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The community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) procedure for population groups and individuals

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Abstract

The FDI-WHO Joint Working Group 1 on periodontal diseases supports the use of the CPITN as an epidemiological screening procedure for periodontal treatment needs in populations and also, in a modified form for screening and monitoring of individuals by dental practitioners. The advantages of the CPITN procedure have become more evident following 7 years of development and field experience. This report reviews the CPITN procedure and describes in detail the use of the method for both purposes. Methods, clinical criteria and evaluation of the CPITN data are discussed. The CPITN is primarily a screening procedure which requires clinical assessment for the presence or absence of periodontal pockets, calculus and gingival bleeding. Use of a special CPITN periodontal probe (or its equivalent) is recommended. For epidemiological purposes in adult populations, 10 specified index teeth are examined; for persons under 20 years of age only six index teeth are specified. In dental practice all teeth are examined and the highest score for each sextant noted. Only 6 scores are recorded. Measures of gingival recession, tooth mobility, intensity of inflammation, precise identification of pocket depths or differentiation between supra- and subgingival calculus are not included in the CPITN. Individuals are assigned to one of four treatment need categories determined from their CPITN scores. Detailed explanations are given for the evaluation of epidemiological data. Four tabulations provide an insight into the overall pattern of prevalence, severity and categories of treatment need. For health services planning, the data provide a basis for estimating overall population needs in terms of treatment categories and the clinical personnel required for periodontal care. In the clinical care situation the procedure offers a simple screening method for determining the level of intervention required and also a tool for the longitudinal monitoring of disease changes. Used with commonsense and an understanding of periodontal disease, the CPITN procedure provides the epidemiologist and the practitioner with a practical means of assessing periodontal treatment needs.

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... The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) age: 20 to 60 years old; (2) OLP duration: more than 2 months; (3) the erosive lesion located in the buccal or tongue membrane that was close to gingiva, and manifested a central area of shallow ulceration; (4) the erosive lesion in that area was frequently relapsed or did not heal completely after 2-week corticosteroid rinse or paste; (5) there was one single erosion of less than 100 mm 2 ; (6) patients with chronic gingivitis or mild chronic periodontitis (1 ≤ plaque index (PI) ≤ 5 and 1 ≤ community periodontal index (CPI) ≤ 3) [24,25], and receiving no periodontal scaling within the previous 6 months; (7) normal physical examination results before intervention (including blood pressure, blood routine, blood glucose level, hepatic and renal clinical biochemistry, routine urinalysis, ultrasonic examination of abdomen, X-ray of chest and electrocardiogram). ...
... For the PI, the Turesky-modified Quigley-Hein plaque index was applied to evaluate the state of dental plaque adhesion (the third molar was excluded) [24]. CPI measurements were performed with a periodontal probe in 6 regions of the oral cavity to examine the gingival bleeding, dental tartar, and pocket depth, and the highest scores were recorded as the results [25]. ...
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This study is the first time to assess the synergistic efficacy and safety of plaque control on erosive non-gingival oral lichen planus (OLP). A randomized, controlled, clinical trial with blind evaluation was designed, and 48 OLP patients with erosive non-gingival OLP lesions were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 25, receiving intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection, periodontal scaling, and oral hygiene instruction) and the control group (n = 23, only receiving intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection) once a week for 2 weeks. Erosion size, pain level, plaque index, and community periodontal index were measured at every visit. Patients cured of erosion were followed up for 3 months to evaluate the recurrence rate. Adverse reactions were also recorded. At day 14 ± 2, the experimental group showed a higher completely healed percentage of erosion, a greater reduction of erosion size and pain level. However, no significant difference was observed in the recurrence rate. No participants had any severe adverse reactions. In conclusion, an improvement was observed in patients with plaque control, and future studies with larger sample sizes are needed to reinforce the external validity of this study.
... The Community Periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN). [28] The Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) discovered by Ainamo, [28] is an epidemiologic tool developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the evaluation of periodontal disease in population surveys, throughout the world. It allows rapid examination of population groups to determine their periodontal treatment needs. ...
... The Community Periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN). [28] The Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) discovered by Ainamo, [28] is an epidemiologic tool developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the evaluation of periodontal disease in population surveys, throughout the world. It allows rapid examination of population groups to determine their periodontal treatment needs. ...
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Objectives: To access pregnant women's oral hygiene practices, their use of dental services during pregnancy and their periodontal status. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between oral hygiene practice and dental service use during pregnancy. Data analysis was done using SPSS version. 20.0 and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Conclusion: There is the need to educate pregnant women about the need to utilize dental services particularly during pregnancy. Results: One hundred and one pregnant women aged between 20 and 40 years participated in this study. Mean age was 29.73±3.87years. Majority were in the second trimester of pregnancy. About ninety-nine percent of participants brushed with toothbrushes and 63.4% used fluoride toothpaste. Three-tenth (29.7%) brushed twice daily. About half (45.5%) used medium bristled toothbrushes, and only 16.8% visited the Dentists during pregnancy. Reasons for non-attendance were lack of dental problems (83.3%), fear of dental instruments (8.3%) and treatments (3.6%), fear of pain (3.6%) and unpleasant past dental experience (1.2%). Clinical examination revealed that 45.4% had gingivitis. Almost 50% of those who said they had 1 or 2 dental problems had gingival bleeding. None of the participants had oral education before pregnancy. All had no knowledge of the relationship between oral health and pregnancy outcomes. About forty-four (44.6%) bled while brushing with gingival bleeding index of 1. Three-fifth had good oral hygiene. About 70% of participants who utilized dental services had CPI-Score of 0 as against 40% of those who did not.
... Periodontal status and treatment need was assessed with Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) 15 and oral hygiene status of pregnant women was assessed using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index OHI-S. 16 From CPI scores: Code 0 (Healthy periodontium), Code 1 (Mild gingivitis) and Code 2 (Established gingivitis) were considered as gingivitis; clinic (ANC)'s checklist doesn't include oral health screening during pregnancy in Bangladesh. ...
... Non-pregnant women and pregnant women who refused to participate, were unable to understand the nature and purpose of the Code 4 (Oral hygiene improvement, professional scaling and Complex specialized surgical treatment is needed). 15 Before data collection, the nature and purpose of the study was explained to respondents. Consent was obtained from all respondents. ...
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Background: The most common maternal oral diseases that potentially could bring adverse pregnancy outcome are periodontal diseases. So periodontal diseases during pregnancy require special attention. Oral health education is often not addressed with importance during antenatal counseling. Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the periodontal status, treatment needs and factors that influence periodontal diseases among pregnant women attending to antenatal clinic situated at Dhaka, Bangladesh. Material and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted including 170 pregnant women selected by convenience sampling technique. Data were collected by pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Periodontal assessment was done by Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need (CPITN) and oral hygiene status was assessed by the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S).The data analysis was done by SPSS software. Chi-square test was used for different variables. A probability value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of periodontal diseases among pregnant women was found 95.3% where it was 52.4% for gingivitis and 43% for periodontitis. Age, employment status, income, oral hygiene status, frequency of tooth brushing and dental visit, previous pregnancy and pregnancy trimester were found statistically associated with periodontal condition of pregnant women. 75.3% of the respondents had never gone for dental checkup and only 4.7% were found to receive oral hygiene instructions during pregnancy. Conclusion: Policy should be formulated to include oral health education and periodontal assessment in antenatal checklist to improve oral hygiene awareness and ensure healthy periodontium during pregnancy.
... Patients who refused dental and periodontal examination were excluded from the study. The examination included the plaque index (PI, Silness-Löe Index, 1963) [12], the community periodontal index (CPI) [13], dental caries and teeth vitality. The examination was performed by placing a dental explorer onto the distal part of the tooth surface and drawing it to the medial part on the facial as well as on the oral side of each present tooth. ...
... The mouth was divided into sextants defined by tooth numbers. The criteria for scoring were as follows (CPI): 0-healthy gingiva; 1-bleeding observed; 2-calculus or over hanged fillings and crowns detected during probing, but all the black band on the probe visible; 3-pocket 4-5 mm (gingival margin within the black band on the probe); 4-pocket 6 mm or more (black band on the probe not visible) [13]. Patients were allocated according to periodontal health into following groups: edentulous; healthy periodontal tissues; gingivitis (bleeding upon probing with more than 10% places, no alveolar bone resorption); and periodontitis (bleeding upon probing with more than 30% teeth and alveolar bone resorption). ...
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Background: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can induce serious oral complications, including oral mucositis (OM). The presence of periodontal inflammation before HSCT is believed to be associated with OM. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and severity of OM in patients undergoing HSCT and its relation to periodontal status. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective study of patients who underwent HSCT and a detailed dental examination between 2007 and 2015. The dental and periodontal status of all patients was evaluated by clinical and radiographic examination prior to HSCT. Oral health was assessed with the gingival index, the the community periodontal index, presence of plaque-related gingivitis, and marginal periodontitis. During the HSCT period, patients were examined daily for the presence of OM, which was graded according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification if present. The patients were assigned to the groups according to type of transplantation: autologous HSCT, myeloablative allogeneic HSCT, and non-myeloablative allogeneic HSCT. Results: A total of 496 patients were included in the study. OM was present in 314 of 496 patients (63.3%): 184/251 (73.3%) in the autologous group, 100/151 (66.2%) in the myeloablative allogeneic group, and 30/94 (31.9%) in the nonmyeloablative allogeneic group. Significantly more patients suffered from OM in the autologous and myeloablative groups versus the nonmyeloablative conditioning group (p < 0.001). The presence of periodontal inflammation did not significantly differ among the groups. There was only a borderline trend for the higher prevalence of OM in the non-myeloablative allogeneic nonmyeloablative group when periodontal inflammation was present (0.073939). Conclusions: Oral mucositis prevalence and severity after stem cell transplantation is not widely affected by the oral hygiene and periodontal disease presence before HSCT. We confirmed the wide-known connection of the conditioning regimen intensity to the prevalence of OM.
