Effect of feeding Lactobacillus GG on lethal irradiation in mice
Tufts University, Бостон, Georgia, United StatesDiagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease (Impact Factor: 2.46). 06/1987; 7(1):1-7. DOI: 10.1016/0732-8893(87)90063-0
Mice exposed to 1400 rads of total body irradiation experienced 80%-100% mortality in 2 wk. Bacteremia was demonstrated in all dead animals. Feeding Lactobacillus GG strain reduced Pseudomonas bacteremia and prolonged survival time in animals colonized with this organism. In animals not colonized with Pseudomonas, feeding Lactobacillus GG also produced some reduction in early deaths, and there was less Gram-negative bacteremia in these animals compared with controls.
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- "This review suggest that this is because the gastrointestinal stem cells are located inside intestinal crypts which along with other parts of the intestines are microcosms for different types of bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Escherichia (Keku et al., 2014; Yen and Wright, 2006). Lactobacillus probiotics have been routinely administered prior to radiation exposure and scientists have been led to believe that the bacteria were able to alleviate some of the inflammation of the gut caused by radiation therapy via repositioning of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathway and nuclearcytoplasmic shuttling of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and V-Rel Reticuloendotheliosis Viral Oncogene Homolog A (RelA) (Ciorba et al., 2012; Dong et al., 1987; Kelly et al., 2004). RelA is also known as Nuclear Factor of Kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells 3 (NFKB3), which is a part of a family already hypothesized for linking inflammation and cancer development/progression (Karin and Greten, 2005). "
ABSTRACT: Utilization of environmental stimuli for growth is the main factor contributing to the evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, independently and mutualistically. Epigenetics describes an organism's ability to vary expression of certain genes based on their environmental stimuli. The diverse degree of dose-dependent responses based on their variances in expressed genetic profiles makes it difficult to ascertain whether hormesis or oncogenesis has or is occurring. In the medical field this is shown where survival curves used in determining radiotherapeutic doses have substantial uncertainties, some as large as 50% (Barendsen, 1990). Many in-vitro radiobiological studies have been limited by not taking into consideration the innate presence of microbes in biological systems, which have either grown symbiotically or pathogenically. Present in-vitro studies neglect to take into consideration the varied responses that commensal and opportunistic pathogens will have when exposed to the same stimuli and how such responses could act as stimuli for their macro/microenvironment. As a result many theories such as radiation carcinogenesis explain microscopic events but fail to describe macroscopic events (Cohen, 1995). As such, this review shows how microorganisms have the ability to perturb risks of cancer and enhance hormesis after irradiation. It will also look at bacterial significance in the microenvironment of the tumor before and during treatment. In addition, bacterial systemic communication after irradiation and the host's immune responses to infection could explain many of the phenomena associated with bystander effects. Therefore, the present literature review considers the paradigms of hormesis and oncogenesis in order to find a rationale that ties them all together. This relationship was thus characterized to be the microbiome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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ABSTRACT: Unlike healthy babies, newborns hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are colonized with bacterial flora that reflects their exposure to pathogens in the NICU, not bacterial acquired from mother in the perinatal period. For example, nosocomial Gram-negative bacilli, such as klebsiella, enterobacter, and citrobacter but not Escherichia coli tend to colonize the gastrointestinal tract. Colonization with Gram-negative bacilli generally is a prerequisite for nosocomial infection with these pathogens, but surveillance cultures may not be a cost effective approach to predicting which babies will ultimately become ill. However, screening cultures to detect the emergence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacilli facilitate containment and guide empiric antibiotic therapy, and surveillance cultures are necessary to detect colonized babies when nosocomial Gram-negative bacilli become epidemic in the NICU. Such cultures are inexpensive and easy to perform if appropriate selective media are used. Surveillance cultures to detect coagulase-negative staphylococci, which numerous investigators claim are increasingly important NICU pathogens, are of little value since colonization is virtually universal in the first week of life. Documentation of colonization with group B streptococci or Staphylococcus aureus also cannot be justified on a routine basis. Screening for methicillin-resistant S. aureus, however, may be indicated since early detection of these strains can limit dissemination in the NICU. Research aimed at restoring colonization resistance with elements of normal bacterial flora or preventing colonization by nosocomial pathogens is in its infancy.
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ABSTRACT: Recovery of the suggested probiotic strain Lactobacillus GG in feces was studied after oral administration. Lactobacillus GG was given to 20 healthy human volunteers for 7 days in gelatine capsules with daily doses of 1.6 x 10(8) cfu and 1.2 x 10(10) cfu. All the volunteers in the higher dose group had detectable numbers of Lactobacillus GG in their feces during the test period. The strain was detected in feces of all the volunteers after 3 days of administration. No effect was observed on the total number of fecal lactobacilli. Fecal detection of the strain may facilitate dose-response studies and provide a useful tool in dietary studies utilizing the strain in foods or food-type products.
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