Article

Gender and Aggressive Behavior. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Social Psychological Literature

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  • Idaho Department of Health and Welfare
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Abstract

In our meta-analytic review of sex differences in aggressive behavior reported in the social psychological literature we found that although men were somewhat more aggressive than women on the average, sex differences were inconsistent across studies. The magnitude of the sex differences was significantly related to various attributes of the studies. In particular, the tendency for men to aggress more than women was more pronounced for aggression that produces pain or physical injury than for aggression that produces psychological or social harm. In addition, sex differences in aggressive behavior were larger to the extent that women, more than men, perceived that enacting a behavior would produce harm to the target, guilt and anxiety in oneself, as well as danger to oneself. Our interpretation of these results emphasizes that aggression sex differences are a function of perceived consequences of aggression that are learned as aspects of gender roles and other social roles.

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... In fact, gender stereotypes have an influence on intimate partner violence [11], gender violence [12], bullying [13,14], and cyber aggression [15]. The role of the male gender includes norms that encourage aggressive behavior and the traditional feminine role emphasizes behaviors considered protective from aggression [16]. In fact, femininity was negatively related to adolescent Chinese boys externalizing problem behaviors [17]. ...
... Traditional masculinity is characterized by instrumental personality traits such as aggression, self-affirmation, social dominance, and lack of consideration for others [18][19][20][21], and these traits are internalized in childhood and adolescence. The traditional masculine role includes norms that encourage many of the behaviors considered aggressive [16,37]. Likewise, the traditional feminine role emphasizes aggression very little [16], which would protect them from carrying out aggressive behaviors [17]. ...
... The traditional masculine role includes norms that encourage many of the behaviors considered aggressive [16,37]. Likewise, the traditional feminine role emphasizes aggression very little [16], which would protect them from carrying out aggressive behaviors [17]. In fact, traditional femininity, which encompasses attributes related to emotional expressivity and the attention to other has been related directly to less reactive and proactive aggression, in this way, acts as a protective factor for aggressive behaviors. ...
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Traditional masculinity includes norms that encourage many of the aggressive behaviors whereas traditional femininity emphasizes aggression very little. In addition, the lack of emotional regulation as well as a poor impulse control have been related to aggression and, in particular, with reactive and proactive aggression. The objective of this study is to examine the role of gender stereotypes (masculinity/femininity) in reactive and proactive aggression, through regulatory emotional self-efficacy and emotion regulation. A total of 390 adolescents participated in a longitudinal study in Valencia, Spain. Structural equations modeling (SEM) was employed to explore a two-wave longitudinal model. The results show that femininity relates to reactive aggression through regulatory emotional self-efficacy and emotion regulation. This way, both emotional self-efficacy and emotional regulation mediate the relation between femininity and reactive aggression. Furthermore, reactive and proactive aggression relate positively and directly to masculinity and negatively to femininity. Therefore, violence prevention programs with adolescents should incorporate information to break down gender stereotypes and promote strategies to manage emotions. Such efforts may be helpful to reduce aggressive behaviors and violence.
... La razón de estas diferencias parece estar en los roles de género (Eagly y Wood, 1991). Mientras que el rol de género masculino enfatiza el dominio, la agresividad y el poder, el femenino se relaciona con el cuidado y la crianza, características incompatibles con la agresión (Eagly y Crowley, 1986), si bien las diferencias entre hombres y mujeres son más pronunciadas cuando la agresión produce daño físico que cuando produce daño psicológico o social (Eagly y Steffen, 1986). ...
... Estudios previos indican que las características compartidas (e.g., genes, valores) con un grupo aumentan la fusión y la disposición a llevar a cabo comportamientos extremos por ese grupo (Swann et al., 2014;Vázquez et al., 2017). Determinadas características de la institución policial facilitarían una mayor vinculación de los hombres autoritarios con este cuerpo de seguridad en comparación con las mujeres autoritarias, como la mayor presencia masculina en las plantillas policiales o el empleo de la violencia en determinadas circunstancias, más congruente con conductas de rol masculinas (Eagly y Steffen, 1986). ...
... Los hombres autoritarios apoyaron más que las mujeres autoritarias el uso injustificado de la fuerza policial, mientras que no hubo diferencias entre hombres y mujeres autoritarios con respecto al uso razonable. Que la moderación del sexo se dé en un caso (fuerza excesiva), pero no en el otro (fuerza razonable) podría explicarse por la incompatibilidad de los roles de género femeninos con la violencia física (Eagly y Steffen, 1986). Futuros estudios podrían examinar si la conformidad con los roles tradicionales masculinos y femeninos, más que el sexo en sí mismo, modula la asociación entre autoritarismo y legitimación de los excesos policiales. ...
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This research analyzes whether authoritarianism increases support for police abuse and if the effect is greater in men than in women. In addition, it explores whether fusion with the police, a predictor of extreme behavior, can mediate that effect. An exploratory correlational study was carried out with 149 Spaniards, in which two levels of police force were established, reasonable and excessive. The results showed a direct association between authoritarianism and support for the use of police force and an indirect association through fusion. Furthermore, the effects of authoritarianism on support for the use of police force were found to be stronger in men than in women, but only when the force used was excessive. These results suggest that ideological factors and psychosocial variables such as fusion and gender roles play a role in the legitimation of police excesses
... Social role theory (SRT) describes how people's perceptions of men's and women's social roles in society influence the behavioral differences and similarities between men and women (Eagly, 1987;Eagly & Karau, 1991;Eagly & Steffen, 1986;Eagly & Wood, 2011;Eagly, Wood, & Diekman, 2000). People's beliefs about gender are derived from their observations of social behaviors by men and women, which are affected by the division of labor based on sex and the gender hierarchy of the society (Eagly et al., 2000). ...
... The sex-typical family roles force women to learn more domestic skills, which fosters women to behave more facilitative and friendly compared with men (Eagly et al., 2000). Conversely, the male gender role includes norms encouraging many forms of aggression (Eagly & Steffen, 1986). In particular, men are thought to be more agentic whereas women are considered to be more communal (Eagly & Wood, 2011). ...
... This indicates that women and men may have differences in their willingness to become part of a group (i.e., attachment to an esports team). (Eagly, 1987;Eagly & Karau, 1991;Eagly & Steffen, 1986;Eagly & Wood, 2011;Eagly et al., 2000). Additionally, socially defined gender roles are derived from observing the social behaviors of men and women (Eagly, 1987;Eagly et al., 2000). ...
Article
Guided by social role theory and the extant literature, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the gender differences in esports spectating motives and points of attachment. A questionnaire was developed to survey fans (N = 479) of the Houston Outlaws, a professional team in the Overwatch League. Findings indicate gender differences across five motivational factors: women seem to be more motivated to watch Overwatch for social opportunities, interest in player, and (player) physical attractiveness; men appear to be more motivated to watch for enjoyment of aggression and entertainment value. Our results also suggest how perceived social roles may influence gender differences in attachment to the athlete and its relationship with spectating motives. Theoretical, managerial, and social implications, as well as future research recommendations, are discussed.