... The periodontal status of children with CP was evaluated using the community periodontal index (CPI) [17,18]. Then, the teeth status was examined for caries according to the Decayed, Missing, Filled (DMF) index [19]. ...
... (3) periodontal pocket depth of 4-5 mm; and (4) periodontal pocket ≥6 mm [17,18]. DMF index that was applied to the permanent and milk teeth using a CPI (WHO) probe, which considers fillings (F) and decayed (D) and missing (M) teeth in an individual [19]. ...
Article
Objectives: Musculoskeletal disorders in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) affect the general health of the mouth and teeth. This study aimed to determine periodontal and dental diseases in children with CP based on gross motor function level, manual ability level, and subtypes of CP. Methods: This research was a cross-sectional study performed on 123 children (3-18 years old) with CP referred to dentistry and rehabilitation centers supervised by Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2019-2020. They were selected by the convenience sampling method. The children were classified according to the gross motor function classification system: expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R) for their gross motor function level, according to the manual ability function classification system (MACS) and mini-MACS for the functioning of their hands in handling objects, and according to the quality and topographical pattern of motor impairment for subtypes of CP. The periodontal status of children with CP was evaluated according to the recommendation of the World Health Organization using the community periodontal index and for caries according to the decayed, missing, filled index. All statistical analyses were done by SPSS v. 16. Results: The results showed significant differences between periodontal disease and sex, age, GMFCS-E&R, MACS, mini-MACS levels, and subtypes of CP (P<0.05). But there were no significant differences between teeth diseases and oral motor skills with sex, age, MACS and mini-MACS, GMFCS-E&R levels, and subtypes of CP (P>0.05). Discussion: Periodontal disease and decayed, missing, filled teeth are common problems in CP children, and the conditions worsen with age and level IV and V of GMFCS-E&R and MACS.
... The term 'periodontal disease' encompasses a wide range of chronic inflammatory conditions of the gingiva, alveolar bone and periodontal ligaments which support the teeth. Periodontal disease always begins with gingivitis, the localized inflammation of the gingiva that is initiated by bacteria located in the dental plaque, which is a microbial biofilm that forms on the teeth (1) . ...
... Current clinical assessments used to determine periodontal disease severity, response to therapy and disease activity include: pocket depth, 1 clinical attachment level, bleeding upon probing, gingival inflammation, plaque presence or level of oral-hygiene care, suppuration and radiographic bone loss. An important caveat of periodontal disease diagnosis is that only after the biologic onset of the disease process will clinical assessments provide a diagnosis of periodontal disease (2,3) . ...
... Nigerian Journal of Dental Research | Volume 6 issue 1 "mild," "moderate," and "severe" gingival inflammation. The periodontal health and treatment needs assessment were determined using the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need (CPITN) by Ainamo et al. 23 The index separates the individuals into the type of treatments required. These include: "no need for treatment", "oral hygiene instructions (OHI)", "OHI, professional cleaning, removal of plaque retentive factors" and "Complex treatment to remove infected tissue" 23,24 . ...
... The periodontal health and treatment needs assessment were determined using the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need (CPITN) by Ainamo et al. 23 The index separates the individuals into the type of treatments required. These include: "no need for treatment", "oral hygiene instructions (OHI)", "OHI, professional cleaning, removal of plaque retentive factors" and "Complex treatment to remove infected tissue" 23,24 . The percentage of carious, missing and filled teeth were also assessed. ...
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Objective: To assess the oral health practices and status of workers attending an oral health outreach programme in a tertiary institution, in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among attendees of an oral-health outreach programme organized for the administrative staffs of the College of Medicine, University of Ibadan. Information on socio-demography, oral-health practices and self-perceived oral-health states were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Oral-hygiene status was assessed using Oral Hygiene Index (OHI), treatment-need assessed using the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need (CPITN) and caries level determined using WHO guidelines. Data were analyzed and presented as tables and figures.
... 17 En menores de 35 años los datos de prevalencia varían entre 25 y 54%. 13 El índice de necesidades de tratamiento periodontal en la comunidad (CPITN, por sus siglas en inglés) es un buen instrumento de tamizaje y, en sus niveles más altos, una forma indirecta de diagnóstico de EP 13,18,19 ya validado. 20 Por otra parte, el parto prematuro (PP) es definido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) como el nacimiento que ocurre antes de completarse las 37 semanas, es un problema de alta prevalencia con consecuencias inmediatas en la salud neonatal. ...
... La muestra se calculó tomando como base una prevalencia de 70% 12 con la fórmula n = . Se usó el índice CPITN, descrito por Ainamo y colegas; 19 este índice ha sido aceptado por organismos internacionales como la Organización Mundial de la Salud y la Federación Dental Internacional (OMS y FDI) y su confiabilidad es avalada hasta en 95%. 20 Es utilizado por instituciones educativas y gubernamentales, 18,19 es sencillo y de rápida aplicación. ...
... In addition, previous smokers were not included in non-smoker group. Subjects who had periodontal health of grades 1-3 based on the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) were included in the study (16). ...
... previous studies (15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21). ...
... Gingivial index [19,20], sulcus bleeding index [20], modified sulcus bleeding index [21], papillary bleeding index, bleeding on probing or brushing, and others Periodontal health Classification scheme for periodontal and peri-implant diseases and conditions [22] and others, community periodontal index CPITN index [23], measurement of attachment loss and pocket depth, bleeding on probing [24], and others Mucosa pathology ...
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Objectives The FDI criteria for the evaluation of direct and indirect dental restorations were first published in 2007 and updated in 2010. Meanwhile, their scientific use increased steadily, but several questions from users justified some clarification and improvement of the living document. Materials and methods An expert panel (N = 10) initiated the revision and consensus process that included a kick-off workshop and multiple online meetings by using the Delphi method. During and after each round of discussion, all opinions were collected, and the aggregated summary was presented to the experts aiming to adjust the wording of the criteria as precisely as possible. Finally, the expert panel agreed on the revision. Results Some categories were redefined, ambiguities were cleared, and the descriptions of all scores were harmonized to cross-link different clinical situations with possible management strategies: reviewing/monitoring (score 1–4), refurbishment/reseal (score 3), repair (score 4), and replacement (score 5). Functional properties (domain F: fracture of material and retention, marginal adaptation, proximal contact, form and contour, occlusion and wear) were now placed at the beginning followed by biological (domain B: caries at restoration margin, hard tissue defects, postoperative hypersensitivity) and aesthetic characteristics (domain A: surface luster and texture, marginal staining, color match). Conclusion The most frequently used eleven categories of the FDI criteria set were revised for better understanding and handling. Clinical relevance The improved description and structuring of the criteria may help to standardize the evaluation of direct and indirect restorations and may enhance their acceptance by researchers, teachers, and dental practitioners.
... [6] Periodontal status was assessed by the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs index (CPITN). [7] Children below the age of 15 years were assessed for bleeding and calculus only to avoid the recording deepened sulci associated with eruption as periodontal pockets, while gingival bleeding, calculus, and periodontal pockets for 15 years and above. ...
... Die Art der koronalen Versorgung wurde protokolliert. Mittels Spiegel, Luftbläser und (Ainamo et al., 1982;Cutress et al., 1987). Wurde in einem Sextanten der Grad 3 oder 4 bestimmt, so wurde der/die Studienteilnehmer/-in als parodontal erkrankt klassifiziert. ...
