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Estimation of VO2max from a one-mile track walk, gender, age, and body weight

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The purpose of this investigation was to explore an alternative field test to estimate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) using a one-mile walk test. VO2max was determined in 343 healthy adult (males = 165, females = 178) subjects 30 to 69 yr using a treadmill protocol (mean +/- SD: VO2max = 37.0 +/- 10.7 ml X kg-1 X min-1). Each subject performed a minimum of two, one-mile track walks as fast as possible. The two fastest walks (T1, T2) with elapsed times within 30 s were used for subsequent analyses. Heart rates were monitored continuously and recorded every one-quarter mile. Multiple regression analysis (best sub-sets) to estimate VO2max (l X min-1) yielded the following predictor variables: track walk-1 time (T1); fourth quarter heart rate for track walk-1 (HR 1-4); age (yr); weight (lb); and sex (1 = male, 0 = female). The best equation (N = 174) was: VO2max = 6.9652 + (0.0091*WT) - (0.0257*AGE) + (0.5955*SEX) - (0.2240*T1) - (0.0115*HR1-4); r = 0.93, SEE = 0.325 l X min-1. Comparing observed and estimated VO2max values in a cross-validation group (N = 169) resulted in r = 0.92, SEE = 0.355 l X min-1. Generalized and sex-specific equations to estimate VO2max (ml X kg-1 X min-1) were also generated. The accuracy of estimation as expressed by SEE was similar among the equations. The results indicate that this one-mile walk test protocol provides a valid sub-maximum assessment for VO2max estimation.
... distance wheel, heart rate monitor), is another alternative to maximal exercise testing. Traditionally, these alternative, low cost options include over-ground walking/running [9][10][11] or stepping tests [7,12,13]. These tests can provide a safe testing alternative for high risk populations and can be easily administered in the field or clinical setting with little expense to estimate VO 2max . ...
... kg -1. min -1 [8,10]. Unfortunately, a limitation within the current body of literature is a lack of consistency in validation and reporting efforts [8]. ...
... Unfortunately, a limitation within the current body of literature is a lack of consistency in validation and reporting efforts [8]. Additionally, many of the published field tests tend to target homogenous groups of recreationally active young adults [6,12] or adults with a narrow age range [10], with few studies developing and comparing field tests across a broad age range [13,14]. Further, the modalities of these tests may be deemed inappropriate for certain populations, limiting their application to a broad, generalized population. ...
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IntroductionField tests to estimate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) are an alternative to traditional exercise testing methods. Published field tests and their accompanying estimation equations account for up to 80% of the variance in VO2max with an error rate of ~4.5 ml.kg-1.min-1. These tests are limited to very specific age-range populations. The purpose of this study was to create and validate a series of easily administered walking and stepping field equations to predict VO2max across a range of healthy 18-79-year-old adults.Methods One-hundred-fifty-seven adults completed a graded maximal exercise test to assess VO2max. Five separate walking and three separate stepping tests of varying durations, number of stages, and intensities were completed. VO2max estimation equations were created using hierarchal multiple regression. Covariates including age, sex, body mass, resting heart rate, distance walked, gait speed, stepping cadence, and recovery heart rate were entered into each model using a stepwise approach. Each full model created had the same base model consisting of age, sex, and body mass. Validity of each model was assessed using a Jackknife cross-validation analysis, and percent bias and root mean square error (RMSE) were calculated.ResultsBase models accounted for ~72% of the total variance of VO2max. Full model variance ranged from ~79-83% and bias was minimal (
... Cardiorespiratory fitness (i.e., VO 2 peak) was estimated using the Rockport 1-mile walk test (Kline et al., 1987). The Rockport 1mile walk test has been validated in adults, and correlates highly with traditional treadmill tests to assess cardiorespiratory fitness (Kline et al., 1987;Colcombe et al., , 2004. ...