... In accordance with the stereotype, data on aggressive behaviors suggested that men and boys engaged in more of certain types of aggressive behaviors than women and girls (Eagly & Steffen, 1986). The effect of gender accounted for 5% of the variance (Hyde, 1984) and separate analyses on different types of aggression revealed that differences were most pronounced for physical aggression (Eagly & Steffen, 1986). ...
... In accordance with the stereotype, data on aggressive behaviors suggested that men and boys engaged in more of certain types of aggressive behaviors than women and girls (Eagly & Steffen, 1986). The effect of gender accounted for 5% of the variance (Hyde, 1984) and separate analyses on different types of aggression revealed that differences were most pronounced for physical aggression (Eagly & Steffen, 1986). Among the explanations proposed, some pointed to women's greater fear of retaliation or greater feelings of guilt in relation to the victim, but also to society's greater tolerance of male aggression than female aggression (Eagly, 1987). ...
Article
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After women secured the right to vote some hundred years ago, the assertions about their innate inferiority gradually began to vanish, giving way to theories about the countless aspects which apparently differentiated them from men. In this paper, we follow the evolution of research on sex differences, starting with the work of the first female psychologists who questioned the theories that justified women’s subordinate positions in society. We trace the main developments of the studies on sex differences, their relationship with social roles, gender stereotypes, and gender identity, and describe the strategies used to highlight the role of society rather than of biology in shaping men and women’s personalities and behaviors. We describe the controversies this area of research gave rise to, the debates over its political implications, and the changes observed over time in women’s social positions and within research perspectives. Finally, we discuss the mutually reinforcing effects of social organization and lay conceptions of gender and reflect on how the field of research on sex differences has contributed to building a fairer society.
... Prior studies also contend that gender role beliefs interact with the division of labor to strengthen gender differences in behavior and attitudes (Eagly and Wood 2016). The resulting differences in empathic response, helping behavior and fairness are consistent with the predictions of various sociological and psychological theories (Eagly and Crowley 1986;Eagly and Steffen 1986). For instance, relative to men, women are significantly less supportive of military action in foreign policy (Fite, Genest, and Wilcox 1990), more supportive of crime prevention (Hurwitz and Smithey 1998;Miller, Rossi and Simpson 1986), show greater concern for war casualties and terrorist attacks (Bendyna et al. 1996;Huddy et al. 2005) and the security of their neighborhood (Burns and Schumaker 1987). ...
Article
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Much of the vast literature on the substantive representation of women takes as its point of departure important a priori assumptions about the nature of women as a group. Calling for rethinking of many of those assumptions, a recent body of work recommends an inductive approach to defining women's interests. In line with this view, I draw on a recently constructed dataset that codes nearly a million Americans' policy priorities over the past 75 years to explore what constitutes women's interests and whether gender differences in priorities cut across partisan and racial divisions. Results suggest consistent gender gaps across a large number of policy categories, with women showing particular concern for policy areas traditionally associated with 'women's interests'. While in many policy areas women were more likely to share policy priorities with other women than with their male counterparts of the same race or partisan background, results also document considerable heterogeneity among women in various policy areas, which has major policy implications that speak to the representation of women's interests.
... More specifically, we propose that grammatical gender may influence the way the coronavirus disease is perceived, and in particular, judgments of how dangerous the virus or disease is. Compared to men, women are perceived as weaker and more passive (Abele, 2003;Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002), whereas compared to women, men are perceived as more violent, aggressive, and destructive (Eagly & Steffen, 1986;Rudman, Greenwald, & McGhee, 2001). Thus, if the feminine grammatical gender activates gender-stereotypical perceptions (weaker, more passive, etc.), it may lead to perceptions that the virus or disease is less dangerous, as well as lower intentions to engage in precautionary behaviors to avoid contracting the disease. ...
Article
Gendered languages assign masculine and feminine grammatical gender to all nouns, including nonhuman entities. In French and Spanish, the name of the disease resulting from the virus (COVID‐19) is grammatically feminine, whereas the virus that causes the disease (coronavirus) is masculine. In this research, we test whether the grammatical gender mark affects judgments. In a series of experiments with French and Spanish speakers, we show that grammatical gender affects virus‐related judgments consistent with gender stereotypes: feminine‐ (vs. masculine‐) marked terms for the virus lead individuals to assign lower stereotypical masculine characteristics to the virus, which in turn reduces their danger perceptions. The effect generalizes to precautionary consumer behavior intentions (e.g., avoiding restaurants, movies, public transportation, etc.) as well as to other diseases, and is moderated by individual differences in chronic gender stereotyping. These effects occur even though the grammatical gender assignment is semantically arbitrary.
... Men demonstrate greater direct aggression than women but under specific conditions. The sex differences are evident primarily when the individual was unprovoked (Bettencourt & Miller, 1996) and when the aggression caused pain rather than psychological or social harm (Eagly & Steffen, 1986). A comprehensive meta-analysis by Archer (2019) confirmed that men showed greater (1) verbal aggression (small effect size), (2) physical aggression (medium effect size), weapon use (very large effect size), (c) violent crime (very large effect size), (d) violent computer game use (very large effect size), (e) revenge (large effect size) and (f) a social dominance orientation (medium effect size). ...
Article
The research examined whether, and if so how, young adults' trust beliefs in others were associated with interpersonal hostility. The participants in Study 1 were 139 young adults from the UK (76 women; Mage = 20.8). In Study 2, 88 young adult women from the UK (Mage = 21.5) served as participants. The participants completed a standardized measure of trust beliefs in others (total with reliability, honesty, and emotional subscales). In Study 1, participants imagined they were victims of peer provocation. They were required to judge the intention for the provocation and their retaliation to it. In Study 2, the participants were engaged in a lab‐based acquaintanceship interaction that involved the exchange of disclosures. They completed an adjective checklist that assessed anger and evaluated the quality of the conversation. Trust beliefs were linearly and negatively associated with the attribution of hostile intentions, retaliation, anger toward others, and critical evaluation of a developing peer relationship. As expected though, quadratic relations were found. Young adults with very low and those with very high trust beliefs (primarily emotionally based) showed greater attribution of hostile intentions, retaliation, anger toward others, and critical evaluation of a developing peer relationship than did young adults with the middle range of trust beliefs. The linear relations supported the hypothesis that trust promotes psychosocial adjustment. The quadratic relations supported the deviation from the normative trust (centralist) approach primarily for emotional trust beliefs in others.
... Wenn diese Bestätigung jedoch nicht verfügbar oder mit Zweifeln behaftet ist, dann führt dies beim vulnerablen Narzissmus zu sozialer Vermeidung und Rückzug (Miller, Gentile, & Campbell, 2013;Wink, 1991), während grandiose Narzissten eher zum Angriff übergehen (Blair, Hoffman, & Helland, 2008;Sedikides, Rudich, & Gregg, 2004;Brunell, Staats, Barden, & Hupp, 2010;Blickle, Schlegel, Fassbender, & Klein, 2006). Deshalb könnten Geschlechtsunterschiede im Narzissmus bestimmte Geschlechtsunterschiede im beruflichen Leben erklären, beispielsweise die mit Narzissmus assoziierten Zusammenhänge mit Aggression (Eagly & Steffen, 1986), Führungswunsch (Eagly & Karau, 1991) und akademischem Betrügen (Whitley, Nelson, & Jones, 1999 (Grijalva, Newman, & Louis, 2015). Personen, die unter vulnerablem Narzissmus leiden, suchen eher Behandlung auf (Pincus & Lukowitsky, 2010), aber grandiose Narzissten werden wahrscheinlicher mit einer narzisstischen Persönlichkeitsstörung diagnostiziert (Hartung & Widiger, 1998;Stinson, Dawson, Goldstein, & Chou, 2008). ...