Thesis
Bei der vorliegenden Arbeit handelt es sich um eine klinische und radiologische Nachuntersuchung von insgesamt 114 Patientinnen und Patienten, die zwischen 2009 und 2012 in der Poliklinik für Zahnerhaltung und Parodontologie der Universität Würzburg von approbierten Zahnärztinnen und Zahnärzten endodontisch behandelt wurden. Dabei kamen drei verschiedene Obturationsmethoden zum Einsatz. 1. Single-Cone-Technik mit Guttapercha und AH Plus® (SCGP) 2. Single-Cone-Technik mit Guttapercha und GuttaFlow® (SCGF) 3. Adhäsive Obturation in Continuous-Wave-Technik mit Resilon® (CWR) Die Erhebung der Ausgangsvariablen (zum Behandlungszeitpunkt) erfolgte retrospektiv unter Zuhilfenahme der klinischen und radiologischen Dokumentation. Die Reevaluation des periapikalen Zustands der Zähne und die Erhebung weiterer klinischer Parameter erfolgte im Rahmen eines aktiven Patientenrecalls nach durchschnittlich 6,3 Jahren. Dabei wurden mit möglichst hoher Standardisierung postoperative Einzelzahnaufnah-men angefertigt. Diese wurden anhand der PAI-Klassifikation ausgewertet, um den pe-riapikalen Zustand der Zähne vor und nach Therapie zu bestimmen. PAI-Werte von 1 und 2 galten als Behandlungserfolg, Grad 3 bis 5 als Misserfolg. Im Hinblick auf die de-finierten Arbeitshypothesen wurden die Erfolgsraten innerhalb der Kohorten miteinander verglichen. Das vorrangige Ziel der hier vorliegenden Arbeit war, zu untersuchen, ob der endodontische Behandlungserfolg abhängig von der jeweiligen Obturationsmethode ist und ob technikspezifische Unterschiede sich einerseits auf die Qualität der Obturation und andererseits auf das Auftreten möglicher Komplikationen, wie der periapikalen Extrusion von Wurzelfüllmaterial, auswirken. Ferner sollten diese Aspekte neben weite-ren zahn- und patientenbezogenen Variablen bezüglich ihres Einflusses auf die Erfolgs-rate der endodontischen Therapie analysiert werden. Es konnten keine signifikanten Unterschiede der endodontischen Erfolgsraten zwischen den hier untersuchten Obturationsmethoden ermittelt werden (p = ,16). In der SCGP-Kohorte lag die Erfolgsrate bei 85 % (34/40) verglichen mit 68,8 % (44/64) für CWR und 80 % (8/10) für SCGF. Die Homogenität der Obturation (p = ,2) und die Extrusion von Wurzelfüllmaterial in das periapikale Gewebe (p = ,93) zeigten keine Abhängigkeit von der gewählten Obturationstechnik. Die Länge der Wurzelkanalfüllung hingegen unter-schied sich signifikant zwischen den Kohorten (p = ,04*). Die Obturation mittels SCGP-Technik erzielte den höchsten Anteil adäquater Wurzelkanalfüllungen (92,5 %, 37/40) gegenüber SCGF (80 %, 8/10) und CWR (71,88 %, 46/64). Die CWR-Methode zeigte mit 18,8 % (12/64) den höchsten Anteil an unterfüllten Obturationen (SCGP: 7,5 %, 3/40; SCGF: 0 %). Unabhängig von der Obturationsmethodik zeigte sich der endodontische Behandlungs-erfolg im Allgemeinen unbeeinflusst von der Qualität der Wurzelkanalfüllungen. Die Va-riablen Obturationslänge (p = ,12) und -homogenität (p = ,11) sowie die Extrusion von Wurzelfüllmaterial in die periapikale Region (p = 1,00) zeigten keinen signifikanten Ein-fluss auf die Erfolgsrate. Das Durchschnittsalter im Patientenkollektiv betrug 60 Jahre mit einer tendenziellen Überrepräsentation weiblicher Probandinnen (60,5 %, 69/114). 73 % (81/111, 3 Mis-sings) der Studienteilnehmer/-innen wurden ab einem PSI-Grad von 3 als parodontal erkrankt eingestuft und 23,7 % (27/114) zeigten eine positive Raucheranamnese. Der BMI betrug im Durchschnitt 26,3 kg/m2. 42,3 % (47/111, 3 Missings) der Studienteil-nehmer/-innen wurden anhand der Einnahme von Medikamenten zur Therapie bzw. Prävention von kardiovaskulären Erkrankungen und/oder oraler Antidiabetika als chro-nisch erkrankt klassifiziert (chronic disease medication, CDM). Das Recallintervall be-trug durchschnittlich 6,3 Jahre mit einem Minimum von 4,7 und einem Maximum von 8,7 Jahren. Die patientenbezogenen Variablen Alter (p = ,45), Geschlecht (p = ,67), Pa-rodontitis (p = ,08), BMI (p = ,58), CDM (p = ,19), Recallintervall (p = ,08) und Rauchen (p = ,34) zeigten keinen signifikanten Einfluss auf den endodontischen Behandlungser-folg. Unter den zahnbezogenen Variablen beeinflusste lediglich der präoperative apikale Sta-tus den endodontischen Erfolg signifikant (p = ,007*). Zähne mit präoperativer apikaler Läsion zeigten eine Erfolgsrate von 66,2 % (47/71) gegenüber 90,7 % (n = 39/43) bei Fällen ohne apikale Läsion. Die Misserfolgswahrscheinlichkeit bei Vorliegen einer präoperativen Läsion war um den Faktor 4,98 erhöht (OR = 4,98, 95 % KI: 1.60, 15,57, p = ,006*). Zwischen Kompositfüllungen, Teilkronen, Vollkronen, Teleskopkronen und Brückenversorgungen konnten keine relevanten Unterschiede in den Erfolgsraten er-mittelt werden (p = ,29). Gleiches galt für adäquate (76,6 %, 82/107) und inadäquate (57,1 %, 4/7) Restaurationen (p = ,36). Ebenso zeigten die Erfolgsraten von Wurzelka-nalrevisionen (70,5 %, 31/44) und Primärbehandlungen (78,6 %, 55/70) keine signifikan-ten Abweichungen voneinander (p = ,45). Molaren waren im Studienkollektiv mit 56,1 % (64/114) gegenüber Prämolaren und Frontzähnen mit je 21,9 % (25/114) überrepräsen-tiert. Der Zahntyp (p = ,07) und die Ausgangsdiagnose (p = ,22) stellten keine relevanten Einflussfaktoren des endodontischen Erfolgs dar.
... ED-diagnosed subjects were screened for their periodontal health on site using the basic periodontal examination (BPE), following the community periodontal index (CPI) protocol (Cutress et al., 1987). BPE is a method for periodontal screening and recording, using Ivoclar Vivadent Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs C (CPITN C) round handle probe (product number #718283) that has a 0.5 mm ball tip and is colour-coded black from 3.5 mm to 5.5 mm and 7.5 mm to 9.5 mm. ...
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Erectile dysfunction (ED) and periodontitis have common risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus and tobacco smoking. Multiple reports are available in regard to the association between ED and chronic periodontitis (CP). The study aimed to determine the association of ED and CP in selected Malaysian population. In this study, 74 patients (mean age = 52.4 ± 10.9 years old) diagnosed with ED, from scores via the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire, were included. ED severity was classified as mild, mild to moderate, moderate, and severe. Periodontal condition was recorded using basic periodontal examination (BPE) method, of which scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3 were associated with having no periodontitis while a score of 4 was considered to have periodontitis. There are 40 (54.1%) subjects found to have periodontitis and the association of ED and periodontitis showed a moderate positive degree of correlation, ρ = 0.487 (p < 0.001). The percentage of subjects having periodontitis indicated an increasing trend with the severity of ED; from 19.0% (mild ED), 54.2% (mild to moderate ED), 75.0% (moderate ED), to 84.6% (severe ED). A greater degree of correlation was noted between dental scaling experience and ED, ρ = 0.635 (p < 0.001). Binomial logistic regression had shown no other co-morbidities and factors were affecting this relation. There seemed to be an association between ED and periodontitis existing in these selected Malaysian populations.
... The plaque index of the patient was obtained by summing the indices for all the six teeth and dividing by six. Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) was used to evaluate their periodontal health and oral hygiene status [12]. The CPITN periodontal probe was used to measure pocket depth, and teeth numbers 16, 11, 26, 36, 41 and 46 were used as index teeth for the CPI readings. ...
Article
Introduction: fisherfolk play a major role in emerging economies such as Ghana. While many fishing communities are noted to be underdeveloped, fisherfolk are considered to neglect their oral hygiene, while being prone to certain conditions due to peculiar risks. The purpose of this study was to determine the periodontal health status of adults in a selected fishing community in Ghana. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the periodontal status of adults in Jamestown, a peri-urban area in Ghana. Data acquisition was by means of a structured questionnaire and periodontal examination. Information obtained consisted of demographic data (age, sex, education and occupation category) oral hygiene practices (type of teeth cleaning materials, methods of tooth cleansing, frequency of dental visits and reasons for the visit) and periodontal clinical parameters (plaque index, and community periodontal index of treatment needs). Results: a total of 276 participants were included in the study, with ages ranging from 21 to 70 years. The participants were made up of 138 fisherfolk and 138 non-fisherfolk. Males had worse scores for periodontal disease compared to females. Plaque score did not vary among age groups, but changed significantly between educational level and occupational categories. CPITN varied significantly between educational levels, age categories and occupational categories. Conclusion: the study found inhabitants of the fishing community of Jamestown to have a generally unsatisfactory periodontal status, but worse for the fisherfolk in the community.
... It allows evaluation of the need for oral health interventions and strategies, to prevent dental decay [29,30]. The Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs was proposed in 1977 by the World Health Organization to measure periodontal disease and evaluate the treatment needs of populations [35][36][37]. ...
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Introduction. The oral health conditions of migrants coming from middle- and low-income countries to developed countries have been shown to be poorer than those of the host population. Since the phenomenon of migration has continued to grow over the past five decades, the oral health status of migrant populations should be an issue of great concern. Objectives. The objective of our observational study was to analyse the periodontal health status and the prevalence of dental caries and lesions of the oral mucosa in a migrant cohort resident in Italy, assessing the association between the oral health status and the educational level of the included patients. Materials and Methods. Our research was conducted at the dental department of Policlinico Tor Vergata (Rome, Italy). A sample of 200 migrants coming from middle- and low-income countries, aged between 3 and 37, was included in our study. Each patient underwent a physical examination of the oral cavity, recording the DMFT/dmft index, Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPI), and lesions of the oral mucosa. The one-way ANOVA test was used to establish the correlation between the oral health status and the educational level of the participants. Results. Many participants (62.5%) showed a DMFT/dmft Index ≥ 4; only 27% of the migrants had a DMFT/dmft Index lower than 4, and only 21 of them (10.5%) were recorded at 0. A CPI equal to 0 or 1 was observed in 131 patients (65.5%), while only 30 participants presented a CPI equal to or higher than 4 (15%), and 19.5% (39 patients) were assigned to code 2 and 3. Significant statistical differences were found in the CPI after adjusting data for the educational level of the included participants (p-value < 0.01). Conclusions. The data obtained in our research highlighted poor oral conditions among the analysed migrant population, recording a high prevalence of dental caries and inadequate oral hygiene habits.
... Bleeding on probing (BOP) and probing depth were assessed at six sites (mesiobuccal, midbuccal, distobuccal, mesiolingual, midlingual, and distolingual) for each individual tooth. According to the community periodontal index for treatment needs (CPITN) [16], at least one ≥ 4 mm periodontal pocket indicates moderate periodontitis and at least one ≥ 6 mm periodontal pocket indicates severe periodontitis. Therefore, patients with ≥4 mm pockets and those with 6 mm pockets were investigated in this study. ...