... Cardiorespiratory fitness (i.e., VO 2 peak) was estimated using the Rockport 1-mile walk test (Kline et al., 1987). The Rockport 1mile walk test has been validated in adults, and correlates highly with traditional treadmill tests to assess cardiorespiratory fitness (Kline et al., 1987;Colcombe et al., , 2004. Participants were instructed to walk one mile as fast as they could, without running or powerwalking. ...
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Objectives Physical activity has been shown to protect executive functions against the deleterious effects of poorer sleep among older adults (OA); however, it is unknown whether memory is protected too, and if this relationship differs by age. The present study investigated the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness, sleep, and memory in both older and young adults (YA). Methods This observational study recruited 26 OA (70.7 ± 2.8 years) and 35 YA (21.0 ± 3.1 years). Participants completed the Rockport 1-mile walk test to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness. Participants wore an actigraph for 1 week to measure habitual sleep and returned for a second visit to perform the memory tests. The interaction between cardiorespiratory fitness and sleep to predict memory was assessed separately in OA and YA. Results In OA, cardiorespiratory fitness significantly moderated the relationship between memory and sleep quality, specifically number of nighttime awakenings, sleep efficiency, and wake after sleep onset. Further analyses reveal that a high number of nighttime awakenings and low sleep efficiency significantly predicted worse memory performance in the low fit OA, but high fit OA. Notably, every nighttime awakening was associated with a nearly 4% decrease in memory in low fit OA, but not high fit OA. Wake after sleep onset did not significantly predict memory in either fitness group. No interaction was found when looking at sleep duration or self-report sleep quality in OA and no significant interactions were observed between fitness, sleep, and memory in YA. Conclusion Overall, the results suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness may act as a protective buffer for memory in OA with poor sleep quality. These same was not true for YA suggesting that the protective effects of cardiorespiratory fitness on sleep-related memory impairments may be age specific.
... Briefly, participants were instructed to walk as quickly as possible while avoiding jogging or running. Post walking heart rate, walk time, body weight, age, and sex were used to calculate the VO2max as described before [33]. ...
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Backgrounds: Exercise is an attractive, widely accessible intervention to promote cardiovascular health; however, evidence that exercise improves brain health is sparse. Here, we hypothesized that aerobic exercise would improve brain health of sedentary older adults, as reflected by cognition health, sleep macro- and micro-architecture, and brain age index (BAI), a biomarker of brain health derived from the overnight sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). Methods: Sedentary older adults were recruited to complete a 12-week aerobic exercise. Home wearable devices were used to monitor heart rate and overnight sleep EEG over the period. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery, in-lab overnight polysomnography, cardiopulmonary exercise testing and multiplex cytokine assay were employed to determine pre- and post-exercise brain health, exercise capacity and plasma proteins. Results: 26 participants completed the initial assessment and exercise program, and 24 completed all procedures. Participants significantly increased maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and decreased resting and sleeping heart rate after the exercise regimen. Cognition performances were significantly improved following the exercise program while no significant differences were seen in BAI and sleep macro- and micro-architecture. Plasma IL-4 was elevated while IL-8 was reduced after the exercise regimen. Home sleep data revealed a 3.59% increase in the percentage of N3 sleep over a 12-week. Conclusions: We conclude that cognitive function and N3 sleep were improved by a 12-week moderate-intensity exercise program in sedentary older adults, associated with improvements in VO2max and plasma cytokine profiles. Our data show the value of integrating multi-modal assessments to study the effect of brain health targeted approaches. Funding: Dr. Westover received support during this work from the McCance Center for Brain Health, the Glenn Foundation for Medical Research and the American Federation for Aging Research through a Breakthroughs in Gerontology Grant; through the American Academy of Sleep Medicine through an AASM Foundation Strategic Research Award; by the Football Players Health Study (FPHS) at Harvard University; from the Department of Defense through a subcontract from Moberg ICU Solutions, Inc, and by grants from the NIH (R01NS102190, R01NS102574, R01NS107291, RF1AG064312, R01AG062989, R01AG073410), and NSF (2014431). Dr. Wrann was supported by a SPARC Award from the McCance Center for Brain Health. Dr. Tanzi and Dr. Zhang were supported by the Cure Alzheimer's Fund. Clinical trial number: National Clinical Trial: NCT04210882
... Physical function was based on one-mile walk tests, handgrip strength, and sit-to-stand test. In brief, the one-mile walk test was conducted in a flat and covered gym, where the volunteers were instructed to walk as fast as they could (without running or jogging) for a distance of 1,609 meters 16 . The total time (in seconds) to complete the test was considered for analysis. ...
