The Relationship Between Articulation Disorders and Motor Coordination in Children

The American journal of occupational therapy.: official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association (Impact Factor: 1.7). 09/1986; 40(8):546-50. DOI: 10.5014/ajot.40.8.546
Source: PubMed


This study was designed to examine the relationship between articulation disorders, soft neurological signs, and motor abilities. Fifteen children with articulation problems, as measured by the Templin-Darley Articulation Screening Test and a connected speech sample, were compared with a normal control group (matched for sex and age) on the Quick Neurological Screening Test, the Imitation of Postures test (from the Southern California Sensory Integration Tests), and the 1984 version of the Stott Test of Motor Impairment that has been revised by Henderson. A significant difference was found between the groups on the Motor Impairment Test and the Quick Neurological Screening Test, supporting the hypothesis that the articulation disorder children would have more motor coordination problems and soft neurological signs than the normal children in the control group. There was no between-group difference on the Imitation of Postures test, suggesting that as a group, children with articulation deficits are not dyspraxic. This study supports other research findings stating a relationship between articulation problems and motor impairment, but it also indicates that this motor impairment is not necessarily dyspraxia.

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    • "The studies assessing motor abilities of children with AD have focused mostly on fine-motor or oral-motor skills, and found them to be impaired [13] [14]. Study of Cermak et al. [15] revealed that children with AD have also more motor coordination problems and soft neurological signs than the typically developing peers. They may exhibit abnormal praxis, which is a deficit in motor movements and sequencing in the absence of basic sensory or motor impairments [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate motor skills, haptic object recognition and social interaction in 5-year-old children with mild specific expressive language impairment (expressive-SLI) and articulation disorder (AD) in comparison of age- and gender matched healthy children. Twenty nine children (23 boys and 6 girls) with expressive-SLI, 27 children (20 boys and 7 girls) with AD and 30 children (23 boys and 7 girls) with typically developing language as controls participated in our study. The children were examined for manual dexterity, ball skills, static and dynamic balance by M-ABC test, haptic object recognition and for social interaction by questionnaire completed by teachers. Children with mild expressive-SLI demonstrated significantly poorer results in all subtests of motor skills (p<0.05), in haptic object recognition and social interaction (p<0.01) compared to controls. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in measured parameters between children with AD and controls. Children with expressive-SLI performed considerably poorer compared to AD group in balance subtest (p<0.05), and in overall M-ABC test (p<0.01). In children with mild expressive-SLI the functional motor performance, haptic perception and social interaction are considerably more affected than in children with AD. Although motor difficulties in speech production are prevalent in AD, it is localised and does not involve children's general motor skills, haptic perception or social interaction.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Brain & development
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    • "Findings from an investigation by Cermak, Ward, and Ward (1986) indicated that some children with articulation difficulties performed poorly relative to comparison children on a Test of Motor Impairment (Stott, Moyes, & Henderson, 1984, cited in Cermak et al., 1986), which evaluated, among other skills, balance and the ability to catch and throw a ball. However, groups with SSD and typical development performed similarly on an Imitation of Postures Test (Ayres, 1980, cited in Cermak et al., 1986), which assessed the motor planning skills necessary to mimic positions and postures. Bradford and Dodd (1994) showed that a subgroup of children with phonological disorder (classified as " inconsistent, " according to the taxonomy proposed by Dodd, 1995) achieved lower results relative to other subgroups with phonological delay as well as to comparison children on the Motor Accuracy Test – Revised (Ayres, 1980, cited in Bradford and Dodd, 1994). "
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    ABSTRACT: Although it has been shown that some children with Speech Sound Disorders (SSD) have difficulties in the area of productive morphosyntax, there has been little investigation into the possible source of these problems. Such research may nevertheless shed some light on theoretical questions of morphosyntactic abilities in children with atypical speech and/or language development, as well as suggest avenues for remediation of language weaknesses. The current study examined possible effects of speech perception, vocabulary, and articulation skills on concurrent syntax and longitudinal morphology in a group of seventy-nine children with SSD. Structural Equation Modelling techniques were used to model the relationships among the variables. The rationales for the models were drawn from the literature on children with SSD and also from studies of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). The latter were paid particular attention, as some children with SSD may also have SLI, and as morphosyntactic skills in individuals with SLI have been