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Background and Objectives: Candida albicans can be detected in subgingival sites of patients with periodontitis. However, the association between oral Candida albicans and periodontitis has not been fully elucidated in Japanese adults. The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between oral Candida albicans infection/co-infection of oral C. albicans and Porphyromonas gingivalis and periodontitis among middle-aged and older Japanese people. Materials and Methods: Eighty-six patients (mean age 70.4 years) who visited the Hiroshima University Hospital from April to September 2021 were investigated in this study. Oral swab samples were collected from the tongue surface. C. albicans and P. gingivalis DNA was detected by real-time PCR using specific DNA primer sets. C. albicans-positive participants were classified into two groups according to the presence or absence of intron insertion of C. albicans DNA by PCR analysis. Results: C. albicans was detected in 22 (25.6%) of the 86 patients. Patients in their 80s recorded a higher C. albicans-positive rate (35.3%) compared with other participants. However, there was no significant association between the C. albicans positivity rate and clinical parameters such as sex, age, systemic disease, denture use, or oral health status. Of the 22 C. albicans-positive participants, 10 participants (45.5%) had C. albicans with intron insertion; 70% of participants who had C. albicans with intron insertion exhibited ≥6 mm probing depth. C. albicans/P. gingivalis co-infection was found in 12 patients (14%). Importantly, binomial logistic regression analysis revealed that C. albicans/P. gingivalis co-infection was significantly associated with ≥6 mm periodontal pockets with bleeding on probing (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Co-infection of C. albicans and P. gingivalis is involved in active periodontitis in middle-aged and older people.
... There is some resistance to introducing oral health promotion programs in the workplace from the management of such workplaces, from the dental profession, and from 2 of 11 employees [9]. For example, the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) is often used for the screening of periodontal disease in public health [10]; however, qualified examiners are needed to perform the probing procedure. In addition, considerable time and effort are also required when screening for periodontal disease in a large number of subjects. ...
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Studies suggest that intensive oral health promotion programs in the workplace reduce dental and medical care expenditures. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the short version of an oral health promotion program in the workplace from the viewpoint of dental and medical care expenditures. Data for annual expenditures and number of days of dental, periodontal, and medical treatment in fiscal year 2018 and participation in the short version of a workplace oral health promotion program of 2545 workers (20–68 years old) in a company in fiscal year 2017 and prior were obtained. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models or negative binomial regression models were used to evaluate the association between participation in the program and expenditures or number of days of treatment after adjusting for sex and age. Program participants were more likely than non-participants to visit dentists for dental and periodontal treatment. Those who participated twice or more spent less on dental, periodontal, and medical treatment and had fewer visits to dentists than non-participants. These results suggest that the short version of an oral health promotion program in the workplace decreases expenditures for dental, periodontal, and medical treatment.
... En 2015, Bourgeois et al. ont montré que l'utilisation d'une sonde colorimétrique calibrée permettait de déterminer le diamètre de la BID adapté à l'EI de manière plus efficace qu'en l'absence de sonde(345). Cette sonde colorimétrique calibrée qui comporte 5 couleurs différentes correspondant aux différents diamètre des BIDs, est basée sur le modèle de sonde à indice parodontale communautaire de l'OMS (Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs CPITN)(Figure 27A)(346,347). Après introduction de l'embout de la sonde à la base du site interdentaire avec une pression d'environ 50 N/cm 2 (force de 0,20 g)(345,348), la couleur visible qui émerge du côté vestibulaire lorsque la sonde calibrée bloque dans l'espace correspond au diamètre de la BID adapté à l'EI. ...
Thesis
Le microbiote commensal de la sphère buccale, écosystème complexe, joue un rôle essentiel dans le maintien de la santé orale et systémique. Une relation homéostatique s’établit entre l’hôte et son microbiote résidant. Une perturbation de cet équilibre finement régulé, appelée dysbiose, favorise l’apparition de pathologies bucco-dentaires. A l’intérieur de cette sphère, les espaces interdentaires sont des niches écologiques riches en microorganismes commensaux et pathogènes. Ils restent un défi majeur pour la garantie d’une prophylaxie individuelle de qualité, car inaccessibles aux méthodes traditionnelles de désorganisation du biofilm par voie mécanique et/ou chimique. Notre recherche porte sur l’évaluation clinique de l’efficacité de mesures de prophylaxie orale individuelle des espaces interdentaires chez l’adulte jeune. Elle s’articule autour de deux axes : la désorganisation mécanique du biofilm et l’action chimique. Ainsi, sont évaluées l’efficacité de l’utilisation de brossettes interdentaires calibrées et l’efficacité d’un dentifrice/bain de bouche à base d’extrait de feuille de Carica papaya contenant des flavonoïdes antioxydants, sur la réduction de l’inflammation du parodonte interdentaire cliniquement sain, objectivée par l’évolution du saignement gingival. De même est évaluée la mise en oeuvre de modules d’enseignement théoriques et pratiques auprès des étudiants nécessaires à la transmission d’une connaissance de qualité. En conclusion, ce travail apporte des recommandations pour une orientation novatrice de la valorisation et de l’efficience de la prophylaxie individuelle en santé bucco-dentaire.
... Este índice proporciona mediciones estandarizadas y comparables entre poblaciones con necesidades de tratamiento, lo que facilita, por parte de los planificadores de salud, tomar decisiones para implementar programas que limiten el daño en la comunidad. 7,8 El objetivo del presente estudio fue comparar la salud periodontal de embarazadas y no embarazadas concurrentes al Hospital Materno Provincial de la Ciudad de Córdoba mediante la aplicación del Índice Periodontal Comunitario (IPC). ...
Article
Objetivo: Comparar la salud periodontal de embarazadas y no embarazadas mediante la aplicación del Índice de Periodontal Comunitario (IPC). Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional de corte transversal. Se reclutaron 100 mujeres embarazadas (EMB) y 50 no embarazadas (NoEMB) que concurrieron al Hospital Materno Provincial de la Ciudad de Córdoba, Dr. Raúl F. Lucini. En todas se registró el IPC con la sonda periodontal WHO 621 en los 6 sextantes de la boca. Los datos se analizaron con el software Infostat/SP; el nivel de significación establecido fue de P <0,05. Resultados: El 70% de las pacientes presentó edades de entre 18 y 25 años. En las EMB el código 3 del IPC fue el más frecuente presente en 240 sextantes (40,1%) y en las NoEMB el código 2 fue el más frecuente con 39 sextantes (43%). A ambos grupos de estudio les corresponde el tratamiento de instrucción de higiene bucal, instrumentación supra y/o subgingival, y/o regularización de obturaciones. Conclusiones: El código 3 fue el más frecuente entre las EMB, a quienes les corresponde un Código de tratamiento periodontal (CTP) 2; las NoEMB presentaron un IPC de 1 y 2 como los más frecuentes y se vinculan con un CTP 1 y 2. Nos encontramos frente a una situación clínica periodontal posible de resolver con terapia básica que puede ser realizada por odontólogos generalistas. Palabras clave: CTP, enfermedades periodontales, IPC, IPCNT, mujeres embarazadas, tratamiento periodontal.
... The patients' CPI was determined as the highest score given to their gingiva [21]. ...
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Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a major global issue. HIV-infected patients commonly experience oral health problems. This study aimed to assess oral health status of the patients and its related factors in Shiraz, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, by using simple random sampling, 250 HIV-infected patients were selected from Shiraz Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center in 2019. Patients' decayed, missing, and filled tooth (DMFT) index, plaque index (PI), and community periodontal index (CPI) were determined. Associations between patients' characteristics and the above-mentioned indices were examined by using Pearson correlation, one-way ANOVA, chi-square, and independent sample T test. The effect of possible confounding factors was controlled by using multiple linear regression and logistic models. Results: Of the 222 participants, 111 (50%) had 15 or more missing teeth and 79 (35.6%) were edentulous. Their mean (SD) DMFT and PI were 20.71 (10.74) and 1.11 (0.79), respectively. About 40% of them had healthy gingiva. DMFT (p < 0.001), PI (p < 0.001), and CPI (p = 0.002) were significantly worse in men than women. The patients' DMFT and edentulous status were significantly associated with their age (both p < 0.001) and duration of disease (p = 0.001 and p = 0.008, respectively). Unemployed patients had the worst DMFT, PI, and CPI (all p < 0.001) and the highest percentage of edentulous individuals (p = 0.003). All examined indices were significantly worse in cigarette smokers, alcoholics, addicts, and patients with a previous history of imprisonment (all p < 0.001). The odds ratio of being edentulous was 5.74 times in addicted patients than in non-addicted ones (p < 0.001). The odds increased 0.11 with every year that the patients' age increased (p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression models also showed that the addicted patients had significantly more scores in DMFT index, PI, and CPI (all p < 0.001). Conclusions: Overall, oral health status of the HIV-infected patients was unsatisfactory. Therefore, effective interventional programs are needed for prevention and early treatment of dental problems among this population, especially for more vulnerable groups such as older men with low socioeconomic status, and those with high-risk behaviors.
... The clinical examination was performed by M.M., a dentist with more than 30 years of experience in periodontal diagnosis and therapy. The examination included the recording of the following outcomes: simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI) [79], for the presence of debris/stain and tartar on the dental elements; Plaque Control Record (PCR) [80], to assess the presence of plaque on the dental elements; Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) [81,82], to evaluate gingival inflammation; and Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPTIN) [83], to assess periodontal treatment needs. ...