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This study investigated changes in anxiety and depression symptoms after two exercise programs with adult women attending the Health Academy Program. Based on non-probabilistic sampling, a total of 93 adult women (aged range: 19 77 years) were recruited into two health units, selected to receive exercise programs with continuous (CT; n = 53) or intermittent (IT; n = 40) characteristics. The activities were supervised for six months (twice a week; ~60 min) by a physical education professional. The primary outcome of the study was the assessment of the level of changes of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. Physical function was assessed by a 1 mile walk test, handgrip strength, and sit-to-stand test. No significant group-by time interaction was observed for any of the investigated outcomes. Regarding the comparisons between moments, there were significant improvements in anxiety (F = 16.52; p = <0.001; ηp2 = 0.15) and depression scores (F = 9.29; p = 0.003; ηp2 = 0.09). Furthermore, there were significant improvements in the one mile walk test (F = 70.36; p = <0.001; ηp2 = 0.44), sit-to-stand test (F = 141.53; p = <0.001; ηp2 = 0.61) and handgrip strength performance (F = 10.12; p = 0.002; ηp2 = 0.10). In conclusion, both exercise programs were equally effective in promoting beneficial changes on anxiety, depression levels, and improved physical function in women attending the Health Academy Program. Therefore, the decision to choose which protocol to use should be based on community preference and practical considerations.
... Before and after the intervention, we measured the cardio fitness levels by VO 2max (mL/kg/min) using the Rockport 1600 m walking test. Estimation of VO 2max over a timed one-mile walk, including age, gender, body weight and heart rate at the end of the walk test [20]. The body mass index (BMI) and heart rate (monitored with PolarA300, 17954515.02 ...
Article
Background: Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a very frequent microvascular complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity and physical inactivity are well-known risk factors for T2DM. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a liver-secreted hormone with several beneficial effects on obesity-related metabolic disorders. We aimed to investigate the effect of short-term physical activity on the levels of FGF21, and its correlation with the severity of peripheral sensory polyneuropathy in T2DM patients. Methods: Thirty patients with DN were enrolled in the study, compared to age- and gender-matched controls. We conducted a six-week aerobic training program, which meant treadmill and cycle ergometers three times a week. Anthropometric and laboratory parameters were measured for each patient before and after intervention. Serum levels of FGF21, TNF-alpha, irisin, leptin and adiponectin were measured by ELISA. The sensory perception threshold (CPT) was quantitatively measured using Neurometer®. Results: We found significant decreases in BMI, waist circumference, HbA1c and TNF-alpha levels. From baseline to six-week follow-up, FGF21 levels were significantly increased in DN patients. Significant negative correlations were shown between the changes in FGF21 levels and BMI, between changes in FGF21 and the improvement of CPT values, and between the changes in FGF21 and TNF-alpha levels. There was no difference in irisin, adiponectin and leptin levels in DN patients after aerobic training program. Conclusions: The physical activity may increase the level of FGF21 in T2DM patients with neuropathy. Our results highlight the importance of regular physical activity in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.
... The time required was reported. Finally, cardiorespiratory fitness was (CRF) assessed by "Rockport walking test" [24]; the participants walked as fast as possible for one mile (1609 m). Post walk, heart rate, and time required were registered immediately after completion of the test. ...