Thesis
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Drei grundsätzliche Ziele verfolgte diese Arbeit: Zunächst die Differenzierung von vulnerablem und grandiosem Narzissmus anhand der Beziehung zwischen Narzissmus und emotionaler Intelligenz. Des Weiteren soll Narzissmus zum ersten Mal mit Emotionsmanagement in Verbindung gebracht werden. Zuletzt sollte das neue Konstrukt „typisches Emotionsmanagement“ bezüglich seiner Zuordnung in die Persönlichkeitsdomäne der emotionalen Intelligenz (als verhaltensbezogener Indikator des sog. Trait EI) untersucht werden. Bei der Onlineuntersuchung wurden hierfür 151 Probanden gewonnen, die zwei Varianten des „Situational Test of Emotion Management“ (STEM) durchführten. Zur Erfassung der typischen Performanz (TP), wurde der neue STEM-TP verwendet, für die der maximalen Performanz (MP), der STEM-MP. Ferner bearbeiteten die Probanden die „Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale“ (HSNS) für den vulnerablen und die deutsche Kurzversion des „Narcissistic Personality Inventory“ (NPI-d) für den grandiosen Narzissmus. Ergänzend wurden die Kurzversionen der Fragebögen „Trait Emotional Intelligence Question-naire“ (TEI-Que-SF) für die Messung des Trait EI und das „Big Five Inventory“ (BFI-K) für die Big Five Faktoren ausgefüllt. Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass das neue Konstrukt STEM-TP nicht als verhaltensbezogener Indikator des Trait EI bezeichnet werden kann, da es in keiner signifikanten Beziehung zu den Persönlichkeitsmerkmalen (Trait EI, Narzissmus, Big Five) steht. Die Resultate bestärken auch die Notwendigkeit, vulnerablen und grandiosen Narzissmus zu differenzieren, insbesondere, wenn Persönlichkeitsmerkmale (hier: Emotionale Intelligenz über den Trait EI) über Selbsteinschätzungsverfahren ermittelt werden. Insgesamt legt diese Studie dar, dass bei der Definition der narzisstischen Persönlichkeitsstörung eine genauere Differenzierung und damit bessere Erfassung des vulnerablen Narzissmus durchgeführt werden muss.
... The way society assigns roles to people can have its roots in Social Role theory (Eagly, 1987) authenticated by Eagly and Steffen (1986) and establishes the relationship between people and social system. Using a structural viewpoint, theory stressed that family, environment and the society in which people live, assign certain roles to men and women which they perform. ...
... These gender norms may motivate women to stay prosocial and responsive to their dual-career husbands' needs despite their own work strain (Neff & Karney, 2005). On the other hand, our finding that men are more likely to engage in spousal undermining behaviors when experiencing challenge work stressors coupled with higher exhaustion may be due to the fact that undermining is viewed as more congruent with masculinity (Eagly & Steffen, 1986). Contrarily, femininity stereotypes discourage women from undermining behaviors but encourage them to behave with concern and consideration. ...
Article
Job stressors remain a common organizational phenomenon, and research shows the ability to recover during nonwork time is critical for well‐being and job performance. Recent labor data suggests a rise in dual‐career couples, indicating employees may be affected by their own as well as their spouses’ job stressors. Yet investigations into dual‐career couples’ mutual experiences of job stressors and nonwork outcomes are scarce. Informed by the work‐home resources model and crossover theory, we use a dyadic modeling approach to examine how heterosexual, dual‐career couples’ daily challenge and hindrance stressors relate to social support/undermining received by the spouse and subsequent evening relaxation—a critical recovery experience. We find a gendered pattern where husbands’ daily challenge stressors affect social support towards their wives and wives’ nightly relaxation. Husbands’ challenge stressors also related to social undermining toward their spouses, although this effect was moderated by the husbands’ exhaustion at the end of the workday. Neither wives’ challenge stressors, nor both partners’ hindrance stressors impacted spousal social behaviors. The results of this study highlight that job stressors can be differentially linked to dual‐career couples’ evening relaxation experiences and point to the importance of investigating stressors on the day level within a realistic social context.
... The social role theory (Eagly and Steffen 1986;Eagly and Wood 1991;Eagly et al. 2000;Eagly and Sczesny 2019) supports that behavioral gender differences are based on the historical division of labor between the sexes and the relating roles men and women assume in the society. "Boys but not girls learn that aggressive responding is appropriate as part of a set of instrumental behaviors that fit them better for the masculine role. ...
Article
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The present study examines a unique database of 724 individuals that informally look after cars parked in the streets. The study enriches our knowledge on the relationship between gender and the aggression exerted by these irregular workers on citizens. Employing a multivariate analysis, we find that men tend to commit acts of physical aggression more frequently than women, while women show greater verbal aggressiveness than men, when drivers underpay in this voluntary payment market. The results provided by the present study have implications to understand the dynamics in these understudied sectors and may be a valuable input for social policies. The findings may be useful also for other sectors with significant similarities, that is, those that work in the street doing different tasks in exchange for tips such as cleaning the windshields of the cars or juggling at the traffic lights. These results may shed light to the research and policy design in contexts where vulnerable workers strive for the informal ownership of a physical public space.
... Previous research has shown that differences exist between men and women's levels of externalising (M > F) and internalising behaviours (F > M), as well as boldness (M > F), meanness (M > F), and disinhibition (M > F) (Colins et al., 2017;Falkenbach et al., 2017;Poy et al., 2014). Specifically, men show more aggressive behaviours than women (Eagly & Steffen, 1986;Murray-Close et al., 2010). Furthermore, there is some evidence of gender differences in the associations between psychopathic personality traits and externalising and internalising behaviours. ...
Article
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Psychopathic personality traits are positively associated with externalising behaviours, and negatively associated with internalising behaviours. However, the contribution of different facets of psychopathy (boldness, meanness, disinhibition) in explaining externalising and internalising behaviours across genders are inconsistent. In this study, we explored gender differences in the assessment of, and relationships between, psychopathic personality traits, trait anxiety, social anxiety, depression, mental health, and aggressive behaviour in 822 students from a German University (586 women, 236 men; Mage = 22.27). Using a structural equation model, we found a positive relationship between aggressive behaviour and all three facets of psychopathy, a positive relationship between internalising behaviours and disinhibition, and a significant negative relationship between internalising behaviours and boldness. Despite gender differences in absolute levels of these variables, the overall pattern of the relationships between variables was consistent across genders. This indicates that symptom level differences across gender cannot be accounted for by variation in early developing personality traits like psychopathy.