Article
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Periodontal disease seems to be correlated with low vitamin D serum levels, preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW), although the literature still lacks a consensus. This study aimed to investigate this correlation in a cohort of pregnant women over 20 weeks of gestation from the University Hospital “Maggiore della Carità”, Novara, Italy. We assessed serum levels of vitamin D and oral health status through the following indexes: Oral Hygiene Index (OHI), Plaque Control Record (PCR), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), and Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPTIN). Moreover, we assessed the number of PTB and LBW among the newborns. Out of 121 pregnant women recruited, 72 (mean age 29.91 � 3.64 years) were included. There was a statistically significant correlation between preterm and OHI > 3 (p = 0.033), and between LBW and OHI > 3 (p = 0.005) and CPITN = 3 (p = 0.027). Both pregnant women with vitamin D deficiency ((25-hydroxy-vitamin D) < 30 ng/mL) and PTB plus LBW newborns were significantly correlated (p < 0.05) with poor levels of all oral health status indexes during pregnancy. Furthermore, these conditions (women with hypovitaminosis D and combination of PTB and LBW) were shown to be significantly correlated (p < 0.001). Taken together, our findings reported a high prevalence of PTB and LBW with poor oral health and vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women.
... The first dialogue box represented the arch (upper/lower) and the second box denoted the teeth affected. Periodontal status of participants was assessed through the community periodontal index (CPI) and loss of attachment (LOA) [17]. Six dialogue boxes each representing the index teeth were formulated. ...
Article
Background: Smartphone compared to the traditional pen-paper method could enhance oral health data recording procedure by reducing the cost of data collection, risk of data loss, early detection of errors and reducing data entry time. The present research developed a mobile/tablet-based software application to capture oral health data and test its adaptability and operations in oral health surveys. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among the general population of Sanwer town, Indore district. The initial testing of the application was done on 120 individuals. A random sampling (lottery method) followed by a systematic sampling strategy was employed to select 120 households. A "one per household" design was implemented for the survey. The initial oral health data collection was done using mobile-assisted software application followed by a second examination scheduled after 15 days on the same participants using the conventional Pen-paper method to collect oral health data. Results: Six Investigator Recorder (IR) teams conducted the oral health data collection. Data collection through Smartphone-based application displayed less meantime (3.57 minutes) in comparison to pen-paper method (4.87 minutes) (p≤0.001). Survey team response showed the majority of investigators having strong agreement on user satisfaction and speed of data entry using software application. Conclusion: The initial testing of mobile-assisted recording system (MARS) efficiently captured oral health data among the general population with wide variations in oral disease level. The application facilitated minimal or no wastage of paper and had a high level of user-satisfaction, accuracy, speed of entry and low potential for any data loss.
... presence or absence of LC family history, and presence or absence of previous lung disease (COPD, TBC, ILF). PPD index was categorized as 0-3.00 mm (no disease/mild disease) and ≥ 4.0 mm (moderate and severe disease) for mean PPD [49] and tooth loss as none, 1-4, 5-10, >10 missing teeth [50]. ...
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Aim: The purpose of the current case-control study was to assess the possible relationships between the number of missing teeth and the risk of lung carcinoma in outpatients Greek individuals of three private practices. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 155 cases diagnosed with various histological types of lung carcinoma and 450 age, gender and socioeconomic status matched controls. Data on oral health and the number of missing teeth were obtained through dental examination and questionnaire including aspects of their medical and dental history. Odds ratios (OR's) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI's) were assessed using a logistic regression model adjusted for possible confounders. Results: The multivariate regression analysis model application showed that smoking (p=0.000, OR= 3.192, 95% CI= 2.065-4.933), deep periodontal pockets (p= 0.048, OR= 1.89, 95% CI=1.221-2.927) and a number of missing teeth more than four (p=0.032, OR=1.67, 95% CI= 0.489-1.953 and p= 0.047, OR=1.884, 95% CI= 0.495-1.209) were statistically significantly associated with risk for LC development. Conclusion: Individuals with deep periodontal pockets and a number of missing teeth more than four were at significantly higher risk for lung carcinoma.
... According to age the participants were categorized as 40-49, 50-59, 60 +, educational level as elementary level, graduated from University/College; socio-economic status as ≤ 1,000 and >1,000 €/month; smoking status as never smokers and former/current smokers; presence or absence of DM; presence or absence of hypertension; frequency of a regular dental follow-up as ≤ 2 examinations/year and >2 times/year; frequency of tooth brushing as ≤ 2 times/daily and >2 times/daily.PD indices were categorized as 0-3.00 mm (no disease/mild disease) and ≥ 4.0 mm (moderate and severe disease) for mean PPD [30], ≤ 3.00 mm (slight) and ≥3.00 mm (moderate and severe) for mean CAL [31], and BOP as present or not within 30 seconds following probing with gentle pressure at six sites per tooth [32]. ...
Article
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The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence and extent of Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL) and to find out variables associated with CAL in a Greek adult population older than 40 years of age. The study sample consisted of 1,240 adults, 580 males and 660 females who were patients of three private practices. The participants were interviewed and underwent an oral clinical examination. CAL assessment was carried out on six sites for each tooth. Prevalence and severity of CAL and the association with variables such as age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES), educational level, smoking status, frequency of tooth brushing and dental follow-up, glucose, and blood pressure levels, probing pocket depth (PPD) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were assessed, using univariate and multivariate regression models. The prevalence of CAL≥3.0 mm was 22.1% for both genders, whereas the regression model showed that lower SES (p=0.001), smoking (p< 0.001), irregular daily tooth brushing (p=0.013), BOP (p<0.001) and deeper periodontal pockets (p=0.001) were statistically significantly associated with CAL severity. Poor oral hygiene as expressed by PPD, BOP and irregular daily tooth brushing, lower SES and smoking, were significantly associated with CAL severity.
... The CPITN has been used widely to plan for health services; furthermore, the data retrieved from it provide a base to determine the needs of the overall population in terms of the requirements for specific types of treatment and the clinical personnel involved in periodontal care. 2 A series of global epidemiological studies of periodontal disease have indicated that probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss improved in the United Kingdom and the United States between 1988 and 2004. However, the prevalence of periodontal disease increased in other countries over the same period. ...
Article
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Background and Objective: This study identifies the prevalence and severity of periodontal diseases in a given population of Sulaimani using the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) and attempts to find the relation of CPITN with age, sex, location, visit to dentist, tooth brushing, use of mouth wash and interdental aids, systemic disease, smoking status and missing teeth. Methods: Periodontal examinations were performed using CPITN, plaque index (PI) and bleeding index (BI). Other data including location, visit to dentist, tooth brushing, use of mouth wash and interdental aids, presence of systemic diseases, smoking status and missing teeth were also collected. The data were subjected to logistic regression to find a relation between periodontal status and other variables. Results: Among the 1354 subjects examined, 43.6% were male and the majority of these (80.9%) were from urban areas. The mean PI and BI were 0.64±24 and 0.39±0.28, respectively. Calculus was the most prevalent highest score amongst examined subjects (62.2%), followed by shallow pocket (22.2%) and bleeding (9%). Among the sextants, lower central sextants were found to have the highest percentage of calculus. The highest percentages of shallow and deep pockets were found at upper left (14%, 2.5%, respectively) and upper right (11.4%, 3.2%, respectively) sextants. Logistic regression analysis showed that age, sex, frequency of brushing and smoking significantly correlated with CPITN scores. Conclusion: Prevalence and severity of periodontal diseases are high in the examined population and age, sex, brushing and smoking were shown to have an impact on periodontal condition.
... All clinical and radiological measurements were performed by a calibrated dentist (LW). Initial clinical soft tissue parameters were recorded by using the periodontal probe as recommended by the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) [17]. Changes in peri-implant soft tissue height and probing depths, as well as any signs of bleeding/suppuration or implant mobility were recorded at the end of clinical follow-up. ...
Article
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Background: As a consequence of tooth loss due to trauma or extraction, a reduced alveolar crest volume limits the deployment of standard implants in certain patient cases. For this reason, minimal-invasive treatment with mini-dental implants (MDI) might be an option to allow implant treatment even in cases with severe horizontal bone loss without augmentation measures. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate clinical and radiological implant, as well as patient-related parameters after treatment with MDI. Results: Clinical and radiological records of 19 female (82.6%) and 4 male patients (17.4%) (N = 23), who received 52 mini-dental implants with a two-piece design in a single surgical center between November 2011 and October 2018, were retrospectively analyzed. Implants were submitted to conventional loading on different types of screwed superstructures. Crestal bone loss was measured on standardized periapical radiographs. Patient-related outcome parameters (PROMs) were recorded during follow-up period. Mean clinical and radiological follow-up was 69.6 months (5.8 years) and 51.6 months (4.3 years), respectively. Three implants were lost in two patients, leading to an implant survival rate of 94.2%. Mean radiological crestal bone loss was 1.6 mm. Both amount of peri-implant recession and crestal bone loss were significantly correlated (r = 0.65; p < 0.001). Likewise, a significant correlation was observed between deeper probing depths and increased peri-implant bone loss (r = 0.41; p = 0.012). Alveolar ridges with a reduced alveolar crest width were significantly correlated with higher peri-implant bone loss as well (r = - 0.33; p = 0.011). No prosthetic complications were reported during follow-up. Extent of midfacial recession and papilla height loss had a significant negative impact on most of the PROMs. Conclusions: Treatment with MDI seems to be a successful alternative treatment option, especially for elderly patients with reduced crest width at implant sites. Due to the good clinical results and high survival and success rates, this treatment option was associated with high patient satisfaction. Despite the promising results, particular consideration should be given to appropriate treatment planning in these patients due to the strong correlation between peri-implant soft-tissue parameters, crestal bone loss, and reduced alveolar crest width.
... The patients' CPI was determined as the highest score given to their gingiva (21). ...