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Purpose The strict lockdown implemented due the COVID-19 pandemic is generating a great impact on wellbeing and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in people with cancer. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of an online home-based exercise intervention performed during a lockdown period analysing its effects on body composition, physical fitness, and HRQoL in breast cancer survivors. Methods Fifteen women with breast cancer receiving hormonal therapy (55.5 ± 6.7 years) were included in the study. The exercise intervention consisted of two weekly sessions of remotely supervised functional training (60 min per day) and two weekly sessions of unsupervised aerobic training (20–30 min/session; 60–85% of maximum heart rate) for a total of 16 weeks. DXA absorptiometry was used for the assessment of body composition. Functional assessment included cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) by Rockport walking test, upper and lower body strength (grip strength, arm curl test, and chair stand test), walking speed (brisk walking test), and agility (8-foot up-and-go test). The HRQoL was evaluated with the QLQ-BR23 questionnaire. The adherence to the intervention was measured as the percentage of online classes attended. Results Rate of adherence for the online exercise intervention was 90 ± 17%. The exercise intervention induced significant (p < 0.05) improvements in physical fitness: CRF (+ 9%), right arm and lower limb strength (+ 10% and + 18%, respectively) and lower limbs lean mass (+ 2% and + 3.5% for left and right leg, respectively). Conclusion This feasibility study suggests that an online home-based exercise intervention during COVID-19 lockdown could improve physical fitness and body composition in breast cancer survivors even in a context of heightened concern for future health.
... CRF was assessed using the Rockport 1-Mile Test in which participants were instructed to walk one mile on a treadmill adjusting their speed in order to be as fast as possible without running. We used the standard equation reported by Kline et al. (1987) to estimate the maximal aerobic capacity (VO 2 max). The equation uses the following variables to estimate VO 2max : weight, age, sex, time to complete the mile, and heart rate at the end of the test. ...
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Behavioral interventions have shown promising neuroprotective effects, but the cascade of molecular, brain and behavioral changes involved in these benefits remains poorly understood. Projecte Moviment is a 12-week (5 days per week—45 min per day) multi-domain, single-blind, proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial examining the cognitive effect and underlying mechanisms of an aerobic exercise (AE), computerized cognitive training (CCT) and a combined (COMB) groups compared to a waitlist control group. Adherence was > 80% for 82/109 participants recruited (62% female; age = 58.38 � 5.47). In this study we report intervention-related changes in plasma biomarkers (BDNF, TNF-a, HGF, ICAM-1, SDF1-a) and structural-MRI (brain volume) and how they related to changes in physical activity and individual variables (age and sex) and their potential role as mediators in the cognitive changes. Our results show that although there were no significant changes in molecular biomarker concentrations in any intervention group, changes in ICAM-1 and SDF1-a were negatively associated with changes in physical activity outcomes in AE and COMB groups. Brain volume changes were found in the CCT showing a significant increase in precuneus volume. Sex moderated the brain volume change in the AE and COMB groups, suggesting that men may benefit more than women. Changes in molecular biomarkers and brain volumes did not significantly mediate the cognitive-related benefits found previously for any group. This study shows crucial initial molecular and brain volume changes related to lifestyle interventions at early stages and highlights the value of examining activity parameters, individual difference characteristics and using a multi-level analysis approach to address these questions.
... CRF was assessed using the Rockport 1-Mile Test in which participants were instructed to walk one mile on a treadmill adjusting their speed in order to be as fast as possible without running. We used the standard equation reported by Kline et al. (1987) to estimate the maximal aerobic capacity (VO 2 max). The equation uses the following variables to estimate VO 2max : weight, age, sex, time to complete the mile, and heart rate at the end of the test. ...
