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... It can be performed spontaneously anytime, anywhere, without any special equipment. Furthermore, since it has a low musculoskeletal burden, it can be applied to various age groups and is recommended for weight management purposes such as aerobic capacity [12], body composition, reduction of high blood pressure and blood lipid levels, and obesity [13]. Performing physical activities, such as walking for disease prevention, is important in chronic disease treatment that protects the immune system, and the facilitation of an appropriate response to the treatment of COVID-19 [14,15]. ...
... Walkability is affected by various factors such as whether or not a walking area has been established, the stability of the walking activity, traffic behavior, and walking comfort. Accordingly, we selected the four related items from the Walkability Checklist [13] and used them as the primary questions ("Did you have space to walk?," "Was it easy to cross the streets?," "Did the drivers behave appropriately?," and "Was your walk pleasant?"). The responses for these four major factors were collected on the basis of a five-point Likert scale (where 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 represented absolutely not, no, neutral, yes, and very much, respectively). ...
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This study aimed to examine the satisfaction level differences between urban and rural areas with regard to their walking environment during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea. This online cross-sectional research was conducted using a mobile health application. Overall, 1,032 local residents who participated in the mobile healthcare program of a public health center were classified as being from either urban (n = 481, 46.6%) or rural areas (n = 551, 53.4%) for the purpose of this study. The Walkability Checklist, which includes sociodemographic information, was employed using a Chi-square test and a multivariate logistic regression to investigate whether or not the participants were satisfied with the environmental factors associated with walking. It was found that both urban and rural areas were more likely to be unsatisfied with walking comfort (adjusted OR: 24.472, 95% CI: 14.937-40.096). Regarding the walking comfort aspects of the walking environment, urban residents chose poor landscape ("needed more grass, flowers, or trees"; aOR: 13.561, 95% CI: 3.619-50.823) as their primary dissatisfaction, and rural residents chose messy streets ("dirty, lots of litter or trash"; aOR: 29.045, 95% CI: 6.202-136.015). Compared with urban residents, rural residents were more discontented with the walking environment. Thus, to promote walking activities at the community level, it is necessary to focus on walking comfort, and implement efforts related to environmental beautification.
... During foot contact with the ground, weight tr:msters trom one toot ro me other and the push off with the toe from the ground are critical phases as these interactions result in forces that create vibrations, which if unattenuated, could interfere with the visual-vestibu lar sensory systems in the ' head (Ito er al., 1997;Lafortune et al., 1996;McDonald et al., 1997;Mulavara et al., 2002;Mulavara and Bloomberg, 2003;Pozzo et al., l 990;Smeathers, 1989;Valiant, 1990;Voloshin, 1988;Whittle, 1999). The musculoskele tal system controls these vibrations: muscles and joints act as filters to minimize the perturbing effects of impacts with the ground and help to maintain a stable trajectory at the head (Holt et al., 1995;McDonald et al., 1997). ...
Chapter
From the moment of conception the human cognitive and sensorimotor systems develop to function in the Earth’s gravitational field. Although humans were never intended to live, work, eat, or play in a microgravity environment, the human nervous system is adaptable, as has been learned when humans have traveled into low Earth orbit and lived in sustained freefall. It is this plasticity of the nervous system that allows us to transition, under terrific acceleration, from the surface of our planet to the weightlessness of space. Outlined and/or described in detail in this chapter are some of the neurological effects associated with space flight. The transition represented by these effects can be slow, uncomfortable, and even dangerous. To help astronauts adjust to the physical and functional limitations caused by adjustment of the nervous system to gravitational transitions, countermeasures may be needed. Countermeasures that have been tested include medication, prevention techniques and training exercises, physical rehabilitation, and mechanical devices.
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This study investigated whether rearfoot motion at heel contact during running attenuates the magnitude of the impact force traveling through the body. Fifteen subjects completed running trials for two conditions: (a) running on a treadmill at a self-selected speed and a cadence of 160 steps/min and (b) running at the same speed and cadence but with rearfoot motion limited by a medial wedge inserted into the subject's shoe. A paired t test was used to test for differences between conditions in the peak accelerations of each accelerometer and the time to peak of the tibia acceleration. The predominant impact frequency and amplitude of the frequency peak were also tested for significant differences. No significant difference was found in the variables compared between the two conditions. The results demonstrated that restriction of rearfoot motion using a medial wedge during the initial 15% of the stance phase has no effect on the characteristics of the impulse wave at the tibia.
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Kinematics of runningKinetics of runningConclusions References
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Viscoelastic materials are commonly used in the construction of running shoes, and may be used as an insole in other types of shoe. Like other elastic materials, viscoelastic materials are effective in redistributing the pressure beneath the foot, thereby reducing local pressures and the stresses on foot structures. By absorbing energy, viscoelastic materials reduce the heelstrike transient, which originates beneath the foot at initial ground contact, and is transmitted up the skeleton as a "shock wave". This shock wave appears to damage soft tissues, and the use of viscoelastic materials in footwear has been shown to reduce the incidence and severity of a variety of overuse injuries of the foot, leg and low back, including the painful heel syndrome, femoral, tibial and metatarsals stress fractures. It is also probable that excessive levels of shock can overstress the joints, resulting in osteoarthritis. The heelstrike transient may also accelerate the loosening of prosthetic joints. In healthy individuals, the fat pad beneath the foot acts as a viscoelastic shock absorber. If this function is degraded by age or disease, viscoelastic footwear materials may be used to replace or augment it. Many different polymers have been used for these purposes, as either elastomers or foams. While most are effective when new, the softer foam materials tend to deteriorate rapidly with use. Very compliant foams tend to "bottom out" at moderate loads, unless a considerable thickness is used, which is seldom practical. Insoles combining two or more materials appear to offer the best overall performance.
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The purpose of this study was to compare EMG activities on the lower limb muscles during power walking and mormal walking. Seventeen subjects who have no known musculoskeletal disorders performed walking exercise at a cadence of 140 beats/min. After surface electrodes were attached to rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, averageed IEMG and peak IEMG, were measured. The result showed that the power walking did influence the averaged IEMG and peak IEMG. The EMG activity of the quadriceps during power walking was significantly higher than the corresponding values in normal walking during most phases. The averaged IEMG and peak IEMG of gastrocnemius muscles at the end of the double limb stance increased significantly when going from normal walking to power walking. The results indicate that power walking had greater effect on EMG activities on the lower limb muscles and demonstrate that the wide range of benefits can be obtained from power walking in respect to health and fitness. This study suggests that power walking has the potential to improve aerobic fitness and assist in weight management.
Article
Repetitive impact loadings of the musculoskeletal system have been linked to the development of osteoarthritis and low back pain. An important function of footwear is to attenuate foot-ground impacts. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of footwear types upon the impact ground reaction forces and the transient stress waves transmitted up the lower limb. The results have shown that both transient stress waves and ground reaction forces are affected by footwear during walking. Furthermore, with harder midsoles footwear, higher shock was transmitted to the lower extremities. This paper confirms the importance of using footwear to cushion the impact generated at heelstrike during walking. It also reveals that both shock and force measurements are required to evaluate and prescribe footwear to patients suffering from impact-related chronic diseases.
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