ArticlePDF Available

Effect of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) and Maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms on blood pressure and plasma lipids of spontaneously hypertensive rats



To study the effect of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) and Maitake (Grifola frondosa) on hypertension, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were fed a diet containing 5% mushroom powder and 0.5% NaCl solution as drinking water for 9 weeks. The dietary mushrooms decreased the blood pressure. The plasma free cholesterol level decreased in Shiitake-fed animals, whereas in Maitake-fed animals the total cholesterol level decreased. There was no difference in the plasma triglyceride and phospholipid levels among the experimental groups. Shiitake feeding resulted in a decrease in VLDL- and HDL-cholesterol whereas Maitake feeding caused a decrease in VLDL-cholesterol only. Plasma LDL-cholesterol was not affected by dietary mushrooms. The results suggest that dietary mushrooms prevent blood pressure increase in hypertension.
I. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., 33, 341-346, 1987
Effect of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) and Maitake
(Grjfola frondosa) Mushrooms on Blood Pressure
and Plasma Lipids of Spontaneously
Hypertensive Rats
Yearul KABIR,1,* Mami YAMAGUCHI, and Shuichi KIMURA2
Laboratory of Nutrition, Department of Food Chemistry, Faculty of
Agriculture, Tohoku University, Sendai 980, Japan
(Received April 2, 1987)
Summary To study the effect of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) and
Maitake (Grifola frondosa) on hypertension, spontaneously hypertensive
rats (SHR) were fed a diet containing 5% mushroom powder and 0.5
NaCl solution as drinking water for 9 weeks. The dietary mushrooms
decreased the blood pressure. The plasma free cholesterol level decreased
in Shiitake-fed animals, whereas in Maitake-fed animals the total choles
terol level decreased. There was no difference in the plasma triglyceride
and phospholipid levels among the experimental groups. Shiitake feeding
resulted in a decrease in VLDL- and HDL-cholesterol whereas Maitake
feeding caused a decrease in VLDL-cholesterol only. Plasma LDL-
cholesterol was not affected by dietary mushrooms. The results suggest
that dietary mushrooms prevent blood pressure increase in hypertension.
Key Words hypertension, mushrooms, Shiitake, Maitake, spon
taneously hypertensive rat (SHR), plasma lipids, lipoproteins
It has been known for a long time that mushrooms have some medicinal value
and are thus used in Kanpo, Chinese folk medicine. In Kyushu, Japan, the Bukurio
mushroom has been said to contribute to longevity and to cause an increase in
urinary sodium excretion (1). It has been reported that an increase in urinary
sodium excretion caused a suppression of the rise in blood pressure (2). This study
was undertaken primarily to examine the effect of dried Shiitake and Maitake
mushroom powders on the blood pressure of SHRs. These available mushrooms are
an important Japanese food item. There have been some studies on Shiitake and its
extracted hypocholesterolemic substance, but to our knowledge, no studies have
been done on Maitake mushroom. The present paper presents a relationship
between mushroom intake and hypertension in SHRs.
1 ・カ ビ ル , 2 口麻 美,木
* On study leave from Department of Biochemistry , University of Dhaka, Dhaka-2,
Male albino SHRs (from Funabashi farms) of the Okamoto strain (3) weighing
about 116g were divided into three dietary groups of 6 animals each. The three diets
consisted of the following: Group 1 (control), basal diet consisting of 10%egg
protein; group 2, basal diet with addition of 5% Shiitake powders; and group 3,
basal diet with addition of 5% Maitake mushroom powders (Table 1).
The rats were given free access to the diets and 0.5% NaCl solution as drinking
water for 9 weeks. The animals were housed individually throughout the experiment
in stainless steel, wire-bottom cages in a temperature- (24•}2•Ž) and humidity-
(50•}10%) controlled room with a 12-h light/dark cycle. Their body weight was
measured every 4th day and the blood pressure was recorded weekly according to
the tail pulse pickup method using Programmed Electro-sphygmomanometer (PE-
300, Narco Bio-systems, Inc., Houston, Texas). After the 9-week feeding period, the
animals were starved overnight and then sacrificed by ether anesthetization.
The blood was collected from the abdominal aorta in a disposable plastic
syringe coated with heparin and transferred into centrifuge tubes. After being
centrifuged at 3,000rpm for 15min, the plasma was stored in a vial at 0•Ž for later
analysis. The liver, kidney, heart, brain, thyroid, pituitary, and abdominal depot fat
were removed, washed with saline solution and weighed.