... Based on gender norms and stereotypes, men and women pursue certain educational disciplines and occupy certain work careers. For instance, men are more likely than women to work in construction, engineering, business, military, athletics and other jobs that demand assertiveness, aggressiveness, competitiveness and physical strength (Eagly and Steffen, 1986). On the other hand, women are more likely than men to occupy jobs that require collaboration, helpfulness and nurturing, such as teaching, nursing and assistance (Eagly and Steffen, 1984). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore the factors that influence Saudi Arabian women to persist in nontraditional work careers, which are primarily in gender-integrated work environments and male-dominated industries. Design/methodology/approach Qualitative research was conducted based on semistructured interviews with 30 Saudi women – 18 of whom were working in nontraditional careers and 12 of whom had worked in nontraditional careers but subsequently left to pursue more traditional, female-associated career opportunities. Interview data were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory methods. Findings Distinct similarities and differences between the two subsamples emerged from the data. Similarities between the two groups included men's underestimation of women's performance, lack of access to workplace sites and resources, male colleagues' cultural fears of violating gender norms and social rejection of women in the workplace. Women who persisted in nontraditional work careers articulated a high level of self-efficacy, an optimistic future vision, positive relationships with male colleagues and family support, which enabled them to persevere despite numerous difficulties associated with working in a male-dominated environment. A conceptual model is developed that integrates the findings explaining Saudi women's persistence in nontraditional work careers. Research limitations/implications Self-reported data and a small sample size are the main limitations of this study. Practical implications Male managers of women in nontraditional work settings are encouraged to engage positively with women professionals in their teams and to provide opportunities for growth and development for all members of the workforce. Saudi public policy decision-makers, families, educators and organizations interested in retaining and increasing female workforce participation should take into account the factors influencing Saudi women's persistence in nontraditional work careers. Originality/value Although some studies in Western contexts have addressed the factors that influence the persistence of women in nontraditional careers, less work has been done in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) sociocultural context. Specifically, in the present study, the authors investigate the factors that influence women's persistence in nontraditional careers in Saudi Arabia's high gender-role-oriented culture.
... Moreover, chronic vulnerability to darkness and ambient darkness interacted to predict activation of danger-connoting stereotypes for both male and female perceivers; however, the effect was much stronger among men [58]. A social role perspective of the gender differences in aggression proposed that as aggressive behaviors is more prescriptive of men's gender role, men might be more likely to use it to comply with normative expectations [59]. In fact, research on gender roles also demonstrated that men respond aggressively to cues that threaten their security about their gender status [60]. ...
Article
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The present study investigated the effect of interpersonal mistreatment on the perpetrators’ mental health. We proposed that the threat of COVID-19 will increase people’s mental health problems through their on-line aggression toward stigmatized groups accused of spreading the disease and that there might be potential gender differences in such effects. We tested our predictions among a sample of U.S. residents (Study 1) and a large sample of Chinese residents living out of Hubei province (Study 2) during a heightened period of concern about COVID-19, February 2020. Specifically, we measured U.S. residents’ on-line aggressive behaviors toward Chinese people (Study 1) and Chinese non-Hubei residents’ on-line aggressive behaviors toward Hubei residents (Study 2) as well as their neuroticism (Study 1) and mental health states (Study 2). In line with our predictions, both studies showed that perceived infection of COVID-19 can induce on-line aggression toward stigmatized groups, thereby increasing people’s mental health problems. Moreover, the relationship between COVID-19 vulnerability, on-line aggression, and psychosomatic symptoms was more prominent in men than in women. These results offer insights into people’s responses toward COVID-19 and add to the understanding of people’s mental and physical health during the epidemic stage of contagious diseases.
... The tender side also allows us to acknowledge and hold strong emotions like anger, while fierce self-compassion then helps us recognize the power of anger to wake us up and call us into action. Females often have a hard time getting in touch with anger, and yet anger is often the most appropriate response to the kinds of harms, injustices, and threats to our safety and well-being that we face (Eagly & Steffen, 1986). When we balance tender and fierce selfcompassion, it allows our anger to be constructive, rather than destructive; to use it in service of repairing harm, rather than retaliating (Neff, 2021b). ...
Article
In the early 1990’s, Gloria Steinem, a leader of the feminist movement, authored the book A Revolution from Within: Self-Esteem to help empower girls and women. Decades later, females continue to suffer disproportionately from higher occurrences of psychological disorders and distress, such as depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and self-harm behaviors. While causes are likely multi-faceted, research shows that girls and women experience high levels of shame and self-criticism. In essence, we are at war with ourselves. Drawing largely from research in the field of positive psychology, and contrasting with Steinem’s theory on self-esteem, this paper illustrates how self-compassion may address this inner conflict, revolutionizing our relationship to self, others, and the world around us. The three elements of self-compassion - mindfulness, common humanity, and self-kindness – collectively interact, producing the stabilizing and powerful downstream effects of greater belonging, safety, wholeness, resilience, and self-authorship and agency. When women practice self-compassion, we profoundly change how we show up in the world. As we do, we are able to model self-compassion for our girls, helping to empower the next generation of women – the most revolutionary act of all.
... In the present study, the absence of gender differences in aggressive behaviour among athletes lend support to Silva and Smith's predictions. The findings of the present study were also found to be contradicted to the study by Eagly and Steffen (1986) that highlighted aggressiveness and aggression are generally perceived as qualities of masculine and clearly happened to be in contrast with the characteristics of females. According to Koivula (2001) masculine typed sports are competitive sports that are suitable for male in which strength and aggressiveness are largely prevailing such as rugby and boxing while feminine typed sports are usually associated with grace and flexibility are more suitable for females. ...
Article
Collegiate athletes displayed different aggressive tendencies in an off-field situation based on the sports that they play. This study was conducted to identify the level and differences of aggressive behavior among athletes in a public university in Malaysia. A total of 91 student-athletes that represented different types of sports participated in this study. The instrument used to measure the aggressive behaviour among athletes was the Aggression Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the level of aggressive behaviour and the independent t-test was used to analyze the differences of aggressive behaviour based on demographic factors such as gender and types of sports. The findings revealed that the level of aggressive behaviour among athletes in the university are at a low level and there is no significant differences in aggressive behaviour based on gender and types of sports. This study contributes to the literature on the aggressive behavior in the context of student-athletes in higher education institution.
... Family demands. Social role theory (Eagly & Steffen, 1986) suggests that women are expected to be family-oriented, which leads to more family demands on them, even in dual career couples (Bianchi & Milkie, 2010)-a tendency reinforced during the COVID-19 pandemic (Shockley, Clark, Dodd, & King, 2021). This gender dynamic is relevant to understanding how virtual environments may amplify actual, perceived, or expected family demands. ...
... At the same time, young girls are discouraged from the behaviors that are aggressive, put her at a risk of being out of commune ("being a good girl"), and instead to nurture and develop her empathy and emotionality; in addition, to respect authority (which is occupied by men by large). Eagly & Steffen (1986) also conducted a study where women during team assignments would voluntarily partake in roles requiring social aspects and nurturing relationships (compared to male participants who would take task requiring more risky, short term activities). Social orientation of women is a very important strength that should be used together with developing other missing parts of leadership. ...