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Full-text available
Behavioral interventions have shown promising neuroprotective effects, but the cascade of molecular, brain and behavioral changes involved in these benefits remains poorly understood. Projecte Moviment is a 12-week (5 days per week-45 min per day) multi-domain, single-blind, proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial examining the cognitive effect and underlying mechanisms of an aerobic exercise (AE), computerized cognitive training (CCT) and a combined (COMB) groups compared to a waitlist control group. Adherence was > 80% for 82/109 participants recruited (62% female; age = 58.38 ± 5.47). In this study we report intervention-related changes in plasma biomarkers (BDNF, TNF-α, HGF, ICAM-1, SDF1-α) and structural-MRI (brain volume) and how they related to changes in physical activity and individual variables (age and sex) and their potential role as mediators in the cognitive changes. Our results show that although there were no significant changes in molecular biomarker concentrations in any intervention group, changes in ICAM-1 and SDF1-α were negatively associated with changes in physical activity outcomes in AE and COMB groups. Brain volume changes were found in the CCT showing a significant increase in precuneus volume. Sex moderated the brain volume change in the AE and COMB groups, suggesting that men Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | www.frontiersin.org 1 April 2022 | Volume 16 | Article 854175 Castells-Sánchez et al. Moviment RCT: Molecular-Brain Correlates may benefit more than women. Changes in molecular biomarkers and brain volumes did not significantly mediate the cognitive-related benefits found previously for any group. This study shows crucial initial molecular and brain volume changes related to lifestyle interventions at early stages and highlights the value of examining activity parameters, individual difference characteristics and using a multi-level analysis approach to address these questions.
... Over the years, a number of walking [15][16][17][18][19], cycling [14,[20][21][22] and running [23,24] SMFT have been administered among clinical and healthy populations. These tests involve single or multiple continuous steady-state protocols, with some prescribing an absolute standardised intensity, while others include relative intensity ranges, or self-paced protocols (refer to Table 1 in Supplementary File S1). ...
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Team-sports staff often administer non-exhaustive exercise assessments with a view to evaluating current physiological state or fitness–fatigue status, to inform decision-making on athlete management (e.g., future training or recovery). Submaximal Fitness Tests (SMFT) have become prominent in team-sports settings for observing responses to a standardised physical stimulus, likely due to their time-efficient nature, relative ease of administration and physiological rationale. It is evident, however, that many variations of SMFT characteristics, response measures and monitoring purposes exist. The aim of this review is to provide a theoretical framework of SMFT and a detailed summary of their use as indicators of fitness–fatigue status in team-sports. Using a systematic review of the literature, we identified five distinct SMFT protocols characterised in their combinations of exercise regimen (continuous or intermittent) and the progression of exercise intensity (fixed, incremental or variable). Heart rate (HR) derived indices were the most studied outcome measures in SMFT and included exercise (HR exercise) and recovery (HR recovery and vagal-related HR variability) responses. Despite the disparity between studies, these measures appear more relevant to detect positive changes in fitness (i.e., maximal oxygen uptake, intermittent endurance capacity), whereas their role in detecting fatigue associated with variations in ANS function is not yet clear. Psycho-physiological outcome measures such as ratings of perceived exertion were less common SMFT outcome measures in team-sports, but their potential utility when collected alongside objective measures (e.g., HR exercise) has been advocated. Mechanical outcome measures included Global-Positioning-System-derived locomotor variables—such as distance covered, primarily during standardised training drills (e.g., small-sided games) to monitor exercise performance (i.e., fitness status)—or response measures derived from inertial-measurement units to monitor lower limb neuromuscular function and subsequently fatigue status. Whilst there is an emerging interest regarding the utility of these mechanical measures, their measurement properties and underpinning mechanisms are yet to be fully established. Further, it is essential to better understand the methodological aspects of SMFT characteristics in relation to all outcome measures. Herein, we provide a deeper synthesis of the available literature, culminating with best-evidence practical recommendations and directions for future research.
