Article

Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)

Department of Postgraduate Medicine, University of Keele, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffs.
The British Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 7.99). 07/1987; 150(6):782-6. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.150.6.782
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The development of a 10-item self-report scale (EPDS) to screen for Postnatal Depression in the community is described. After extensive pilot interviews a validation study was carried out on 84 mothers using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for depressive illness obtained from Goldberg's Standardised Psychiatric Interview. The EPDS was found to have satisfactory sensitivity and specificity, and was also sensitive to change in the severity of depression over time. The scale can be completed in about 5 minutes and has a simple method of scoring. The use of the EPDS in the secondary prevention of Postnatal Depression is discussed.

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    • "The 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; Cox, Holden, & Sagovsky, 1987) was completed by participants at 36 weeks gestation and at 6 months postpartum . The EPDS has good psychometrics, including sensitivity and sensitivity, validity, and reliability when used with women during the perinatal period (Cox et al., 1987). "
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    ABSTRACT: Maternal positivity and mother-infant synchrony have been linked, independently, to beneficial infant outcomes; however, research that has examined relations between the two has found that higher positivity is associated with lower synchrony. Methodological issues may inform this counter-intuitive association and clinical theory supports its validity. This study examined the theory that heightened positivity associated with anxiety is a way of avoiding negative emotion and contributes to lower synchrony because it interferes with appropriate responding to infant cues. We examined mothers' (N=75) self-reported anxiety and verbal expression of positivity during pregnancy in relation to mother-infant synchrony at 6 months post-partum. Verbal positivity was assessed using linguistic analysis of interviews about pregnancy experiences. Mother and infant affect and gaze were coded during interaction and synchrony was computed as the correlation between mother and infant behaviors. Higher verbal positivity and anxiety during pregnancy independently predicted lower mother-infant synchrony, suggesting distinct pathways to the same degree of synchrony with potentially different consequences for infant development.
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    • "For screening for depression post partum, we used the EPDS, a questionnaire designed and validated by Cox (Cox et al., 1987). It consists of 10 items with four options as answers which are scored from 0 to 3, according to the increasing order of severity of symptoms and a score range of 0–30. "
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    • "SD = 4.80); higher scores indicate greater symptom severity. Fifty-six percent scored in the " probable " depression rate, with scores > 12 (Cox et al., 1987). Women were assessed for PTSD symptoms with the Modified PTSD Symptom Scale – Self Report (MPSS-SR; Falsetti, Resnick, Resick & Kilpatrick, 1993), measuring the frequency (0-3 scale) of symptoms present for the past two weeks, and summed to create a total score (x ̅ = 10.04, "
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