The plasma lipoprotein fractions were isolated by ultracentrifugation accord
ing to the technique of Bronzert and Brewer (4). Ultracentrifugation was carried out
Table 1. Composition of experimental diets (%).
a Egg white (54%) and egg yolk (46%). b Ground dried mushrooms. c Five grams of
soybean oil contain 100 I. U. of vitamin D. d Compositions were described by Harper (11).
e One gram of fat-soluble vitamin mixture contains vitamin A 1,500 I. U., vitamin E
10mg, p-aminobenzoic acid 10mg, choline chloride 150mg.
J. Nutr. Sci, Vitaminol.
in a Hitachi 70P-72 ultracentrifuge using a RPL42T rotor at the density of plasma
(d=1.006g/ml) and at a solvent density of 1.060g/ml respectively, by addition of
KBr. The levels of total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipids in
the plasma and cholesterol levels in its lipoprotein fraction were measured by using
assay kits (Wako Chemical Industries, Ltd., Osaka).
Statistical analysis: Data were treated statistically using Student's t-test, and
where t-test was not possible Cochran-Cox test was followed.
As shown in Fig. 1, the rats fed mushrooms were significantly low in growth
compared to the control. The difference was more considerable (p<0.001) in
Maitake-fed animals than in those fed Shiitake (p<0.05) when compared with the
control. The systolic blood pressure of rats fed either Shiitake or Maitake was also
significantly lower (p<0.001) than that of the control (Fig. 2). It is possible that the
lower body weights due to mushroom diets may have had some effect on the
lowering of the blood pressure. But previous works in this laboratory (5) showed
that change of body weight had no effect on the blood pressure.
The tissue weights of the sacrificed animals are summarized in Table 2. The
weights of depot fat and the heart were significantly lowered by feeding Maitake.
The plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid levels are shown in
Fig. 1. Body weight changes in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed mushroom diets.
Body weights are represented as the mean•}SE for 6 rats. Significantly different
from control, * p<0001, ** p<0.05.
Vol. 33, No. 5, 1987
Fig. 2. Systolic blood pressure changes in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed mush
room diets. Blood pressure levels are represented as the mean•}SE for 6 rats .
Significantly different from control , * p<0.001, ** p<0.01
Table 2. Effect of mushrooms on final body and organ weights of SHRs .
Each value represents mean•}SE for 6 rats . Significantly different from control,
* p<0 .001, ** p<0.01, *** p<005
Table 3. The total cholesterol level in the rats fed Shiitake was nearly equal to that
of the control, but the free cholesterol level was significantly lower (p<0 .01) than
that of the control. An explanation is that Shiitake may have raised the esterifi
cation of plasma cholesterol, i.e. increased the activity of lecithin: cholesterol
J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol.
Table 3. Effect of mushrooms on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid
levels in SHRs.
Each value represents mean•}SE for 6 rats. Significantly different from control,
* p<0 .001, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.05.
Table 4. Effect of mushrooms on cholesterol levels in plasma lipoproteins of SHRs.
a VLDL include chylomicrons . Each value represents mean•}SE for 6 rats. Significantly
different from control, * p<0.01.
acyltransferase (LCAT). In fact, a higher activity of plasma LCAT in Shiitake-fed
rats has been previously reported by Tokuda et al. (6). They have also reported (7) a
decrease in plasma cholesterol levels by feeding Shiitake, whereas we could not find
any change in the plasma cholesterol level in SHRs. This is presumably due to
genetic variation in the SHR strain or in the experimental conditions. In fact, SHRs
generally have low plasma cholesterol levels (8, 9) and have an abnormality in lipid
metabolism, especially in cholesterol synthesis, as previously described (9).
On the other hand, in the Maitake group the plasma total cholesterol level was
significantly low (p<0.01) compared to that in the control (Table 3). This result
indicates that feeding Maitake is much more effective in reducing the plasma
cholesterol levels in SHRs. This may be due to the increase in cholesterol excretion
or/and inhibition in cholesterol synthesis. No significant difference in plasma
triglyceride and phospholipid levels was observed in any of the 3 groups.