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Although strong evidence shows that physical inactivity and sedentary behavior are associated with many negative health outcomes, inactive lifestyles are still increasing. Consequently, new approaches must be developed to increase adherence to an active lifestyle and hence a longer life. Green exercise and health coaching could be effective ways to induce long-lasting lifestyle changes geared towards more physical activity. In this randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effects of mountain hiking and psychological coaching on adults with a sedentary lifestyle. The coaching group (n = 26) participated in a 7-day guided hiking program with three personal coaching sessions, whereas the hiking group (n = 32) received no coaching. The effects on aerobic capacity, spirometry and quality of life were assessed at baseline (day 0), after the intervention week (day 7) and after 80 days. Fully nonparametric statistical analysis revealed a gender-based effect for aerobic capacity—the female participants of the coaching group showed a greater improvement (p = 0.03) than the hiking group. No significant effects were found for spirometry. Quality of life parameters improved in both groups. In conclusion, both green exercise and health coaching are capable of inducing improvements in health-related quality of life and cardiorespiratory fitness. No superior effects of health coaching were found.
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The relationship between individual differences in a steady pace endurance running test and maximal oxygen intake (l/min; ml/kg/min, ml/kg LBW/min) was determined in 25 college men. In the running test subjects attempted to maintain an initial running speed of 10 mph (4.89 yd/sec) for 10 min as they were paced around a 440 yd track. Running performance was scored as running time between consecutive sections of the track, and an endurance score was calculated as the cumulated distance run during each minute. Max VO2 (ml/kg/min) correlated r = 0.61 with cumulative distance after 5 min of running. Validity correlations were only slightly increased by including minutes 8 to 10. Expressing max VO2 in either l/min or ml/kg LBW/min did not improve the correlation. Percent drop off in running speed from the initial pace averaged 16% at minute 5 and 31% at minute 10. Body weight and % body fat were inversely correlated with 10 min of cumulative performance (r = 0.33 and 0.43, respectively). At least 4 min of running was required to predict the 10 min cumulative performance criterion (r = 0.81; S(y.x) = 13.2 yd); a 5 min run raised the correlation to r = 0.87 (S(y.x) = 11.1 yd. Individual differences in min by min endurance performance were substantial throughout the run. The results suggest that a performance measure of running endurance, where all individuals begin running at 10 mph and attempt to maintain this speed for 10 min, should be continued for at least 5 min to achieve moderate validity.
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The estimation of maximal oxygen consumption (max Vo2) from a simple submaximal test has been of interest for many years, especially for middle-aged men. The object of the present study was to compare the prediction of max Vo2 obtained by simple regression with that obtained by stepwise multiple regression. The subjects, 13 middle-aged men, were exercised on a bicycle ergometer to max Vo2 (P < 0.10) as determined by the Haldane-Douglas bag method. Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, expired volume, expired CO2 and O2 were determined. The multiple regression equation predicted max better than the simple regression equation because several of the cardiovascular and respiratory variables are significant predictors and do not contain identical information. For middle-aged men, the multiple regression equation provided a correlation with max Vo2 that was significantly superior to that obtained by simple regression. This suggests that fallibility may be reduced in the prediction of max Vo2 by relying on more than a single cardiovascular or respiratory variable in the prediction equation.
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The purpose of this study was to compare the Queens College (QC), Skubic-Hodgkins (S-H), Modified OSU (ModOSU), and Witten Step Tests on their ability to account for V̇O2(max), and change in V̇O2max in a group of female college students. 34 female students were originally tested on the 4 step tests and a test of V̇O2max, trained for 6 weeks, and re-evaluated on the same tests. The QC and S-H step tests were most highly related to V̇O2max (r=-0.61 and 0.57, respectively) at the pre-test. All correlations, except S-H, increased at the post-test with the QC, S-H, and Witten all having about the same moderate relationship to V̇O2-max. Significant changes (p<0.01) in the anticipated direction occurred for all tests as a result of training. Correlations using the different methods were utilized to determine if change in step test performance could account for change in V̇O2max. It was determined that absolute changes in step test scores were not meaningfully related to changes in V.O2max. It was further concluded that the VQC test is the preferred step test when attempting to obtain a general idea of a person's aerobic capacity.