rigorously investigated. It was found that, of the three models examined, an articulation model, in which links were posited from articulation to syntax and from articulation to morphology, demonstrated good fit. Although some of the limitations in morphology and syntax seen in these children could be accounted for in terms of frank articulation errors, other explanations for the association between articulation and morphosyntax were also considered. One possibility was that speech motor skills and morphosyntax were dependent on similar neural substrates that may have been impaired in some of the participants investigated. A second possibility was that, given a finite set of resources devoted to language production, laboured articulation in the children with SSD bled resources from other areas of speech/language processing, and from expressive morphosyntax in particular. Further research, especially studies examining possible relationships among articulation and receptive and expressive grammar, is needed. Bien qu'il ait été montré que certains enfants présentant des troubles phonologiques ont aussi des difficultés dans le domaine de la morphosyntaxe productive, peu d'enquêtes ont été faites pour trouver les sources possibles de ces problèmes. Cependant, de telles recherches pourraient éclairer les questions théoriques des habiletés morphosyntaxiques chez les enfants ayant un développement atypique de la parole et/ou du langage, et pourraient aussi suggérer des approches pour remédier aux faiblesses de la langue. La présente étude a examiné les effets possibles des habilités de perception de la parole, du vocabulaire, et de l'articulation sur la syntaxe concurrente et la morphologie longitudinale dans un groupe de soixante-dix-neuf enfants présentant des troubles phonologiques. Les techniques de modèles d'équations structurelles ont été utilisées pour modeler les liens entre les variables. Les exposés raisonnés ont été tirés de la littérature sur les enfants présentant des troubles phonologiques aussi bien que de recherches sur les enfants présentant un trouble primaire (dysphasie) du langage. Une attention toute particulière a été prêtée à ce dernier groupe puisque certains enfants présentant des troubles phonologiques peuvent aussi avoir un trouble primaire du langage et que les habiletés morphosyntaxiques chez les individus présentant un trouble primaire du langage ont été rigoureusement étudiées. On a constaté que, des trois modèles examinés, un modèle d'articulation dans lequel des liens ont été postulés de l'articulation à la syntaxe et de l'articulation à la morphologie se révélait particulièrement approprié. Quoique certaines des limitations en morphologie et syntaxe constatées chez ces enfants puissent provenir de simples erreurs d'articulation, d'autres explications pour le lien entre l'articulation et la morphosyntaxe ont été aussi considérées. Une possibilité serait que les habiletés motrices de la parole et la morphosyntaxe dépendent de substrats neuraux semblables et qui seraient peut-être détériorés chez certains participants à l'étude. Une deuxième possibilité serait que, étant donné qu'il existe un nombre fini de ressources consacrées à la production du langage, l'effort de l'articulation chez les enfants présentant des troubles phonologiques a épuisé les ressources d'autres régions qui s'occupent de la parole/du langage, et en particulier de la morphosyntaxe expressive. D'autres recherches, surtout des études qui examinent les liens qui puissent exister entre l'articulation et la grammaire réceptive et expressive sont nécessaires.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2009
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    • " degree of impairment in children with SLI . In this case , Archer and Witelson ( 1988 ) found that children with developmental dysphasia were signi cantly slower than their normally develop - ing peers in the accurate production of such postures . Other studies found no diVerences in time and accuracy of non - symbolic single gesture production ( Cermak et al . 1986 , Hill 1998 , Smith and Bryson 1998 ) . Finally , four studies assessed the production of non - symbolic hand sequences ( two and / or three postures per sequence ) . Again , results are mixed with three studies nding that accuracy of reproduction of these sequences was impaired relative to normally developing controls ( Archer and Wite"
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    ABSTRACT: In the light of emerging suggestions that language and motor deficits may co-occur, the literature on specific language impairment (SLI) was reviewed to investigate the prevalence of co-morbidity between SLI and poor limb motor skill in children diagnosed with language impairments. An extensive literature search was undertaken and the subsequent findings evaluated with particular reference to issues surrounding symptom co-occurrence, as well as to theoretical and aetiological accounts of SLI. Clearly substantial co-morbidity exists between SLI and poor motor skill, suggesting that SLI is not a specific disorder of language, but rather that children with SLI experience a broader range of difficulties, of which motor incoordination is one. Current theoretical explanations of SLI do not account fully for such wide-ranging difficulties and it may be useful in the future to focus on a more detailed explanation in terms of shared cognitive processes or neuromaturational delay to understand further the nature of the disorder, to explain it theoretically and to deal with it practically.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2001 · International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
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