Thesis
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The purpose of the study is to analyse and uncover non-discriminatory (other than societal stereotyping or bias) factors that are affecting the inequality of women’s career and to suggest implications from the HR’s perspective to ensure equality of career outcomes. Among main objectives are increased awareness around multiple factors of leadership gender inequality, and deeper understanding of work related gender specifications. With these findings, future researchers may select a singular variable to study in depth and with targeted interview process; practitioners to use this knowledge in effective utilization of strengths and transformation of weaknesses to the competitive advantage of their organisation. Research methodology is deductive/inductive with semi-structured cross sectional interviews with women employees of age 25-45 and high career goals. An empirical part is supported by comprehensive literature review on equality and aspects negatively affecting it. The pre-defined categories of our data collection are built from 3 main levels of influence – individual, organizational and private, and include: Career Orientation, Value, Traits, Job Satisfaction, Working Pre-Conditions, Social Context, Household Organisation and External Support Systems. Data collection is followed by a framework analysis with thematic coding and 2 additional categories – under/above 30 years old. Among key confirmed factors of career stagnation are career/family dilemma, prioritization of life balance over aggressive competition, value system conflicts (particularly for those in male dominated teams), lack of supervision and mentorship. Individual factors include different career choices, goals, focus at better results over organizational politics and competition due to deviating values (integrity, ethics, supportive social environment, family), aspirations (life balance, self-fulfillment, positive work experiences) and traits (conflict avoidance, lack of confidence and assertiveness). Among other reasons, the study identified weak diversity initiatives, negative perception of working mothers by businesses, high costs of family care services, and lack of awareness around the challenges women experience daily. Despite high motivation, women feel overwhelmed engaging fully in both family and career roles, and with time choose family over leadership role.
... Moreover, expressing verbal aggression can evoke negative consequences for not only the victim but also the abuser. Prior research has indicated that aggressive expression could leave an individual in a negative affect state, such as guilt and anxiety (Aloia & Solomon, 2016;Eagly & Steffen, 1986). Consistent with the Computers-Are-Social-Actors (CASA) paradigm that humans react socially to CAs (Reeves & Nass, 1996), when users verbally mistreat an agent, their negative feelings can be aggravated after expressing the verbal aggression (Chin & Yi, 2019;Tan et al., 2018). ...
... In academic research, gender differences have been examined in many areas (Eagly, 1995;Niederle, 2014): risk and ambiguity preferences (Byrnes et al., 1999;Croson and Gneezy, 2009;Borghans et al, 2009), cognitive abilities, particularly in mathematics (Hyde et al., 1990;Else-Quest, 2010, Halpern, 2012, leadership , taste for competition (Evren et al., 2013), social behaviours (Eagly and Wood, 1991) or aggressiveness (Eagly and Steffen, 1986). Overall, empirical studies report that, on average, differences between men and women are minor, if any. ...
... Inoltre, in gruppi di sole femmine, è più frequente osservare comportamenti cooperativi, mentre i maschi manifestano maggiormente comportamenti competitivi e tendono tutti ad assumere il ruolo di leader (Charlesworth & Dzur, 1987;Ashley & Tomasello, 1998;Pellegrini et al., 2007;Pellegrini et al., 2011). La corsa maschile alla leadership rappresenta, quindi, un ulteriore fattore d'incremento dei comportamenti competitivi tra maschi (Eagly & Steffen, 1986;Pellegrini et al., 2007;Pellegrini et al., 2011). (Pellegrini, et al., 2007). ...
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Come per le altre specie sociali, anche nell’uomo la vita di gruppo rappresenta un delicato equilibrio tra cooperazione e competizione. In particolar modo, la competizione per le risorse limitate (es. cibo, partner sessuali) può portare ad un forte “conflitto di interessi” che, in taluni casi, implica una reazione conflittuale se non addirittura aggressiva. Per ridurre le conseguenze negative di un conflitto, molte specie sociali hanno sviluppato delle strategie comportamentali post-conflittuali: la riconciliazione e i contatti triadici sollecitati e non sollecitati tra vittima o aggressore e terzi individui estranei al conflitto. Lo scopo di questo studio è stato quello investigare le dinamiche di gestione dei conflitti in bambini in età pre-scolare (3, 4, 5 anni) applicando un approccio prettamente etologico usato comunemente negli studi sui primati non-umani (metodo Post-Conflict/Matched-Control, PC-MC). Oltre alla quantificazione delle varie tipologie di strategie post-conflittuali (riconciliazione e consolazione), abbiamo anche tentato di verificare quali potessero essere le variabili implicate (età dei soggetti, sesso, legami affiliativi tra i bambini) nella distribuzione dei fenomeni. La ricerca è stata condotta su 80 bambini della scuola dell'infanzia "Florinda" dell’Istituto Comprensivo “Centro-Migliarina-Motto” (Viareggio, Lucca, Italia). La raccolta dati, effettuata utilizzando la tecnica della ripresa filmata, ha permesso una videoanalisi estremamente accurata di ogni evento agonistico e dell'eventuale meccanismo post-conflittuale (la finestra temporale utilizzate era di 10 minuti in accordo con la letteratura relativa ad altri studi su Homo sapiens e su grandi antropomorfe). I risultati, seppur preliminari, indicano la presenza di riconciliazione e consolazione spontanea nel nostro campione. La riconciliazione è influenzata dalla qualità della relazione che lega i soggetti anche se non sembra avere un ruolo nella riduzione dello stato d'ansia della vittima. Riconciliazione e consolazione sono due fenomeni ugualmente rappresentati. Come accade nei primati non umani, l'evento consolatorio sembra entrare in gioco quando la riconciliazione è assente, ciò indica che anche in Homo sapiens il contatto affiliativo spontaneo da parte di un terzo soggetto rivolto alla vittima agisce come sostituto dell'atto conciliatorio. La consolazione sembra inoltre essere dipendente dall'età e contestualmente dal sesso dei soggetti che entrano in gioco. Questo risultato merita sicuramente attenzione data la natura empatica del fenomeno consolatorio. La maturazione della sfera empatica è legata fortemente al processo di sviluppo del bambino che potrebbe quindi essere maggiormente coinvolto una volta maturata la competenza emotiva e sociale necessarie non solo per percepire l'ansia provata dal soggetto che ha appena subito un'aggressione, ma anche per mettere in atto quelle azioni atte a migliorarne lo stato emozionale (consolazione).
... Meta-analytic review by Eagly and Steffen(1986) of sex differences in aggressive behavior, reported in the social psychological literature. found that although men were somewhat more aggressive than women on the average, sex differences were inconsistent across studies. ...
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The present study was undertaken with the purpose to investigate the correlation of Anxiety, Aggression and Locus of Control in college students. The sample consisted of 250 college students. The findings of the study indicate that there is no significant correlation between dimensions of locus of control and anxiety and between dimensions of locus of control and aggression. The overall analysis revealed that there is significant difference in anxiety level among male and female college students, males scored higher than females on anxiety while on aggression females scored higher.