The cholesterol levels in each lipoprotein fraction are shown in Table 4. The
VLDL- and HDL-cholesterol levels of Shiitake-fed rats were significantly lower
(p<0.01) than those of the control, whereas in Maitake-fed rats, only the VLDL-
Vol. 33, No. 5, 1987
cholesterol level was significantly lower (p<0 .01). Dietary mushrooms had no
significant effect on LDL-cholesterol . The lower level of VLDL- and HDL-
cholesterol after Shiitake feeding has been reported previously (6). The reason for
this decrease is not known . The alteration in the lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in
SHRs seems to depend upon genetic variation which might occur during the
selection of animals when establishing SHR (10). However, our results suggest that
the dietary Shiitake and Maitake prevent the increase of blood pressure in SHRs.
1) Motoyama, I. (1958): Inshoku-Jiten (in Jpppnese)
, Heibonsha, Tokyo, p. 156.
2) Kanamaru, T., Nakanishi, N., Igarashi, N., Kato, M., Kato, S., and Sugino, N. (1986):
Effect of dietary protein on blood pressure and renal function in spontaneously
hypertensive and control rats. J. Hypertension, 4 (suppl 3), 5457-5458.
3) Okamoto, K., and Aoki, K. (1963): Development of a strain of spontaneously
hypertensive rats. Jpn. Circ. J., 27, 282-293.
4) Bronzert, T. J., and Brewer, H. B. (1977): New micromethod for measuring cholesterol
in plasma lipoprotein fractions. Clin. Chem., 23, 2089-2098
5) Yokomukai, Y., Komai, M., and Kimura, S. (1984): Effects of dietary protein levels
and umami on the palatability to saltiness in rats (II), Proceedings of the 18th Japanese
Symposium on Taste and Smell, pp. 113-116, November.
6) Tokuda, S., Tagiri, A., Kano, E., Sugawara, Y., Suzuki, S., Sato, H., and Kaneda, T.
(1974): Reducing mechanism of plasma cholesterol by shiitake. Mushroom Sci., IX (part
I), 445-462.
7) Kaneda, T., Arai, K., and Tokuda, S. (1964): The effect of dried mushroom, cortinellus
shiitake on cholesterol metabolism in rats (I). Fiyo to Shokuryo (J. Jpn. Soc. Food
Nutr.), 16, 106-108.
8) Okamoto, K., Yamori, Y., Ooshima, A., and Tanaka, T. (1972): Development of
substrains in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Genealogy, isozymes and effect of
hypercholesterolemic diet. Jpn. Circ. J., 36, 461-470.
9) Iritani, N., Fukuda, E., Nara, Y., and Yamori, Y. (1977): Lipid metabolism in
spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Atherosclerosis
, 28, 217-222.
10) Shimamoto, K., Teraoka, A., Iwatsuka, H., and Suzuoki, Z. (1973): General survey of
glucose and lipid metabolism in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Jpn. Heart J.,
14, 159.
11) Harper, A. E. (1959): Amino acid balance and imbalance
. J. Nutr., 68, 405-418.
J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol.
... (Yang et al., 2002: Kang et al., 2022. 표고버섯의 기 능성 물질 중 β-glucan은 버섯이나 곰팡이 등의 진균류를 포함 한 미생물의 주요 세포벽에서 발견되고 (Ng & Yap, 2002), 보리, 호밀, 귀리 등의 작물에도 많이 함유되어 있는 것으로 알려져 있다 (Surenjav et al., 2006;Kabir et al., 1987). (Fig. 2). ...
This study attempted to verify the effects of Lentinus edodes mycelium by applying a high-fat diet (HFD) to animals. For this, the Lentinus edodes mycelium ‘MC-LE’ was administered to the HFD animals, investigating its influence on dietary efficiency, hormones, blood and lipocytes. An experiment was performed a normal group with regular diet, HFD/Control group and HFD/MC-LE (360 mg/kg) group over 10 weeks. Compared to the HFD/Control group, the HFD/MC-LE group revealed a decrease in dietary efficiency. A significant drop was also found in the appetite-suppressing hormone ‘leptin’. Furthermore, increase in the adipose (fat) accumulationrelated adiponectin and decrease in IGF-1, glucose and free fatty acid accelerated lipid metabolism, confirming inhibition of fat accumulation through the size and number of fat cells. Other words, in the HFD/MC-LE group, dietary control hormone suppressed diet and accelerated lipid metabolism, reducing fat accumulation. The above results confirm that the Lentinus edodes mycelium ‘MC-LE’ would be useful as a material for obesity treatment.