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Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a major global issue. HIV-infected patients commonly experience oral health problems. This study aimed to assess oral health status of the patients and its related factors in Shiraz, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, by using simple random sampling, 250 HIV-infected patients were selected from Shiraz Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center in 2019. Patients' decayed, missing, and filled tooth (DMFT) index, plaque index (PI), and community periodontal index (CPI) were determined. Associations between patients' characteristics and the above-mentioned indices were examined by using Pearson correlation, one way ANOVA, chi-square, and independent sample T test. Results: Of the 222 participants, 111 (50%) had 15 or more missed teeth and 79 (35.6%) were edentulous. Their mean (SD) DMFT and PI were 20.71 (10.74) and 1.11 (0.79), respectively. About 40% of them had healthy gingiva. DMFT (p<0.001), PI (p<0.001), and CPI (p=0.002) were significantly worse in men than women. The patients' DMFT and edentulous status were significantly associated with their age (both p<0.001) and duration of disease (p=0.001 and p=0.008, respectively). Unemployed patients had the worst DMFT, PI, and CPI (all p<0.001) and the highest percentage of edentulous individuals (p=0.003). All examined indices were significantly worse in cigarette smokers, alcoholics, addicts, and patients with a previous history of imprisonment (all p<0.001). Conclusions: Overall, oral health status of the HIV-infected patients was unsatisfactory, which might indicate their inadequate access to dental services. Therefore, effective interventional programs are needed for prevention and early treatment of dental problems among this population, especially for more vulnerable groups such as older men with low socioeconomic status, and those with high-risk behaviors.
... The cross-sectional study was conducted at partner sites Institute (HPI) [18,19]. The examiners and study personnel were ...
... De même, l'accessibilité des zones à nettoyer est un critère fondamental pour motiver les utilisateurs. La mise au point de sondes colorimétriques de diamètre progressif, fondées sur le modèle de sonde à indice parodontale communautaire de l'OMS (Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs, CPITN) apparaît comme indispensable dans le choix du diamètre optimal des BIDs ( fig. 10 et 11) [101,102]. En 2015, Bourgeois et al. ont montré que l'utilisation d'une sonde colorimétrique permettait de déterminer le diamètre de la BID adapté à l'espace interdentaire de manière plus efficace qu'en l'absence de sonde [103]. Concrètement, la procédure consiste à introduire la sonde colorimétrique, ou mesureur, dans l'espace interdentaire vestibulaire, en l'insérant complétement, puis en notant la couleur émergeant de l'espace interdentaire du côté vestibulaire. ...
Article
Pour le Pr Anne-Marie Musset (UFR Odontologie, Université de Strasbourg), présidente du CNCDUSP, promouvoir la prévention des maladies bucco-dentaires et évaluer les mesures de prévention mises à la disposition du public est l'une des missions des universitaires de santé publique. Les brossettes se révèlent universelles et efficaces pour l'élimination du biofilm interdentaire. Elles méritent tout notre intérêt.
... The sample of women in different stages of gestation (first, second and third trimester) were subsequently subjected to oral examination to detect the presence of oral mucosal diseases, dental charting and periodontal health assessment. The examination of the oral cavity allowed the calculation of the DMFT score and the need for periodontal treatment using the CPITN (Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs) index 27,28 . ...
Article
Objective: To evaluate changes in pH and Flow Rate (FR) of the Unstimulated Whole Saliva (UWS) in a sample of pregnant women in different gestational periods. Patients and methods: After collecting demographic data and medical histories, as well as conducting an oral examination, a sample of pregnant women were instructed on how to prepare prior to the sample collection. At a time between 11.00 and 12.00 a.m., they were subjected to salivary collection (spitting method, time 5 minutes); the measurement of FR was carried out using a professionally calibrated precision scale and the pH with a portable pH meter. Results: The average FR of the women's detected sample (0.40 ± 0.20 ml/min) was lower than that of non-pregnant women (0.48 ± 0.15 ml/min) of the same age (p <0.05). We observed an increase (p <0.001) of FR in the first trimester (0.56 ± 0.20 ml/min) compared to second (0.34 ± 0.14 ml/min) and third (0.31 ± 0.14 ml/min) trimester. The salivary pH of pregnant women was lower than the one detected in the non-pregnant women's sample (p <0.0001). Conclusions: Our study highlighted an increase in the FR in the first trimester compared to that detected in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy which viceversa was lower than the average FR in non-pregnant women. This data, combined with the decrease in salivary pH, supports the hypothesis that correlates the FR increase with the attempt to counter the decrease in pH due to gastric regurgitation frequent in the first trimester. Further studies are necessary to evaluate salivary FR and pH in pregnant women samples related to the emesis phenomenon.
... Periodontal disease variables. The participants individually underwent a periodontal assessment according to the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) from code 0 to code 4 (code 0: healthy periodontal conditions, code 1: gingival bleeding on probing, code 2: calculus and bleeding, code 3: periodontal pocket 4-5 mm, and code 4: periodontal pocket Ն6 mm) (24,25), after which they were sorted into two groups, namely, the non-periodontal disease group (non-PD) for CPI codes 0-2 and the periodontal disease group (PD) for CPI codes 3-4. ...
Article
Dietary habits of middle-aged and elderly individuals affected by periodontal disease (PD) differ from those who are unaffected by it, according to previous reports. However, in young adults, there are only a few reports that show a correlation between nutrient/food intake and PD. Moreover, no report till date has assessed the correlation between dietary habits and PD using a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ). Therefore, we assessed this correlation using a DHQ in young adult women who are likely to develop PD. The participants were enrolled from 2 universities and included 120 female college students a mean age of 20.4 y. The participants were assessed for the presence of PD according to the community periodontal index and were divided into two groups, the PD group and the non-PD group. Their dietary habits were investigated using a DHQ and the level of difficulty in chewing food was assessed. The PD group had a significantly lower nutrient intake of minerals, fat-soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins, and dietary fiber than the non-PD group. In terms of food groups, the PD group consumed significantly lesser amounts of green and yellow vegetables (GYV) than the non-PD group. Multivariate analysis revealed that the PD group had significantly lower intakes of vitamin E and GYV than the non-PD group. The PD group consumed significantly lesser amounts of hard foods than the non-PD group. In conclusion, young adult women who were evaluated for PD by a screening test had a significantly lower nutrient/food intake than those without a PD.
... The CPITN probe has been developed with coarse measurement intervals of 3.5 mm and 5.5 mm from a 0.5 mm diameter ball-ended tip for assessing community treatment needs (Cutress et al 1987). It can be used as a screening procedure for populations or in dental practice for assessing treatment needs. ...
Thesis
Reductions in dental diseases have resulted in a need for more accurate diagnostic and monitoring methods. The purpose of this study was to 1) identify the best diagnostic technique, 2) investigate the main factors which limit its validity and reliabilty and 3) devise methods to improve its reliability and 4) investigate ways of automating its use for general dental practice. From the literature review radiography was identified as the best current method with regard to validity, reliability, production of stable objective data and ease of use. However, irradiation geometry variations between serial films and subjective measurement errors were its principle limitations. Although an accurate semi-automatic caries measuring system exists, it is unsuitable for general practice due to lengthy operator interaction. A series of computer-based experiments were devised to evaluate further the digital subtraction radiography technique (DSR); develop a new method using stored regions of interest (ROI) to reduce subjective measurement errors; investigate the feasibility of completely automatic image analysis. In addition, an in vitro caries experiment was designed to demonstrate the effects of irradiation geometry variation on lesion size and caries scores. The results demonstrated that small variations in irradiation geometry can change radiographic scores. Misalignment of subsequent films beneath a video camera can cause significant errors in the DSR technique. The stored ROI method reduced cement-enamel junction to alveolar crest measurement errors to standard deviation 0.15mm. A fully automatic method for recognising teeth and bone crests was demonstrated. It was concluded that 1) radiography is currently the technique of choice, 2) a new significant methodological error for DSR has been demonstrated, 3) the subjective ROI method produced lower intra- and inter-examiner measurement errors compared to similar methods, 4) routine use of automatic methods may be feasible and should be investigated further and 5) standardised irradiation geometry is essential.
... While it is still controversial whether deep inflammatory periodontal pockets are a risk factor for HPV, it is significant that periodontal tissue may act as a reservoir of HPV in the oral cavity. In accordance with the previous reports by Cutress et al (21), severe periodontitis was defined as the presence of a pocket depth ≥6 mm. In addition, de Souza et al (22) reported that bleeding upon probing was significantly correlated with local gingival tissue inflammation (i.e., number of inflammatory cells per area). ...
Article
The present preliminary study aimed to investigate the association between oral human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) DNA prevalence and periodontal inflammation in older women. The association between oral HPV16 infection and oral health status has not been fully elucidated in older Japanese women. The present study investigated older women aged ≥60 years who visited Hiroshima University Hospital. The present study excluded subjects with clinical factors affecting HPV infection, such as current smoking, oral cancer and pre-malignant lesions, and immunodeficiency. Finally, 46 female patients (mean age, 74.6 years) were analyzed. Quantitative PCR analysis was performed to detect HPV16 DNA in oral rinse samples. A total of 4 participants (8.7%) were HPV16 DNA positive. There was a significant association between the HPV16 DNA positivity rate and bleeding on probing (P=0.03). Additionally, Prevotella intermedia positive cases exhibited a significantly higher HPV16 DNA positivity rate than negative cases (33.3 vs 3.8%). Furthermore, analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA in bacterial flora was performed to examine microbiome diversity in participants with ≥6 mm periodontal pockets and bleeding on probing. Importantly, the average percentage of Porphyromonas was significantly higher in HPV16 DNA positive cases compared with in HPV16 DNA negative cases (5.57 vs. 1.44%). By contrast, the average percentage of Veillonella was significantly lower in HPV16 DNA positive cases than in HPV16 DNA negative cases (2.43 vs. 8.51%). Prevotella was also lower in HPV16 DNA positive cases than in HPV16 DNA negative cases (4.0 vs. 8.23%). These results indicated that people with both deep periodontal pocket inflammation and oral HPV16 infection may not have Prevotella- or Veillonella-dominant oral microbiomes, and their microbiomes may exhibit their own distinctive characteristics. In conclusion, the results suggested that oral HPV16 infection may be associated with periodontal inflammation in older Japanese women. Further research is required to clarify the detailed association between oral HPV infection and the oral microbiome.