... While women report greater willingness to intervene to prevent interpersonal violence than men (Leone et al., 2018), but there is mixed evidence about the breadth of gender differences. Men may be more likely to intervene with helping behaviors in situations that cause exclusively physical, as opposed to psychological harm, (Eagly & Steffen, 1986), or may be less likely to intervene in all situations (Brown et al., 2014). ...
Article
Objective We tested relationships between three substances – alcohol, marijuana, and club drugs (hallucinogens, LSD, and MDMA) – and willingness to intervene as bystanders in potentially high-risk situations. Self-reported substance use was assessed during a typical week and during a week with multiple electronic music events. Method Two hundred undergraduate students were asked about substance use during specific days with a calendar method to promote recall. Willingness to intervene within peer group was measured with a 5-item scale. Results Willingness to intervene was relatively high (M= 4.27, SD = 0.74, range 1–5). Multiple linear regression showed heavy drinkers or club drug users had lower group willingness to intervene than non-users of either substance (β = −.16, −.21, respectively). Gender and event attendance were not related to willingness to intervene and did not moderate links with heavy drinking or club drug use. Conclusions Although overall undergraduates reported being willing to intervene to protect group members, heavy drinkers or club drug users had lower willingness to intervene. Future research should assess actual behavior. Programs addressing high-risk situations and bystander interventions might benefit from adding strategies that focus on heavy drinkers or club drug users.
... In addition, some professionals even believe that women are not capable of being the original perpetrator (Fitzroy, 2001). In contrast, male offenders are primarily seen as perpetrators because they are perceived as more aggressive due to their gender roles (e.g., Eagly & Steffen, 1986). ...
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The monograph on improving the response of first responders to domestic violence in Europe aims to identify gaps in the cooperation of first-line responders and deliver recommendations, toolkits andcollaborative training for European police organizations and medical and social work professionals. The goal is to improve integrate institutional response to domestic violence. Shared training and adequaterisk assessment tools will create a positive feedback loop, increasing reporting rates of domestic violence to police, the medical profession, and community and social work practitioners.
... In addition, some professionals even believe that women are not capable of being the original perpetrator (Fitzroy, 2001). In contrast, male offenders are primarily seen as perpetrators because they are perceived as more aggressive due to their gender roles (e.g., Eagly & Steffen, 1986). ...
Chapter
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The monograph on improving the response of first responders to domestic violence in Europe aims to identify gaps in the cooperation of first-line responders and deliver recommendations, toolkits and collaborative training for European police organizations and medical and social work professionals. The goal is to improve integrate institutional response to domestic violence. Shared training and adequate risk assessment tools will create a positive feedback loop, increasing reporting rates of domestic violence to police, the medical profession, and community and social work practitioners.
... In addition, some professionals even believe that women are not capable of being the original perpetrator (Fitzroy, 2001). In contrast, male offenders are primarily seen as perpetrators because they are perceived as more aggressive due to their gender roles (e.g., Eagly & Steffen, 1986). ...
Chapter
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The monograph on improving the response of first responders to domestic violence in Europe aims to identify gaps in the cooperation of first-line responders and deliver recommendations, toolkits and collaborative training for European police organizations and medical and social work professionals. The goal is to improve integrate institutional response to domestic violence. Shared training and adequate risk assessment tools will create a positive feedback loop, increasing reporting rates of domestic violence to police, the medical profession, and community and social work practitioners.
... This shows that male CEOs are more likely to employ debt than female CEOs. With respect to CEO gender, psychology and cognitive management studies show that men and women have different leadership styles, corporate efficiency, communication skills, conservatism, boldness, and risk aversion (Byrnes et al., 1999;Eagly & Johnson, 1990;Eagly & Steffen, 1986;Thanh & Ha, 2021). These gender characteristics can lead to variances in financial decisions made by male and female CEOs. ...
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The research is conducted with the goal of determining the influence of CEO characteristics, including CEO experience, on the financial leverage of listed companies in Vietnam. Financial leverage is among the vital financial policies for any business. A review of upper echelons theory suggests direct influence of CEO characteristics on setting business policy and inevitably on firm financial leverage. To assess the effect of CEO characteristics on financial leverage, the paper conducts a generalized method of moments regression with the following dependent variables: CEO age, CEO experience, the level of education related to the economic industry of the CEO education, and CEO gender. The data studied consist of 770 observations on 110 companies listed on Vietnam’s two major stock exchanges, Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange (HOSE) and Hanoi Stock Exchange (HNX), over the period 2012–2018. We found that CEO experience, CEO education, and CEO gender are significantly positively correlated with firm leverage whereas CEO age is negatively correlated. Our results also provide additional useful information for shareholders and investors in recruiting a new CEO or balancing CEO power in the business.
... There are many baseline differences between female and male social behaviors (Eagly and Steffen, 1986;Halpern et al., 2007;Gur et al., 2012). Hormonal and chemosensory signals are integrated in specific brain regions that control social behavior (Newman, 1999;Rolls, 2004;Amodio and Frith, 2006). ...
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Depression is an umbrella term used to describe a mood disorder with a broad spectrum of symptoms including a persistent feeling of sadness, loss of interest, and deficits in social behavior. Epigenetic research bridges the environmental and genetic landscape and has the potential to exponentially improve our understanding of such a complex disorder. Depression is also a sexually dimorphic disorder and variations exist within epigenetic modification sites between sexes. These sex-specific mediators may impact behavioral symptomology and could serve as therapeutic targets for treatments to improve behavioral deficits. This mini review will focus on the social behavior perspective of depression and specifically explore the sexually different epigenetic modifications on depression.
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This study examined the contribution of verbally aggressive and physically aggressive TV exposure to self-reported verbal and physical aggression. Verbally aggressive TV exposure was calculated by respondents’ frequency of viewing 60 TV shows found to be popular among college students and coded for their aggressive content. A total of 637 emerging adults were surveyed for the main study. A path analyses using SPSS Amos with verbal and physical aggression as the primary endogenous variables was used to analyze the data. Exposure to physically aggressive TV programming was found to have a direct effect on self-reported verbal and physical aggression while exposure to verbally aggressive programming had an indirect effect via exposure to physically aggressive programming, thus partially supporting a “cross-over effect.” Additionally, verbal aggression was found to be a positive predictor of physical aggression, both in real life and on the screen.
Chapter
We begin by briefly outlining how we detect, interpret and respond to fearful stimuli. The fear system involves numerous complex interactions between subsystems serving different functions (Adolphs, 2013; LeDoux, 2012) and it is beyond the scope of this thesis to outline every specific component (specific neuroarchitecture will only be detailed where necessary). The fear system, explained briefly, works in a series of steps. Firstly, sensory detection and identification of threat gives rise to activation of the sympathetic nervous system and automatic behavioural responses (fleeing, freezing, fighting). Continued feedback from the peripheral to the central nervous system allows for moment-to-moment fine tuning of the response for as long as the threat persists. Neurotransmitters control arousal, and connectivity within and between brain circuits. Multiple cortical regions are involved synchronously in evaluating threatening stimuli, experiencing conscious awareness of fear, the regulation of fear levels, monitoring cognitive resources and action planning. Attention is focused (and if necessary sustained) on the potential threat and memory is enhanced for contextual cues associated with it, allowing more effective responses should the threat reoccur. The subjective, phenomenological (lived) experience of fear is also an output of one or more of these processes.
