Despite the importance that is attributed to coping as a factor in psychological and somatic health outcomes, little is known about actual coping processes, the variables that influence them, and their relation to the outcomes of the stressful encounters people experience in their day-to-day lives. This study uses an intraindividual analysis of the interrelations among primary appraisal (what was at stake in the encounter), secondary appraisal (coping options), eight forms of problem- and emotion-focused coping, and encounter outcomes in a sample of community-residing adults. Coping was strongly related to cognitive appraisal; the forms of coping that were used varied depending on what was at stake and the options for coping. Coping was also differentially related to satisfactory and unsatisfactory encounter outcomes. The findings clarify the functional relations among appraisal and coping variables and the outcomes of stressful encounters.
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"Estudio de las Propiedades Psicométricas del Brief COPE para una muestra de mujeres uruguayas Las diferentes respuestas personales ante las situaciones estresoras (independientemente de la naturaleza de dichas situaciones) resultan de los esfuerzos individuales por hacer frente a la fuente de estrés, modificarla, o bien al regular sus respuestas emocionales ante la misma, dotándola de un significado diferente para reducir su grado de amenaza (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984, 1986; Pearlin, 1989). Podemos denominar estrategias de afrontamiento a las conductas de las personas que buscan frenar, amortiguar y, de ser posible, neutralizar o eliminar los efectos de las situaciones estresoras. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: La escala Brief COPE (Carver, 1997) es la ampliamente utilizada versión abreviada del COPE inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989), que ha demostrado ser de utilidad para evaluar las estrategias de afrontamiento en investigaciones en salud. El Brief COPE-versión en español (Perczek, Carver, Price, & Pozo-Kaderman, 2000) consta de 12 subescalas compuestas por dos ítems cada una. Se estudian las propiedades psicométricas del Brief COPE, en su versión en castellano a partir del estudio en una muestra de 203 mujeres adultas pertenecientes a la población general uruguaya. El Análisis Factorial Exploratorio, analizando los ítems, indica la existencia de 4 factores para la muestra estudiada. La agrupación resultó considerablemente coincidente con la reportada por los autores de la escala. Fiabilidad y evidencias de validez obtenidas con el Brief COPE para la presente muestra avalan su uso en el ámbito de la investigación en población del sexo femenino en Uruguay.
"l " by Rothbaum et al . ( 1982 ) , also marks the second possible outcome of experience , with key importance in terms of appraisal / understanding . Where before a viewer had structured a task as an exercise in self - reinforcement , this stage carries with it an implicit acceptance of insufficiency and need for protecting the self . According to Folkman et al . ( 1986 , p . 1000"
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper explores a fundamental similarity between cognitive models for crying and conceptions of insight, enlightenment or, in the context of art, “aesthetic experience.” All of which center on a process of initial discrepancy, followed by schema change, and conclude in a proposed adjustment or “transformation” of one's self image/world-view. Because tears are argued to mark one of the only physical indicators of this cognitive outcome, and because the process is particularly salient in examples with art, I argue that crying may provide an intriguing marker for empirical study of art experience. To explore this parallel, I offer a review of crying theory as well as of tearful cases with art, pointing out the key cognitive elements. I then introduce an expanded crying model, based upon our recent model of art experience which does consider insight and adjustment or application of the self. I also consider multiple emotional and evaluative factors, which may co-vary with crying response. This theoretical discussion is then applied in three exploratory, survey-based studies conducted within U.K., Japan and U.S. museums, and including what is claimed to be the 20th century's most tear-inducing abstract paintings. Results showed—with cross-cultural consistency—significant relation between “feeling like crying” and a collection of responses posited to indicate a full progression to aesthetic experience, as well as to positive assessment of artwork goodness, beauty, understanding of meaning, and to final reported self reflection and epiphany. I argue that, beyond the question of why we may cry, by considering the implications of what tears may indicate within information processing, feeling like crying may indeed offer a compelling basis for empirically identifying outcomes of perceptual (art) experience.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Frontiers in Psychology
"Coping has been defined as a 'person's constantly changing cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the person's resources' (Folkman et al., 1986: 993). The concept covers both emotional regulation and concrete problem-solving strategies. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on a mixed methods approach, this article describes the prevalence of different levels of food budget restraints in a sample of 1,650 Danish households, and explores different types of coping strategies to deal with such restraints. Strategies concerned cooking, eating and buying food. A deeper knowledge of coping strategies was obtained by analysing qualitative data from interviews with thirty families who have experienced food budget restraints. Results revealed that more than 40 per cent reported some level of restraint on their food budget, while about 20 per cent experienced more substantial food budget restraints or food insecurity. Single parent households were at significantly greater risk of experiencing restraint than others. An investigation of coping strategies showed that some strategies, for example, using leftovers and cooking seasonal products, were common across all levels of budget restraint, while strategies affecting social life and taste preferences negatively were mostly applied when restraint was more severe. The qualitative analysis explored how the various strategies involved the potential for both positive and negative experiences for the individual, depending on the wider context surrounding the need to reduce household food budgets. Results from this study may be important for developing adequate measures to influence food purchases and eating practices in specific groups in situations of widespread economic turbulence in welfare societies.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Social Policy and Society