... Además, los β-glucanos son capaces de reducir la hipertensión. Un estudio realizado en ratas genéticamente modificadas con hipertensión espontánea, alimentadas con una dieta que contenía 5% de Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) o Maitake (Grifola frondosa) produjo una disminución de la presión arterial sistémica media (Kabir et al., 1987(Kabir et al., , 1988Kabir & Kimura, 1989). Por otra parte, el consumo de basidiocarpos enteros de Maitake causó una disminución de la presión arterial en un modelo de ratas obesas con diabetes (Talpur et al., 2002a(Talpur et al., , 2002b(Talpur et al., , 2003). ...
Full-text available
Actualmente, se ha incrementado la producción de alimentos funcionales y nutracéuticos como una estrategia para disminuir y prevenir enfermedades. En este contexto, los hongos son valorados por su aporte nutrimental a la dieta humana y propiedades funcionales. G. lucidum, hongo no comestible funcional contiene compuestos bioactivos como terpenoides, polisacáridos y proteínas que muestran efectos positivos a la salud. La ingesta de extractos de G. lucidum ha mostrado efectos hipocolesterolemiantes, hipoglucémicos y prebióticos que disminuyen el riesgo de padecer diversas patologías. En México, no se han realizado trabajos acerca de la toxicidad de los extractos mexicanos de G. lucidum (cepa CP-145), además, la escasa información existente que hay a nivel internacional es de especies extranjeras y no puede extrapolarse a las especies mexicanas debido a las diferentes condiciones de crecimiento que modifican las propiedades y contenido del extracto. Por tanto, en el presente estudio se evaluó la toxicidad aguda del extracto de G. lucidum en ratas Wistar acorde al protocolo 423 de la OECD/OCDE. Se formaron 5 grupos experimentales con 6 ratas (3 hembras y 3 machos) cada uno. Se utilizaron dosis orales crecientes del extracto de G. lucidum (300, 1000, 2000 y 5000 mg/kg de peso corporal). Se llevó un registro de la ingesta, peso y comportamiento durante 14 días. Se analizaron parámetros bioquímicos en sangre y orina complementándose con un examen histopatológico de las secciones hepáticas y renales. No se observaron cambios en el comportamiento, ingesta y peso corporal de las ratas. Las concentraciones de glucosa y perfil lipídico en plasma se mantuvieron estables. Los parámetros relacionados con daño hepático (transaminasas) e inflamación (proteína C reactiva) no mostraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos experimentales. Asimismo, en los valores asociados a daño renal (albúmina, creatinina, urea, glucosa en orina y nitrógeno uréico) obtenidos no se observaron cambios significativos que indiquen una lesión o inflamación renal en las ratas. Las histopatologías mostraron citoarquitectura normal, sin daños en los tejidos. Por lo que, la ingesta aguda del extracto de G. lucidum no causó muerte, toxicidad y daño en la función hepática y renal en las ratas en ninguna de las dosis empleadas.
... In addition, agaricus β-glucan was proved to have anti-hyperglycemic, anti-triglyceride, and anti-atherosclerosis effects in diabetic rats [35]. In this study, LNT significantly reduced TC and triglycerides both in vivo and in vitro, which was consistent with a previous study reporting that shiitake (Lentinus edodes) and maitake had a cholesterol-lowering effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats [21]. ...
Full-text available
Aim: Lentinan (LNT), a type of polysaccharide derived from Lentinus edodes, has manifested protective effects during liver injury and hepatocellular carcinoma, but little is known about its effects on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to investigate whether LNT can affect the progression of NAFLD and the associated mechanisms. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal chow diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without LNT (6 mg/kg/d). AML12 cells were exposed to 200 μM palmitate acid (PA) with or without LNT (5 μg/mL). Results: After 21 wk of the high-fat diet, LNT significantly decreased plasma triglyceride levels and liver lipid accumulation, reduced excessive reactive oxygen species production, and subsequently attenuated hepatic apoptosis in NAFLD mice. These effects were associated with increased PPARα levels, a decreased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and enhancement of the antioxidant defense system in vivo. Similar effects were also observed in cultured cells. More importantly, these protective effects of LNT on palmitate acid-treated AML12 cells were almost abolished by PPARα knockdown. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrates that LNT may ameliorate hepatic steatosis and decrease oxidative stress and apoptosis by activating the PPARα pathway and is a potential drug target for NAFLD.