Article
Politicians frequently use uncivil and even aggressive tactics in political appeals. Aggressive behavior and personality code as masculine, and voters generally value masculine traits in leaders. However, extreme displays may be off‐putting to all but the most aggressive voters. In this article, we theorize how aggressive political displays interact with gendered personality traits to shape candidate evaluations. Which voters punish candidates for aggressive behavior, and which voters give which candidates a pass? We leverage two survey experiments to investigate how voters judge intensely uncivil candidates in a political debate—verbal aggression and a physical dominance display. We find voters penalize (or even reward) candidates differently for aggressive behavior depending on their own aggressive personality traits. Our findings advance research on the distinct effects of gender over sex in politics and studies of aggression dynamics in mass politics. Our results also speak to work on the strategies available to male and female candidates with broader implications for representation and norms in democratic politics.
Article
This study is the first to examine the effects of age and gender on different forms of peer victimization among local Chinese schoolchildren in Hong Kong. The cross-sectional study recruited a sample of 8604 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 16 from 24 primary (elementary) and secondary (middle) schools in Hong Kong. The Multidimensional Peer Victimization Scale was used to measure how often the participants had experienced physical and verbal victimization, social manipulation, and attacks on property during the last school term. The participants were divided into three age groups (8–10, 11–13, 14–16) based on the average ages of senior primary, junior secondary, and senior secondary school students. Two-way MANOVA and subsequent two-way ANOVAs were used to analyze the data. Physical victimization and attacks on property were found to decrease with age. Across the age groups, boys were more likely than girls to experience physical and verbal victimization, but not social manipulation. However, the gender × age group interaction effects were insignificant. The findings suggest that educators and helping professionals should consider providing gender-specific anti-bullying programs in schools.
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Although researchers have documented relations between abusive supervision and subordinate counterproductive work behavior (CWB), might CWB result from non-abusive treatment? We address the question by examining the relation between leader-member relations (LMX) and CWB as well as potential mediators and moderators of that relation. One hundred and eighty subordinates completed surveys assessing their LMX quality, entitlement, negative emotions, self-control, and CWB. Twenty-six supervisors also provided CWB data on 88 of those subordinates. We found that subordinates reporting lower quality relations with their supervisors were more likely to experience CWB than other subordinates and that anger mediated that relation. There was some support for the moderating effect of self-control on the negative emotion – CWB relation. Entitlement did not moderate the LMX – anger relation as hypothesized. One implication is that supervisors do not have to treat their subordinates poorly for the subordinates to react negatively and engage in behavior detrimental to their organization.
Article
Misophonia is characterized by increased physiological and emotional reactivity to particular sounds (e.g., chewing), which has been with associated impulsive and aggressive behaviors. To better understand the expression of misophonia, the current study investigated the moderating role of anxiety sensitivity (AS) in the relation between misophonia and facets of aggression (i.e., anger, hostility, verbal aggression, and physical aggression). Participants (N = 470; Mage = 18.68 years; 74.0% female) included college students who endorsed misophonia symptoms and completed online self-report questionnaires. Four regression analyses were conducted to examine the interaction between misophonia symptoms and AS on each aggression facet. Results revealed that significant variance was accounted for in each facet of aggression, with the association between misophonia and anger, hostility, and verbal aggression (respectively) strengthening as AS increased. This study provides additional support for the association between misophonia and aggressive behavioral tendencies, suggesting AS may operate as a pivotal factor in the expression of anger and aggressive responses in misophonia. These findings implicate AS as a potential treatment target that could enhance outcomes for patients struggling with misophonia.
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Partisipasi perempuan dan anak perempuan di bidang olahraga baru dimulai sejak tahun 1970, padahal payung hukum yang terkait dengan kesetaraan gender pada dasarnya telah ada. Konsep diskriminasi (discrimination) gender dalam konvensi CEDAW (Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women) menyuarakan kesetaraan antara laki-laki dan perempuan. Demikian pula UU SKN 2005 yang memaparkan bahwa tidak ada perbedaan diantara gender dalam melakoni olahraga. Setelah sekian lama peluang diberikan bagi kaum perempuan untuk bergerak di bidang olahraga, masih terkendala pada pemilahan cabang olahraga yang ‘cocok’ untuk digeluti, artinya struktur sosial budaya menjadi indikator dalam memutuskan kelayakan olahraga bagi perempuan. Kelayakan di sini akan bergantung pada olahraga maskulin layak bagi laki-laki dan olahraga feminim dianggap layak bagi perempuan. Perkembangan kesetaraan ini terlihat dari pengintegrasian gender di berbagai bidang pembangunan melalui pengarusutamaan gender, ini belum menunjukkan hasil optimal dan merata di seluruh wilayah Indonesia. Permendagri No. 67 Tahun 2011 mengenai Perubahan Atas Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri No. 15 Tahun 2008 tentang Pedoman Umum Pelaksanaan Pengarusutamaan Gender di Daerah telah mengatur tentang PUG, di mana keseluruhan program pembangunan yang repsonsif gender, yang dikenal dengan metode alur kerja analisis gender (Gender Analysis Pathway) di mana hasilnya digunakan untuk menyusun Gender Budget Statement (GBS). GBS merupakan dokumen resmi perencanaan dan penganggaran yang menjadi bagian tak terpisahkan dengan dokumen RKA/DPA SKPD. Upaya percepatan pengarusutamaan gender telah dicanangkan tahun 2012, dengan diterbitkannya Surat Edaran No.270/M.PPN/11/2012; No.SE-33/MK.02/2012; No.050/4379A/SJ dan SE 46/MPP-PA/11/2012 tentang Strategi Nasional Percepatan Pengarusutamaan Gender (PUG) melalui Perencanaan dan Penganggaran Responsif Gender (PPRG). Ini merupakan lanjutan Inpres Nomer 9 Tahun 2000 tentang Pengarusutamaan Gender dalam Pembangunan Nasional. Dalam konteks desentralisasi, pemerintah telah mengeluarkan Permendagri No. 67 Tahun 2011, tentang Pedoman Umum Pelaksanaan Pengarusutamaan Gender di daerah. Buku ini disusun sebagai bahan pelengkap dari beberapa buku yang berkaitan dengan gender dan globalisasi dalam menghadapi resolusi industry 4.0. Dengan harapan para penggiat olahraga, pelatih bersamasama dengan atlet dapat memanfaatkan peluang teknologi yang disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan pasar dalam perkembangan prestasi. Buku ini dapat juga dijadikan sebagai pegangan dalam mata kuliah sosiologi gender dalam olahraga dan diharapkan dapat menjadi bahan diskusi terutama dalam menangkap peluang resolusi industry 4.0 yang bermuarakan pada pengembangan olahraga. Di lain pihak buku ini berusaha menguraikan dan menjawab beberapa kesulitan stakeholder, pembina olahraga, dan kementrian olahraga dalam melakukan perencanaan dan penganggaran yang responsif gender, diantaranya dengan cara menyajikan contoh-contoh Gender Analysis Pathway (GAP) dan Gender Budget Statement (GBS) dari beberapa organisasi olahraga hingga ke klub-klub, merespon kebutuhan yang berbeda untuk tiap gender. Akhirnya, penulis berharap buku ini dapat dipakai dan digunakan sebagaimana mestinya. Penulis juga berharap buku ini dapat menjadi sumbangsih pengetahuan bagi seluruh penggiat olahraga dalam memotret olahraga yang setara gender, dari tataran paling atas, aparatur pemerintah dan daerah lainnya, para pemangku kepentingan di pusat dan daerah, khususnya pemerhati gender dalam bidang olahraga. Buku ini juga berusaha untuk menjawab keterbatasan-keterbatasan yang ada dalam menangani olahraga perempuan, terutama para atlet perempuan yang menekuni bidang olahraga maskulin.