... The WHO also compares periodontal conditions across countries using CPITN [18]. Previous studies have reported that CPITN provides a practical means to assess the need for periodontal treatment [19,20]. ...
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This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the health insurance coverage of dental scaling (introduced in 2013) using the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs parameter among Korean adults aged 20 years or older. We used the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from before and after 2013 to analyze the statistical significance and associations of the covariates with the prevalence of healthy periodontal tissues, prevalence of people in need of scaling, and prevalence of periodontal diseases. The results showed that the prevalence of healthy periodontal tissues increased by 4.9% (from 34.2% to 39.1%), the number of people in need of scaling decreased by 5% (from 65.9% to 60.9%), and the prevalence of periodontal diseases increased by 7.2% (from 23.4% to 30.6%). Moreover, after the scaling coverage policy, the odds ratio of the prevalence of healthy periodontal tissues was 1.10 times higher, the prevalence of the need for scaling was 1.5 times higher, and the prevalence of periodontal diseases was 0.90 times lower. Therefore, the state should formulate policies that provide dental biofilm management through a disclosing agent, impart education about oral hygiene, and develop a health management system that enables the concurrent management of periodontal diseases and systemic diseases.
... One trained dentist performed all the clinical measurements. The Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was used to determine the oral periodontal health status, with the score of 6 sites for 10 World Health Organization index teeth [26]. The number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) was assessed according WHO guidelines [27]. ...
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Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, especially those with end stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis (HD), exhibit high prevalence of periodontitis. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the periodontal status of HD patients and its relationship with salivary microbiome. Methods: One hundred eight HD patients and one hundred healthy control individuals were recruited. They were subjected to periodontal examination followed by saliva samples collection for 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: The HD patients were with worse periodontal health status, and exhibited higher salivary microbial diversity and lower richness. The periodontal pathogens were significantly enriched in the HD patients. The inferred functional analyze showed microbes enriched in the HD patients were mainly related to metabolism. Despite the periodontal status and overall structure of the microbiome were not significantly altered as the HD duration prolonged, the abundance of Lachnospiraceae [G-2] sp. |HMT_096| is positively correlated with the duration of HD and the community periodontal index (CPI). Five OTUs (operational taxonomic units) belonging to the phyla Firmicutes were enriched as the duration prolonged, and four OTUs originated from the phyla Proteobacteria were negatively related with the CPI index. ESRD patients undergoing HD exhibited microbiota structural, compositional and functional differences compared with the healthy controls. And the species changed as the duration of hemodialysis prolonged. Conclusions: End stage renal disease changes salivary microbiome and is a risk factor for oral dysbiosis.
... A single calibrated investigator (AD) recorded the socio-demographic and other characteristics of the participants (Part A and B). Another single examiner (MR) who is an experienced Periodontist recorded the periodontal status using Modifi d Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and loss of attachment (LOA) by Cutress et al. [15] The periodontal measurement will be recorded at six sites per tooth (mesiobuccal, mid buccal, distobuccal, distolingual, mid lingual and mesiolingual) using and community periodontal index of treatment needs C probe. ...
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Abstract Background: Periodontal disease is a highly prevalent oral disease that affects more than half of the global adult population. The role of protein supplements (PSs) in bodybuilding has been studied extensively, but there are no studies done that assessed periodontal health and its relationship of protein intake among bodybuilders. This study aims to assess the periodontal status in 35–44-year-old bodybuilders in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in the city of Jeddah among 35–44-year-old male bodybuilders and non-bodybuilders. Bodybuilders were identified and recruited from different fitness and gymnasium centres that satisfied the inclusion criteria. A pre-tested and validated questionnaire was used for collecting the information. Periodontal status was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and loss of attachment (LOA). Results: The CPI scores were comparatively lesser (11.34 ± 4.6) in bodybuilders than non-bodybuilders and it was statistically significan (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in CPI scores between tobacco users and non-users among bodybuilders. The prevalence of periodontal pockets of 4–5 mm in non-body builders was 80.7% and in bodybuilders, it was 49.1% (odds ratio = 4.33 (1.865–10.085), P < 0.001). A positive correlation was observed between average PSs intake and periodontal pocket of 4–5 mm (r = 0.335, P < 0.05); frequency of PS intake and 4–5 mm pockets (r = 0.494, P < 0.001); duration of PS (r = 0.438, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The periodontal health was significantly better in bodybuilders despite the smoking status, and this cannot be only attributed to PS intake. There could be a relationship with protein intake, but there is a need for wider interventional studies in a prospective manner.
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Poor oral hygiene is a major factor for oral diseases. Urban slums are recognized as a risk group population as the burden of oral diseases is highest among them. Objectives: To evaluate the oral health status of slums using Decayed, Missed, and Filled Tooth index. To evaluate the oral health status of slums using Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Need. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 385 urban slum people aged between 20 to 50 years. A convenient sampling method was adopted. Data were collected by structured questionnaire included information related to patient’s knowledge, attitude, and behavior towards oral hygiene and interviewed by trained staff. Oral examinations were performed in line with WHO guidelines. After taking informed consent oral examinations were done by fresh graduate and DMFT and CPITN index were evaluated. Results: Study participants were assessed for attitude, knowledge and oral health behavior, 47% had Good Attitude, only 6% had Very Good Knowledge and < 1% had Very Good oral health behavior. Mean DMFT and CPITN score among Slums came 8.91 + 7.627 and 1.93 + 0.971 respectively. More than a third of the slums population required emergency levels dental treatments. Conclusions: The residents of slums have poor oral hygiene and high prevalence of dental caries. Low socioeconomic status, and lack of primary dental care programs and session are main reasons for poor oral health
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Introduction: The available literature on the topic is inconclusive and sometime taking less parameters in consideration. Moreover, there is no published data available in local population. Objectives: To determine and compare salivary flow rate, pH, total proteins, and alpha amylase in periodontitis patients based on community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) score. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study on 80 participants selected by purposive sampling was completed in 6 months. Participants were divided into 5 groups by CPITN scoring. Individuals more than 30 years with at least 20 teeth having calculus/staining were included. The study was conducted at Dental department of Civil Dispensary Peshawar city, Khyber College of Dentistry (periodontology ward) and Khyber Medical University (Biochemistry lab). After explaining the procedure and taking consent, saliva was collected from the participants following aseptic technique and analyzed through ELISA. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22. P value <0.05 was considered to be significant in our study. Results: Among 80 subjects, 51 were females and 29 were males with mean age 35.73±7.05 years and BMI 26.47±5.23.
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Background: Periodontitis has been associated with detrimental effects that may lead to systemic disease in addition to tooth loss, hence the increasing need for screening tests for periodontitis. This study was conducted for the purpose of examining the validity of various screening tests for periodontitis. Methods: Periodontal examination were performed on 208 randomly selected residents (ages 21-78) of Takahagi City who were surveyed on their saliva and subjective symptom(s). These subjects were divided into a healthy group of 89 participants and a periodontitis group comprised of 119 people based on the status of periodontal tissue. The validity of screening tests for periodontitis were analyzed based on one or a combination of the following conditions: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in saliva, salivary occult blood test, community periodontal index (CPI score), and responses to a questionnaire on subjective symptom(s). The Mann-Whitney U-test and the Chi-squared test were used to compare parameters between the periodontitis group and the healthy group. Results: In a single screening test, statistical significance difference (P<0.01) was observed in salivary occult blood test results indicating a strong positive, cutoff values of 3 and 4 in CPI scores. Statistical significance difference (P<0.01) was observed in a combination of the following conditions-strong positive salivary occult blood test results with a CPI score of 3 and strong positive salivary occult blood test results with a CPI score of 4, showing the likelihood ratio of 2.23 and 5.42 respectively. Conclusion: Saliva test was found to be effective in a single periodontitis screening test, however showing the highest diagnostic value in the CPI-score based screening method. The findings confirmed that the highest accuracy was achieved by combining the above tests, especially the combination of the salivary occult blood test and CPI score 4.
Article
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess the gingival and periodontal status of patients with maxillofacial trauma and to determine the need for periodontal treatment after removal of the intramaxillary fixation. Material and methods: The study included 36 patients with a fracture of the lower jaw. After the clinical and radiological examination of the patients, treatment was performed on a case-by-case basis. 30 days after fixation and removal of the wire ligatures of the patients, the oral-hygienic and periodontal status was assessed using the following indices: simplified oral hygiene index, gingival bleeding index, community periodontal index of treatment needs and evaluation of oral malodour. Results: The most common cause of fractures is a traffic accident, followed by domestic injuries. The level of oral hygiene immediately after removal of the wire ligatures and intermaxillary fixation varied between relatively good and poor, with a greater number of patients having poor hygiene (OHI-S ≥5). The periodontal status of the patients, measured by CPITN, also showed a statistically significant level of clinically established periodontal destruction. Halitosis was detected in all patients. Conclusions: The course of the healing process in the alveolar bone and the functional rehabilitation of patients with mandibular fractures depends not only on the type of surgical treatment for immobilization of the fragments but also on the maintenance of optimal oral hygiene.
