Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)
Department of Postgraduate Medicine, University of Keele, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffs.The British Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 7.99). 07/1987; 150(6):782-6. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.150.6.782
The development of a 10-item self-report scale (EPDS) to screen for Postnatal Depression in the community is described. After extensive pilot interviews a validation study was carried out on 84 mothers using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for depressive illness obtained from Goldberg's Standardised Psychiatric Interview. The EPDS was found to have satisfactory sensitivity and specificity, and was also sensitive to change in the severity of depression over time. The scale can be completed in about 5 minutes and has a simple method of scoring. The use of the EPDS in the secondary prevention of Postnatal Depression is discussed.
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- "The 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; Cox, Holden, & Sagovsky, 1987) was completed by participants at 36 weeks gestation and at 6 months postpartum . The EPDS has good psychometrics, including sensitivity and sensitivity, validity, and reliability when used with women during the perinatal period (Cox et al., 1987). "
ABSTRACT: Maternal positivity and mother-infant synchrony have been linked, independently, to beneficial infant outcomes; however, research that has examined relations between the two has found that higher positivity is associated with lower synchrony. Methodological issues may inform this counter-intuitive association and clinical theory supports its validity. This study examined the theory that heightened positivity associated with anxiety is a way of avoiding negative emotion and contributes to lower synchrony because it interferes with appropriate responding to infant cues. We examined mothers' (N=75) self-reported anxiety and verbal expression of positivity during pregnancy in relation to mother-infant synchrony at 6 months post-partum. Verbal positivity was assessed using linguistic analysis of interviews about pregnancy experiences. Mother and infant affect and gaze were coded during interaction and synchrony was computed as the correlation between mother and infant behaviors. Higher verbal positivity and anxiety during pregnancy independently predicted lower mother-infant synchrony, suggesting distinct pathways to the same degree of synchrony with potentially different consequences for infant development.
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- "For screening for depression post partum, we used the EPDS, a questionnaire designed and validated by Cox (Cox et al., 1987). It consists of 10 items with four options as answers which are scored from 0 to 3, according to the increasing order of severity of symptoms and a score range of 0–30. "
ABSTRACT: Introduction: There is little scientific evidence on the relationship between maternal quality of life and type of infant feeding. The purpose of this study was to determine if there were differences in mother’s quality of life by type of infant feeding. Material and methods: Longitudinal prospective study with 364 women who gave birth at a public hospital at Madrid, Spain, between February and October 2013. To be included, the participants had to be a healthy primigravida aged 18 to 45 years who gave birth to a healthy newborn with a gestational age between 36 and 42 completed weeks, regardless of delivery type. The hospital interviews were performed between 36- 48 hours postpartum in women who had case of vaginal/instrumental births and 60- 72 hours postpartum for women who had a caesarean birth. Telephone interviews were conducted at the sixth week and sixth month postpartum, and included the SF-36 to measure quality of life. SF-36 scores were compared between breastfeeding and formula feeding. We also analyzed the longitudinal change in SF-36 scores in both groups. Results: At the sixth week postpartum, regardless of the infant feeding modality, an increased mental health score was recorded for mothers who reported that their children ate and slept well and for those who did not go to the emergency hospital service because of concern over their baby’s health. No significant differences in quality of life were found between the two groups at six months postpartum. Between the sixth week and sixth month postpartum, quality of life improved significantly in both groups. Discussion: At the sixth week postpartum, the proportion of children who ate and slept well and did not have to attend in an emergency hospital service was higher in the breastfeeding group. This observation was associated with greater maternal quality of life. This positive indirect relationship between breastfeeding and quality of life should be considered an additional maternal health benefit in the short term.
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- "SD = 4.80); higher scores indicate greater symptom severity. Fifty-six percent scored in the " probable " depression rate, with scores > 12 (Cox et al., 1987). Women were assessed for PTSD symptoms with the Modified PTSD Symptom Scale – Self Report (MPSS-SR; Falsetti, Resnick, Resick & Kilpatrick, 1993), measuring the frequency (0-3 scale) of symptoms present for the past two weeks, and summed to create a total score (x ̅ = 10.04, "
ABSTRACT: Prenatal stress negatively affects fetal development, which in turn may affect infant hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis regulation and behavioral functioning. We examined effects of exposure to a traumatic stressor in families [intimate partner violence (IPV)] on both infants' HPA axis reactivity to stress and their internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Infants (n= 182, 50% girls, x age = 11.77 months) were exposed to a laboratory challenge task designed to induce frustration and anger (i.e., arm restraint). Saliva samples were taken pre-task and 20 and 40 minutes post-task and then assayed for cortisol. Mothers reported on their pregnancy and postpartum IPV history, current mental health, substance use, and their infants' behaviors. Structural equation modeling revealed that prenatal, but not postnatal, IPV was independently associated with infant cortisol reactivity and problem behavior. Maternal mental health predicted infant behavioral functioning but not infant HPA axis reactivity. These findings are consistent with the prenatal programming hypothesis; that is, early life stress affects later risk and vulnerability for altered physiological and behavioral regulation.