... ACE inhibitory peptides present in mushrooms lowered blood pressure with no adverse effect (Abdullah et al., 2012;Hong et al., 2008;Jao et al., 2012). Several studies have investigated the antihypertensive effects of some edible mushroom species such as Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa, Tricholoma giganteum, Marasmius androsaceus, Pleurotus species, Lentinula edodes, Sparassis crispa, Pholiota adipose, Sarcodon aspratus, H. marmoreus, Flammulina velutipes, Hericium erinaceus, Phlebia tremellosa and Agaricus bisporus (Guillamón et al., 2010;Bang et al., 2014;Kabir et al., 1987Kabir et al., , 1988Miyazawa et al., 2008;Mizuno & Zhuang, 1995;Yahaya et al., 2014). These studies have attracted scientists of all over the world to focus further studies on mushroom. ...
Full-text available
Mushrooms have been consumed by humans since antiquity and considered as a culinary wonder due to their organoleptic merits. In the era of healthy eating by cutting down the calories, saturated fat and cholesterol, mushrooms are bound to attract the public attention a lot. At present they are widely used across the globe not only as food but also in the area of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals. In this chapter an attempt has been made to provide the up to date insight on the nutritional and medicinal properties of mushrooms. Mushroom proteins are considered of higher nutritional quality than those of vegetables, being comparable to proteins of animal origin such as meat, eggs and milk. Furthermore, modern mushroom culture produces more protein per unit area of land than any other kind of agricultural technology at present available. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has recommended mushrooms as a food item contributing significantly to the protein nutrition of the developing countries like Nepal, which depend heavily on the cereal diets. In the recent years, a lot of research has been done on the chemical composition of mushrooms around the globe including Nepal which revealed their several nutritional and medicinal attributes. Contemporary researches have also validated and documented much of the ancient knowledge on the mushrooms and recognized them as functional foods as well as a vital natural source for the development of pharmaceuticals, cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals in the 21 st century.
... 29,30 Аlthough the mechanisms of hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic effects of mushroom-derived metabolites are unclear, several species (e.g., A. bisporus, Auricularia polytricha, F. velutipes, G. lucidum, Grifola frondosa, L. edodes, P. pulmonarius, and P. ostreatus) may be recommended in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries to develop biotechnology products with hypoglycemic and hypotensive effects. 3,11,12,21,22 The main mechanism of hypotensive effect of mushrooms is considered ACE inhibition. 39 The fibrinolytic agents, such as tissue-type, urokinase-type, nattokinase, and streptokinase, possess a wide range of clinical applications. ...
Full-text available
Several edible and medicinal Agaricomycetes mushrooms possess biologically active compounds with different therapeutic effects, such as anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, anti-hypertensive, fibrinolytic, thrombolytic, potentially used as cardioprotective remedies. Previous studies have shown that mushrooms possessing cardioprotective effect (CPE) contain a high amount of vitamins and minerals, low contents of fat which makes them applicable as supplementary dietary and functional food for prevention and treatment of a variety of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The current review is directed to the evaluation of resource value of 31 edible and non-edible medicinal Agaricomycetes mushrooms with potential CPE growing in the territory of Armenia and discusses the future perspectives of their usage in biotechnology and biomedicine. Contacts:;
... The addition of 5% powdered mushrooms (shiitake -Lentinus edodes, or Maitake -Grifola frondosa) in the diet of rats over a nine-week treatment period was found to decrease the blood pressure, indicating that these dietary mushrooms could be used to treat hypertension [294]. The lowering of blood pressure as discussed in Sections 7.2.1 and 7.2.2 was observed by Sagowo et al. (2018, 2019) [267,274] in two human clinical trials using a commercial preparation of PSP from Ganoderma lucidum. ...
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Factors increasing the risks for CVD development are related to obesity, diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure and lifestyle. CVD risk factors may be treated with appropriate drugs, but prolonged can use cause undesirable side-effects. Among the natural products used in complementary and alternative medicines, are the β-ᴅ-glucans; biopolymers found in foods (cereals, mushrooms), and can easily be produced by microbial fermentation. Independent of source, β-glucans of the mixed-linked types [(1,3)(1,6)-β-ᴅ-glucans - fungal, and (1,3)(1,4)-β-ᴅ-glucans - cereal] have widely been studied because of their biological activities, and have demonstrated cardiovascular protective effects. In this review, we discuss the roles of β-ᴅ-glucans in various pathophysiological conditions that lead to CVDs including obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, hypertension and atherosclerosis. The -glucans from all of the sources cited demonstrated potential hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesogenicity activities, reduced hypertension and ameliorated the atherosclerosis condition. More recently, -glucans are recognized as possessing prebiotic properties that modulate the gut microbiome and impact on the health benefits including cardiovascular. Overall, all the studies investigated unequivocally demonstrated the dietary benefits of consuming β-glucans regardless of source, thus constituting a promising panaceutical approach to reduce CVD risk factors.
