined. Fatiguing resulted in a decrease in serum LH levels as well as an increase in beta E content in the nucleus accumbens, and LE content in the ventral tegmentum. Finally, TF animals exhibited less LE in the amygdala than the TN rats. Taken together, these changes in brain endorphins may indicate an acute, fatigue-running modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.
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ACTH and beta-endorphin have been evaluated by means of a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay in athletes reaching a status of physical stress. A concomitant marked increase of these 2 peptides has been recorded. The implications of this finding lead to the conclusion that stress stimulates the synthesis of the common precursor (31 K) in the pituitary.
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Exercise training is used increasingly to prevent and treat disease, and millions of healthy persons participate in strenuous sports; yet, the mechanisms by which exercise produces various clinical effects are imperfectly understood. Emerging evidence suggests that endogenous opioid peptides influence diverse functions linked with the body's energy balance, including appetite, thermoregulation, lypolysis, and reproduction. Preliminary observations of athletes indicate that the acute expenditure of energy during exercise stimulates secretion of opioid peptides, but the lack of data on endocrine functions in subjects of experiments and the wide range of reported basal concentrations of hormones weaken this conclusion. No studies have yet described opioid-peptide levels in normal non-athletes during exercise, or determined whether the chronic increase in energy output by sedentary persons undergoing physical conditioning affects their opioid-peptide responses to acute exercise. This study examined both questions. The results show that exercise increases plasma levels of beta-endorphin (β-EP) and its precursor beta-lipotropin (β-LPH), and that training augments this effect.
Article
The effects of intense exercise on pain perception, mood, and plasma endocrine levels in man were studied under naloxone and saline conditions. Twelve long-distance runners (mean weekly mileage = 41.5) were evaluated on thermal, ischemic, and cold pressor pain tests and on mood visual analogue scales (VAS). Blood was drawn for determination of plasma levels of beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BEir), growth hormone (GH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), and prolactin (PRL). These procedures were undertaken before and after a 6.3 mile run at 85% of maximal aerobic capacity. Subjects participated on two occasions in a double-blind procedure counterbalanced for drug order: on one day they received 2 i.v. injections of naloxone (0.8 mg in 2 ml vehicle each) at 20 min intervals following the run; on the other day, 2 equal volume injections of normal saline (2 ml). Sensory decision theory analysis of the responses to thermal stimulation showed that discriminability, P(A), was significantly reduced post-run under the saline condition, a hypoalgesic effect; response bias, B, was unaffected. Ischemic pain reports were significantly reduced post-run on the saline day, also a hypoalgesic effect. Naloxone reversed the post-run ischemic but not thermal hypoalgesic effects. Joy, euphoria, cooperation, and conscientiousness VAS ratings were elevated post-run; naloxone attenuated the elevation of joy and euphoria ratings only. Plasma levels of BEir, ACTH, GH, and PRL were significantly increased post-run. The results show that long-distance running produces hypoalgesia and mood elevation in man. The effects of naloxone implicate endogenous opioid neural systems as mechanisms of some but not all of the run-induced alterations in mood and pain perception.
Article
Injuries secondary to sporting activities have increased significantly in the past decade. Traditional treatment programs for these maladies have frequently failed to meet the physiological expectations of the athlete. Forced rest or immobilization result in predictable musculoskeletal atrophy with impaired function. Furthermore, the rehabilitation process has commonly focused on the management of the acute problem with minor attention to the etiology and pathomechanics of the injury (preventive medicine). Many sports injuries, as a result of overuse, can be avoided by scientific coaching and contemporary sports medicine.
Article
A recent report suggested that compulsive runners share a common set of psychological traits and behavioral dispositions with patients with anorexia nervosa. In an effort to objectively assess the similarity between anorexia nervosa and obligatory running, 43 runners and 24 patients with anorexia nervosa completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Results indicated that the obligatory runners generally scored within the normal range, while the anorectic patients did not. The anorectic patients obtained more pathological scores than the runners on eight of the ten clinical subscales of the MMPI. Fifty percent of the anorectic patients obtained elevations on three or more of the MMPI subscales, while no runners obtained more than two scale elevations. Depression (scale 2) and psychopathy (scale 4) were particularly prevalent in the anorectic group. We conclude that obligatory runners do not suffer from the same degree of psychopathology as do patients with anorexia nervosa.
