The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia

Schizophrenia Bulletin (Impact Factor: 8.45). 02/1987; 13(2):261-76. DOI: 10.1093/schbul/13.2.261
Source: PubMed


The variable results of positive-negative research with schizophrenics underscore the importance of well-characterized, standardized
measurement techniques. We report on the development and initial standardization of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale
(PANSS) for typological and dimensional assessment. Based on two established psychiatric rating systems, the 30-item PANSS
was conceived as an operationalized, drug-sensitive instrument that provides balanced representation of positive and negative
symptoms and gauges their relationship to one another and to global psychopathology. It thus constitutes four scales measuring
positive and negative syndromes, their differential, and general severity of illness. Study of 101 schizophrenics found the
four scales to be normally distributed and supported their reliability and stability. Positive and negative scores were inversely
correlated once their common association with general psychopathology was extracted, suggesting that they represent mutually
exclusive constructs. Review of five studies involving the PANSS provided evidence of its criterion-related validity with
antecedent, genealogical, and concurrent measures, its predictive validity, its drug sensitivity, and its utility for both
typological and dimensional assessment.

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Available from: Lewis Alan Opler
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    • "The primary outcome was disease severity rating scale, which varied in every study and included the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scales (BPRS)[18], the Positive And Negative Symptoms Scales (PANSS)[1], the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS)[19], and the Self-rating Depression Scales (SDS)[20]. All of the primary outcomes and other clinical variables were extracted from all of the studies included in the current meta-analysis. "

    Full-text · Article · Dec 2016 · BMC Psychiatry
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    • ", brain injury , drug dependence and mental retardation were excluded ( according to medical records , information collected from family members and interview with the patients ) . Furthermore , those with schizoaffective , anxiety and depression disorders were excluded . We used the Chinese version of Positive and Negative Symptom Scale ( PANSS ; Kay et al . , 1987 ) to measure severity of symptoms ( Table 1 ) . Symptomatic remission were defined according to a criteria ( both severity of core symptoms and their time criteria ) proposed by the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group ( RSWG ; Andreasen et al . , 2005 ) . We also assessed the patients ' intellectual functioning using the Chinese ve"
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    ABSTRACT: Prospective memory (PM) refers to the ability to remember to perform intended actions in the future. Although PM deficits are a prominent impairment in schizophrenia, little is still known about the nature of PM in symptomatically remitted patients with schizophrenia. To address this issue, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 20 symptomatically remitted patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls during an event-based PM paradigm. Behavioral results showed that symptomatically remitted patients with schizophrenia performed poorly on the PM task compared with healthy controls. On the neural level, the N300, a component of the ERPs related to PM cue detection, was reliable across these 2 groups, suggesting a degree of functional recovery of processes supporting cue detection in patients with symptomatically remitted schizophrenia. By contrast, the amplitude of the prospective positivity, a component of the ERPs related to PM intention retrieval, was significantly attenuated in symptomatically remitted schizophrenia patients relative to healthy controls. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation between the amplitude of the prospective positivity and accuracy on the PM task was found in those patients, indicating that patients’ poor performance on this task may result from the failure to recover PM cue-induced intention from memory. These results provide evidence for the existence of altered PM processing in patients with symptomatically remitted schizophrenia, which is characterized by a selective deficit in retrospective component (intention retrieval) of PM. Therefore, these findings shed new light on the neurophysiological processes underlying PM in schizophrenia patients during clinical remission.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2016 · Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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    • "A consensus diagnosis, according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) criteria, was made by experienced senior psychiatrists using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) for schizophrenia (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Psychotic symptoms (positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and general psychopathology) were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) (Kay et al., 1987). "
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    ABSTRACT: Although impaired social functioning, particularly poor employment status, is a cardinal feature of patients with schizophrenia and leads to decreased quality of life (QOL), few studies have addressed the relationship between these two clinical issues. The aim of this study was to determine whether employment status predicts subjective QOL and to evaluate a model in which functional capacity mediates the relationship between general cognitive performance and employment status. Ninety-three patients with schizophrenia were administered a comprehensive battery of cognitive tests, the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment-Brief version (UPSA-B), the Social Functioning Scale (SFS), and the Subjective Quality of Life Scale (SQLS). First, we evaluated a model for predicting the employment/occupation subscale score of the SFS using path analysis, and the model fitted well (χ2 (4)=3.6, p=0.46; CFI=1.0; RMSEA<0.001, with 90% CIs: 0–0.152). Employment status was predicted by negative symptoms and functional capacity, which was in turn predicted by general cognitive performance. Second, we added subjective QOL to this model. In a final path model, QOL was predicted by negative symptoms and employment status. This model also satisfied good fit criteria (χ2 (7)=10.3, p=0.17; CFI=0.987; RMSEA=0.072, with 90% CIs: 0–0.159). The UPSA-B and SFS scores were moderately correlated with most measures of cognitive performance. These results support the notion that better employment status enhances subjective QOL in patients with schizophrenia.
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