Objectives This study aimed to determine whether food intake modifies the risk of developing hearing impairment (HI) in Japanese adults in their 40s. Methods Data for individuals who were in their 40s with no HI at baseline and had participated in the survey multiple times were extracted from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences, Longitudinal Study of Aging. A total of 1846 samples observed for up to 11.5 years in 421 participants were included in the analyses. The average 3-day food intake was calculated. HI is defined as a pure-tone average of the better ear at frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz greater than 25 dB. The risk of developing HI in the 18 food groups was calculated longitudinally using multivariable cumulative data analyses. Results Even after adjusting basic confounding factors, food groups, and baseline hearing level, significant associations were found between beverage consumption and risk increments for HI (odds ratio [OR] = 2.374, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.141–4.940) and also between mushroom intake and risk reduction (OR = 0.215, 95% CI:0.069–0.667). Other foods did not consistently show significant results when the combination of analysis variables were changed. Conclusions Although the effect of food on hearing is modest to the extent that the significance varies with the variables used in the analysis, the intake of beverages and mushrooms could potentially modify the risk of developing HI after middle age.
Objectives In a previous study, a mushroom was shown to digest milk protein to a mixture of oligopeptides and free amino acids. The aim of this study was to examine effects of this mixture, i.e., mushroom-fermented milk, on blood pressure and stroke susceptibility in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Materials and Methods Rats were fed mushroom-fermented milk with or without 1 % salt water. Blood pressure was monitored either by the tail-cuff method or the telemetry system. Symptoms of stroke were examined every day to determine the stroke latency. Results Mushroom-fermented milk at 120 mg/Kg BW/day (estimated as a peptides/amino acids content) did not ameliorate hypertension in SHRSP. In contrast, mushroom-fermented milk significantly improved stroke susceptibility under salt-loading. The effects were replicated using milk fermented with three different mushrooms. To elucidate the effective components in mushroom-fermented milk, spermidine (3 mM), one of major components of mushroom-fermented milk, and a mixture of amino acids (0.8 g/L) was examined, both of which showed no significant effects on stroke susceptibility. Intake of mushroom-fermented milk did not affect sodium content significantly either in feces or in urine of the rats given 1% salt water. This observation indicated sodium absorption by the digestive system was not inhibited by intake of mushroom-fermented milk. Conclusion Despite that the mechanisms were not elucidated, intake of mushroom-fermented milk effectively prevented stroke in SHRSP. Mushroom-fermented milk would be a new candidate for a supplemental nutrient supporting the cardiovascular health.
For millennia, edible mushrooms have been used as a common diet for mankind based on their nutritional importance and medicinal benefits. Edible mushrooms are a rich source of carbohydrates (sucrose, xylose, rhamnose, mannose, and fructose), amino acids (glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glutamate, methionine, and cysteine), proteins, fatty acids (linoleic acid, stearic acid, palmitic acid, adrenic acid, and nervonic acid), vitamins (folate, riboflavin, ascorbic acid niacin, thiamine, ergocalciferol, and cyanocobalamine) mineral contents (Ca, Mg, K, P, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Mo) and phenolic compounds (gallic acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and pyrogallol) that control and ameliorate multiple functions of the human body and participate for maintaining the good health by reducing the occurrence of several chronic diseases. Bioactive polysaccharides, peptides, polyphenols, and dietary fibers extracted from mushroom mycelia have health-promoting properties including a number of medicinal benefits such as anticancerous properties, antihypertensive activity, protection against DNA damage, cardiovascular effects, neurodegenerative disorders, and improvement in innate immunity. In developing countries, the utilization of mushrooms for therapeutic applications is being implemented as a boon for promoting human health and natural dietary supplements. Recently, different pharmaceutical companies and food industries have taken initial steps for patenting the medicinal value of edible mushrooms based on their antioxidant, anticancer, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, and immunomodulatory effects. The immense role of nutritional components and bioactive molecules of edible mushrooms in correlation with health problems has become a burning task in modern nutraceutical therapy. Hence, the present article deals with up-to-date knowledge of edible mushrooms as a nutritional adjuvant with emphasis on profound biological properties and potential mechanisms of action to prevent different health diseases.
