Cleft Palate Repair by Double Opposing Z-Plasty
In an attempt to improve speech results following palate repair while allowing adequate maxillary growth, a palatoplasty using two opposing Z-plasties of the soft palate, one of the oral and one of the nasal layers, has been used in 22 infants. Eight patients had unilateral cleft lip and palate, eight had bilateral cleft lip and palate, and six had cleft palate. The Z-plasties facilitate effective dissection and redirection of the palatal muscles to produce an overlapping muscle sling and lengthen the velum without using tissue from the hard palate, which permits hard palate closure without pushback or lateral relaxing incisions. Of the 20 children old enough for speech evaluation, 18 have no velopharyngeal insufficiency. Two have very mild velopharyngeal insufficiency. None has required a pharyngeal flap.
Available from: David J. Crockett
- "Those with lateral gaps or “bowtie” closure patterns underwent a sphincter pharyngoplasty. Furlow palatoplasty (18) was reserved for patients with small gaps with a dynamic velopharyngeal mechanism and for those with a submucous cleft palate. The combination of Furlow palatoplasty and sphincter pharyngoplasty was recommended in patients with a moderate velopharyngeal gap. "
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Surgical treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is often warranted. In this patient population, VPI is characterized by poor palatal elevation and muscular hypotonia with an intact palate. We hypothesize that 22q11.2 deletion patients are at greater risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after surgical correction of VPI, due, in part, to their functional hypotonia, large velopharyngeal gap size, and the need to surgically obstruct the velopharynx.
We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome treated at a tertiary pediatric hospital between the years of 2002 and 2012. The incidence of VPI, need for surgery, post-operative polysomnogram, post-operative VPI assessment, and OSA treatments were evaluated.
Forty-three patients (18 males, 25 females, ages 1-14 years) fitting the inclusion criteria were identified. Twenty-eight patients were evaluated by speech pathology due to hypernasality. Twenty-one patients had insufficient velopharyngeal function and required surgery. Fifteen underwent pharyngeal flap surgery, three underwent sphincter pharyngoplasty, two underwent Furlow palatoplasty, and one underwent combined sphincter pharyngoplasty with Furlow palatoplasty. Of these, eight had post-operative snoring. Six of these underwent polysomnography (five underwent pharyngeal flap surgeries and one underwent sphincter pharyngoplasty). Four patients were found to have OSA based on the results of the polysomnography (average apnea/hypopnea index of 4.9 events/h, median = 5.1, SD = 2.1). Two required continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) due to moderate OSA.
Surgery is often necessary to correct VPI in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Monitoring for OSA should be considered after surgical correction of VPI due to a high occurrence in this population. Furthermore, families should be counseled of the risk of OSA after surgery and the potential need for treatment with CPAP.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "We have normally used the Furlow double-opposing z-palatoplasty17 for primary palatoplasty. However, when a fistula would occur in the hard palate, the tight mucosa around the fistula might make the closure of the cleft palate difficult, even if it seemed small. "
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A palatal fistula is a common complication of cleft palate repair. Although a buccal musculomucosal flap (BMMF) is effective for fistula repair, it does have the following problems: a second operation may be required to release the pedicle on the oral side and unilateral BMMF cannot close mucosal defects of both the nasal and oral sides. A novel fistula closure method using the folded BMMF (f-BMMF) invented by the authors is presented.
A 8-year-old-boy with bilateral cleft lip and palate with anencephaly. A fistula in the hard palate occurred after palatoplasty by the Furlow method, and an f-BMMF was planned. The mucosal defects of the nasal and oral sides were covered by 2 separate islands of mucosal epithelium. Finally, no reoperation was needed to remove the pedicle of the f-BMMF.
The f-BMMF is able to cover both sides without a raw surface and a mucosal graft even in cases of large fistula closure, although BMMF cannot usually cover both oral and nasal sides of a fistula. The advantages of this procedure are that it does not require second surgery to release the pedicle and that its distal island mucosa can be used to monitor engraftment. This proposed method seems to be an appealing alternative.
Available from: europepmc.org
- "We performed primary palatoplasty by combining two-flap palatoplasty and IVV. Repositioning of the levator muscle is important for speech improvement after primary palatoplasty . We combined IVV when performing primary palatoplasty but re-explored and reinforced the levator muscle with DOZ when a correction of VPI was required. "
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ABSTRACT: Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) may persist after primary repair of the cleft palate, and surgical correction is necessary in many cases. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of double opposing Z-plasty (DOZ) in cleft palate patients suffering from VPI after primary two-flap palatoplasty.
Between March 1999 and August 2005, we identified 82 patients who underwent two-flap palatoplasty for cleft palate repair. After excluding the patients with congenital syndrome and mental retardation, 13 patients were included in the final study group. The average age of the patients who underwent DOZ at was 5 years and 1 month. Resonance, nasal emission, and articulation were evaluated by a speech pathologist. The velopharyngeal gaps were measured before and after surgery.
Six patients attained normal speech capabilities after DOZ. The hypernasality grade was significantly improved after surgery in all of the patients (P=0.0015). Whereas nasal emission disappeared in 8 patients (61.5%), it was diminished but still persisted in the remaining 5 patients. Articulation was improved in all of the cases. In two cases, the velopharyngeal gap was measured using a ruler. The gap decreased from 11.5 to 7 mm in one case, and from 12.5 to 8 mm in the second case.
The use of DOZ as a surgical option to correct VPI has many advantages compared with other procedures. These include short surgery time, few troublesome complications, and no harmful effects on the dynamic physiological functioning of the pharynx. This study shows that DOZ can be another option for surgical treatment of patients with VPI after two-flap palatoplasty.
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