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Objectives: To compare periodontitis prevalence estimates obtained using the new classification system with those generated using other case definitions from the literature, examine the strength of the association between tobacco smoking and periodontitis (and that between periodontitis and its impact on oral-health-related quality of life; OHRQoL) using those definitions. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the 2009 New Zealand Oral Health Survey, a cross-sectional dental examination survey of a representative sample of people aged 18 or over. We identified cases using 10 different periodontitis case definitions and then compared weighted prevalence estimates across those. The associations between smoking and periodontitis, and between periodontitis and short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) scores, were then compared across the various case definitions. Results: There was considerable variation in periodontitis prevalence estimates (range 3% to 59%). All definitions (but one) showed a higher prevalence of periodontitis in smokers than in non-smokers. The new classification stage III definition showed the strongest association, with an adjusted prevalence ratio of 1.99 (95%CI: 1.35, 2.91). All case definitions (but one) had a higher mean OHIP-14 score among people with periodontitis. Conclusions: Periodontitis prevalence estimates are greatly influenced by case definition choice. The new classification system may be more accurate than any other used to date, but questions remain about its utility for periodontal epidemiology.
Article
Objective To examine the accuracy of a short version of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in predicting caries treatment need for children. Methods The study is a validation study using data from three previously published cross-sectional studies. Participants were children with different dentitions from Kuwait, Brazil, and Spain. Children were clinically examined using ICDAS criteria. Children were classified into preventive, non-operative, and operative categories. Sensitivity and specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to measure the discriminative and diagnostic accuracy of the proposed short version of ICDAS compared to the full ICDAS. Results Clinical dental examination data from a total of 3076 children aged 1–15 years were used. The proposed short ICDAS and the full ICDAS showed a very good agreement on caries treatment need determination with Kappa scores of more than 0.833 in all dentitions. The short ICDAS showed excellent operating characteristics in all dentitions. The area under the ROC was more than 90% in primary dentition, 89% in permanent dentition, and 86% in mixed dentition in different populations. Lowest area under ROC and sensitivity values were observed when discriminating between non-operative and operative treatment categories. Conclusions The proposed short version of the ICDAS showed good diagnostic accuracy in classifying children according to their caries treatment need. By reducing the number of surfaces examined and the time needed for clinical assessment, the short version of the ICDAS is a convenient alternative to the full ICDAS to be used in community settings.
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Context: The impact of periodontal disease during pregnancy and its effect on adverse pregnancy outcomes is seen in the literature. When it comes to the link of disease related to periodontium to that of adverse pregnancy outcomes, a need can arise if a significant cause-effect relationship does exist or not between them. Aim: The study was aimed to determine the association of periodontal health status in pregnant women with the occurrence of preterm low birth weight (LBW) infants in Vadodara, Gujarat. Settings and design: An interventional study with 100 patients was conducted, of which 67 participants were included in the control group and 33 participants were included in the intervention group. A total of 12 participants dropped out from the study and 88 were analyzed for the outcome. Subjects and methods: The Community periodontal Index of Treatment needs index was taken for all enrolled participants and then were divided into interventional group and control group. Participants in the interventional group underwent scaling and root planning. Data related to the time of delivery and weight of the baby was taken from the hospital records. Statistical analysis: A comparison of baseline characteristics was made using unpaired t-test. Chi-square test was used for the analysis of intergroup comparison. The odds ratio and the relative risk calculation were also done. P ≤ 0.05 was considered for statistical significance. Results: The odds ratio for both preterm and LBW were 3.86 times and 2.96, respectively. The Chi-square statistical test analysis was statistically significant for both preterm and LBW infants on the intergroup comparison. Conclusion: Periodontal disease can be considered as one of the risk factors for preterm LBW babies as not only the presence of disease condition causes an increase in inflammatory mediator but also the elimination of the disease condition reduces the adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Article
Introduction: Periodontal disease is considered to be one of the most common oral conditions in human population sharing an equal prevalence rate in both developed and developing countries. It is observed that in India, more than 800 million beedis are sold every year; hence, beedi making is a big industry involving approximately 4.4 million workers, and 76% of these workers are women. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the frequency of gingival and periodontal disease and to evaluate the treatment needs in labors working in a beedi factory. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1000 daily wage labors working in a beedi factory resided at Patna, Bihar. Subjects aged between 19 and 60 years were randomly selected for the study. The community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) index with CPTIN probe along with the demographic data was recorded in daylight. Results: None of the study subjects was found to fall in category community periodontal index-1 (CPI-1), 67.2% of the study population was found to be in CPI-2, 12.3% were found to be in CPI-3, and 9.7% of the study subjects scored CPI-4. For the treatment needs, majority of the subjects were in TN2 category; however, with advancing age, there was increase in the percentage of population requiring TN3 treatment needs. Conclusion: CPITN index along with the demographic data was recorded in daylight. The high prevalence rate of periodontal disease in these beedi factory workers was found, which increased with advancing age. The treatment need index also showed rise in the requirement of complex procedures with advancing age, suggesting the role of dental education and regular checkups in these population groups.
Article
Objectives The effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the oral pathogenic microbes in human immunodeficiency virus-1 seropositive patients remains relatively unexplored. Thus, the present study assessed the effect of ART on the sub-gingival levels of 3 pathogenic microbes. Materials and Methods The study groups consisted of 60 human immunodeficiency virus-1 seropositive patients divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Group 1 had periodontitis and did not start with the ART. Group 2 had periodontitis and started with ART (Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate 300 mg + Lamivudine 300 mg + Efavirenz 600 mg) at least 6 months before the study. Group 3 with normal periodontium, and have not started ART. The sub-gingival loads of Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and the Porphyromonas gingivalis levels were assessed, along with the CD4 counts. Results The cytomegalovirus load was highest in group 1, followed by groups 2, and 3 (p-value of 0.271). The Epstein-Barr load was highest for group 2, followed by group 3, and 1 (p-value of 0.022). The P.gingivalis load was highest in group 2, followed by groups 1 and 3, (p-value of 0.028). The Epstein-Barr and Cytomegalovirus counts were significantly higher (p-value < 0.02) when the CD4 counts were less than 500 cells/cu3. Conclusion ART did not cause any significant reduction in the sub-gingival levels of any of the 3 examined microbes. Given the lack of any significant effect on the sub-gingival microbial loads by the ART, human immunodeficiency virus patients may require additional anti-microbial agents and regular mechanical plaque removal to maintain their periodontal status.
Article
Introduction: The evaluation of flapless corticision in conjunction with the conventional treatment in the non-extraction decrowding of lower anterior teeth has not been performed yet in any randomised clinical trial, particularly in terms of treatment time and periodontal indices. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the duration of leveling and alignment of mild and moderate crowding cases in the lower dental arch between the corticision-assisted fixed orthodontic treatment and the traditional method; and to compare the periodontal indexes between the two groups. Materials and Methods: A parallel-group Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial (RCT) was conducted on 60 patients (mean age 2 1.40±1.63 years). Patients were randomly assigned to either the corticision group or the control group (30 each). Immediately after fixed appliance bonding, three radiographicguided incisions were performed on the labial surfaces of the alveolar bone between lower anterior teeth by reinforced scalpels and mallets in order to accelerate alignment for patients in the corticision group. Patients in the control group were treated with conventional orthodontics. The outcome measures were the overall time needed for leveling and alignment, periodontal parameters such as Plaque Index (PI), Probing Depth (PD), Gingival Index (GI), and the width of the attached gingiva. Results: The overall treatment time was significantly shorter in the corticision group than the control group. The average leveling and alignment period for the corticision group was 116.46±15.97 days, while it was 159.69±13.76 days in the control group. Comparing the groups, a significant reduction of about 27% was found in the leveling and alignment duration of the corticision group. There were no significant differences in the periodontal parameters (PI, PD, GI, the width of attached gingiva) at the end of leveling and alignment phase in both the groups. Conclusion: Corticision seems to be an effective method to accelerate leveling and alignment in cases of mild and moderate crowding. It did not cause negative effect on the periodontal tissues.
Article
Background: To study the correlation between dental caries and periodontitis. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between dental caries and periodontitis based on the clinical and immunological analysis. The null hypothesis was that there is no clinical and immunological correlation between dental caries and periodontitis. Settings and design: Fifty systemically healthy adults (mean age of 35 years) with decayed, missing, and filled teeth scores of more than 6 were assessed for periodontal health by recording their probing depth (PD) and bleeding on probing (BOP) values. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis was conducted for determining the immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels. The obtained clinical and immunological values were statistically analyzed. Results: The results of the clinical examination revealed low PD and BOP scores, whereas the ELISA analysis showed significantly higher salivary IgA levels as compared to salivary IgG. Conclusions: Based on the observations of this clinicoimmunological study, it was concluded that no correlation existed between dental caries and periodontal disease.
Article
Objective: To assess the oral health status, perception and dental treatment needs in patients of schizophrenia in the hospital set up in Rohtak district, Haryana. Methods and result: Across sectional study was conducted to assess the oral health in patients of schizophrenia at Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana among patients with ≤ 48 score on BPRS. A modified Dental Coping Beliefs Scale along with a structured questionnaire and clinical examination were recorded. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in relation to demographic variables. Among 111 subjects, 74.4% were males and the mean age was 34.73± 9.9 years. Around 77.5% had habit of regular mouth rinsing, 72% and 3% brushed their teeth once and twice daily respectively. Subjects had high negative oral health beliefs and external locus of control for oral health. Compared to the general population, mean OHI (8.4±2.5) and DMFT (3.09±2.9) scores were higher. Nearly, 66% patients had gingival pockets and around 7% showed attachment loss above 3 mm or gingival recession. Conclusion: Patients with schizophrenia have much poorer oral health as compared to general population. They are aware of their poor oral hygiene but are not motivated enough to take care of their oral health. A multifaceted approach is required to plan and undertake effective oral health preventive and rehabilitative measures for this special group.
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