Observations of some effects of an amino acid imbalance on food intake and food selection of rats in different physiological states are described. The imbalance was created by adding a mixture of amino acids lacking histidine to a purified diet containing 6% of beef fibrin. Food intake was depressed when the diet in which there was an imbalance of amino acids was substituted for one containing balanced protein; and rats given a choice between the “imbalanced” diet and a protein-free diet showed a decided preference for the latter over the former. This preference became evident more quickly with nondepleted and with starved rats than had previously been observed with protein-depleted rats. Neither protein-depleted nor non-depleted rats showed a specific preference for either of 2 balanced diets which differed in nutritive value, but both groups showed a clear preference for a more balanced diet over an imbalanced diet when the 2 diets differed by only 0.05 to 0.1% of L-histidine·HCl.
Plasma cholesterol was lower in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), while plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid were increased in comparison with control normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WK) rats. Correspondingly, [1-14C]-acetate incorporation into liver cholesterol was clearly decreased in SHR as compared with WK. As for lipogenic enzyme activities, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in SHR were respectively decreased, increased and not significantly different, in comparison with WK rats. Liver cholesterol was rather low and cardiac triglyceride was slightly increased in SHR. Aortic cholesterol and triglyceride levels were not significantly different between SHR AND WK rats. Thus, SHR have an abnormality in lipid metabolism, especially in cholesterol synthesis, but the pathological implication of this in hypertension and related vascular lesions is not yet clear.
A method is described for the reliable, fast, and relatively inexpensive fractionation of plasma lipoproteins and quantitation of their cholesterol content. This procedure requires 350 microliter of plasma and can be completed within 3 h. Plasma lipoproteins (175 microliter of plasma) were prestained with Fat Red 7B and centrifuged (Beckman Airfuge) at plasma density (d = 1.006 kg/liter) and at a solvent density of 1.060 kg/liter, adjusted by adding solid KBr. Prestained centrifuged samples demonstrated the characteristic elevation of chylomicrons in phenotypes I and V, low-density lipoproteins of phenotype II, very-low-density lipoproteins in phenotype IV and V, and continuum of pink color throughout the centrifuge tube, diagnostic of the floating beta lipoprotein of type III. Centrifuged samples were separated into top and bottom fractions by aspiration. Cholesterol was quantitated with an enzymic oxygen-electrode analyzer (Beckman Cholesterol Analyzer). Correlation coefficients between cholesterol values for plasma from normal hyperlipidemic individuals obtained with the Beckman Analyzer vs. the Technicon AutoAnalyzer II and SMAC systems were 0.977 and 0.973, respectively.
Genealogical study and experimental fat-cholesterol and salt loadings showed that the present strain (F26-27) of spontaneously hypertensive rats consisted of several substrains with no difference in the level of blood pressure but with a marked difference in the incidence of cardiovascular lesions. Biochemical specificities of these substrains were demonstrated by ALPase and esterase isozymes in the liver and serum. Different responses in serum cholesterol level to the hypercholesterolemic diet served as a further differentiation of some lines among these substrains and were seemingly related to their vulnerability to cardiovascular lesions under these experimental conditions.
Effects of dietary protein levels and umami on the palatability to saltiness in rats (II)
  • Y Yokomukai
  • M Komai
  • S Kimura
Yokomukai, Y., Komai, M., and Kimura, S. (1984): Effects of dietary protein levels and umami on the palatability to saltiness in rats (II), Proceedings of the 18th Japanese Symposium on Taste and Smell, pp. 113-116, November.
Effect of dietary protein on blood pressure and renal function in spontaneously hypertensive and control rats
  • T Kanamaru
  • N Nakanishi
  • N Igarashi
  • M Kato
  • S Kato
  • N Sugino
Kanamaru, T., Nakanishi, N., Igarashi, N., Kato, M., Kato, S., and Sugino, N. (1986): Effect of dietary protein on blood pressure and renal function in spontaneously hypertensive and control rats. J. Hypertension, 4 (suppl 3), 5457-5458.