Article
We have explored the apparent similarity between patients with anorexia nervosa and a subgroup of male athletes designated as "obligatory runners." Case examples are provided from interviews with more than 60 marathon and trail runners. Obligatory runners resemble anorexic women in terms of family background; socioeconomic class; and such personality characteristics as inhibition of anger, extraordinarily high self-expectations, tolerance of physical discomfort, denial of potentially serious debility, and a tendency toward depression. Anorexic women and members of their families are often compulsively athletic, and obligatory runners may demonstrate a bizarre preoccupation with food and an unusual emphasis on lean body mass. We speculate that both phenomena could represent a partially successful--albeit dangerous--attempt to establish an identity. These preliminary observations will require further study for validation.
Article
The dominant role of athletic activities in our society and the extent and intensity of sports participation by large number of young people create stresses causing a whole new constellation of health problems, both emotional and physical. One such problem is excessive weight loss and food aversion in athletes. The condition is in many ways similar to primary anorexia nervosa as commonly encountered in young women. The athlete avoiding food and experiencing extreme weight loss is most often a male, however, and does not suffer from severe, deep-seated emotional problems. He is typically a serious and outstanding student athlete fearing failure in meeting expectations of admiring coaches, teammates, and parents. The prognosis is excellent under the treatment by an informed, reassuring physician. The athlete's physician should provide a precise definition of optimum level of fatness for given sports participation. Guidance should be given in such a way that desire level of fatness can be safely achieved, without threatening health and fitness.
Article
Plasma β-endorphin immunoactivity was measured by RIA in 26 trained long distance runners on 35 occasions before and after running. Mean total β-endorphin immunoactivity increased from 11.8 ± 1.8 (SEM) to 17.6 ± 3.1 pg/m1 in 20 runners after an easy run (p = .067), and from 8.2 ± 1.03 to 28.0 ± 6.3 pg/m1 in 15 runners after a strenuous run (p = .008). Total β-endorphin immunoactivity in the plasma extracts of 7 runners before and after the strenuous run was further characterized by Sephadex G-50 chromatography in order to separate β-endorphin from corssreacting β-lipotropin (β-LPH). A rise in β-endorphin and β-LPH concentrations after running was noted in 5 out of 7 runners.
Article
Age at menarche and menstrual periodicity of 21 college swimmers and 17 runners were studied in relation to the age of initiating training. The 18 premenarche-trained athletes had a mean menarcheal age of 15.1 +/- 0.5 years, whereas the 20 postmenarche-trained athletes had a mean menarcheal age of 12.8 +/- 0.2 years, similar to that of the college control subjects, 12.7 +/- 0.4 years. Each year of training before menarche delayed menarche by five months (0.4 years). Of the premenarche-trained athletes, 61% had irregular menstrual cycles and 22% were amenorrheic, whereas 60% of the postmenarche-trained athletes had regular menstrual cycles and none were amenorrheic. Training increased the incidence of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea among both premenarche- and postmenarche-trained athletes. Metabolic and hormonal changes consequent to an increased lean/fat ratio may explain these findings.
Article
The runner's high is a feeling of euphoria that is experienced by some runners after running twenty-five or thirty minutes. There could be a correlation between this and the fact that running has an antidepressant effect in some people. There are also EEG changes after running. Before running, subjects show right-left confusion or the inability to switch from image thinking on the right side of the the brain to verbal thinking on the left side of the brain. This right-left confusion reverses after running. Subjects report they can think clearer and concentrate better. They are also able to verbalize better. Perhaps these EEG changes show objectively the subjective effects of running on some subjects.
Fear of fat in runners: an examination of the connection between anorexia nervosa and distance running Release of beta-endorphin and met-enkephalin during exercise in normal women: response to training
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Running and stress fractures A high prevalence of affective disorder-in runners The Psychology of Running
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Alcohol Related Disabilities
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The Psychology of Running
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Physical exercise stimulates marked concomitant release of beta-endorphin and ACTH in man
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Gastro-intestinal blood loss in a marathon runner
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Letter on: Is running an analogue of anorexia nervosa
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Endorphins and Mental Health
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Drugs and Drug Dependence
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