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Aggression is a safety valve for anger. It is an obnoxious emotion. Aggression is a consequential prophylactic aggravation, in which both the patient and the physician are at risk. Clinical, neurologic, and/or mentally ill persons prone to get aggression. Aggression is an introvert and a negative word for a healthy human being. When it triggers, it changes the behavior of a person from normal to frustrate. Being human, we don't understand how our brain reacts to emotions like aggression. Our brain is a befuddling organ, many things are going on there, and some of them are mysterious. Sometimes we think aggression is adaptive, helping people and animals guard their homes against intruders and protect their children from threats. Still, these aggression problems arise when taken too far, which escalates abnormally and becomes violent. We are daily facing many things, but all have different reactions for the same things, some react normally while others react aggressively for the same things, its shows the brain has a mystical response for the person. There is considerable evidence that the limbic-dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal network facilitates the activation and inhibition of aggressive behaviour.
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Research investigating individual differences in personality and altruistic behaviour has focused predominantly on traits described within the Five-Factor Model (FFM). The objective of the present study was to examine if the same personality dimensions which predict donation behaviour (Kowalski et al., 2021) and are thought to be “beyond” the FFM also predict self-report altruism. An online survey including the Supernumerary Personality Inventory (Paunonen, 2002), the Self-Report Altruism Scale (Rushton et al., 1981), and the Compassionate Altruism Scale (O'Connor et al., 2015) was completed by 256 participants. Regression analysis revealed that the SPI accounted for significant variance in both measures of altruism. Specifically, age, integrity, femininity, and risk-taking positively predicted scores on the Self-Report Altruism Scale. Humorousness positively predicted compassionate altruism towards family, while compassionate altruism towards strangers was positively predicted by religiosity, and negatively predicted by femininity. Overall, the results highlight the importance of incorporating additional dimensions of personality into explorations of altruism and related prosocial behaviours. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
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Jednym z największych problemów naszej cywilizacji wypływających na indywidualne poczucie bezpieczeństwa jest zjawisko morderstwa. Artykuł ten jest filozoficzną oraz naukową charakterystyką zabójstwa. Jest ono rozumiane przez autora jako zachowanie będące wyłomem w regułach służących bezpieczeństwu społeczeństwa. Podjęta w ten sposób analiza obejmuje zarówno konstatacje psychologiczne i socjologiczne, które są nałożone na wiodące kwestie etyczne odnoszące się do problemu morderczej napastliwości. W tym znaczeniu zabójstwo jest ukazane jako forma dewiacji mentalnej, a również specyficznej dewiacji społecznej. Obie formy dewiacyjne mają swoje silne umocowanie w kulturze i jak wynika z analizy, są zakorzenione w naturze człowieka.
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Purpose This paper investigates the probability that people (prospective donors) would be willing to use the crowdfunding-Waqf model (CWM), depending on certain variables and characteristics. This study aims to develop an alternative financial model to address Malaysia’s Waqf land financing problem. Design/methodology/approach A survey study was conducted to assess the probability that people would be willing to use the CWM. This study used descriptive analysis and the logistic regression model as analytical tools. Descriptive analysis was conducted using frequencies, which means the number of respondents for each variable or item, such as demographic variables. The logistic regression model was used to obtain the probability that individuals would be willing to use the CWM, based on certain variables. Findings This study found that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, gender and Waqf knowledge positively affected the likelihood that people would willingly use the CWM for developing Waqf land. In contrast, other factors such as age group, marital status, income level, internet usage, perceived risk of crowdfunding and Waqf perception did not affect this likelihood. Further investigation indicated that being of middle-income level and possessing crowdfunding knowledge positively affected the likelihood that people were willing to use the CWM. The highest probability of the willingness to use the CWM was identified among middle-income males who knew about Waqf and perceived the CWM as useful and easy to use. Research limitations/implications The results of this study and other key findings are expected to be implemented by Waqf institutions in Malaysia to develop policies related to Waqf land in general or to the CWM in particular. The findings are also expected to benefit individuals, organisations and countries, and they could also be adapted and validated in other nations. Originality/value This study focused on developing a better chance of finding people with specific characteristics and factors that lead them to intentionally use the CWM. The probability of willingness to use the CWM based on certain variables has not yet been evaluated. Recognising how higher probabilities can be identified using every factor and characteristic will enable future CWM users to be better mapped, which is expected to increase the effectiveness of developing the CWM.
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The human tendency to share goods with others at personal costs declines across the perceived social distance to them, an observation termed social discounting. Cumulating evidence suggests that social preferences are influenced by the agent’s neurohormonal state. Here we tested whether endogenous fluctuations in steroid hormone compositions across the menstrual cycle were associated with differences in generosity in a social discounting task. Adult healthy, normally-cycling, women made incentivized decisions between high selfish rewards for themselves and lower generous rewards for themselves but also for other individuals at variable social distances from their social environment. We determined participants’ current levels of menstrual-cycle-dependent steroid hormones via salivary sampling. Results revealed that the increase in progesterone levels as well as the decrease in estradiol levels, but not changes in testosterone or cortisol, across the menstrual cycle, accounted for increased generosity specifically toward socially close others, but not toward remote strangers.
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This study investigates whether board gender diversity matters in banks' initial responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in supporting their customers, communities and governments. We construct a unique and comprehensive COVID-19 Bank Response Measure (C19BRM) by compiling a novel hand-collected dataset on supportive measures announced by US and European banks during the first wave of the pandemic. We find that banks with higher board representation of women directors supported their customers and communities more. Our findings also reveal that more women on the boards increased their charity and donations. Our results are robust to the potential self-selection bias of women choosing to join boards of more responsible banks, the omitted variables bias, and alternative measures of gender diversity.
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Recent advances in computational behavioral modeling can help rigorously quantify differences in how individuals learn behaviors that affect both themselves and others. But social learning remains understudied in the context of understanding individual variation in social phenomena like aggression, which is defined by persistent engagement in behaviors that harm others. We adapted a go/no-go reinforcement learning task across social and non-social contexts such that monetary gains and losses explicitly impacted the subject, a study partner, or no one. We then quantified participants’ (n = 61) sensitivity to others’ rewards, sensitivity to others’ losses, and the Pavlovian influence of expected outcomes on approach and avoidance behavior. Results showed that subjects learned in response to punishments and rewards that affected their partner in a way that was computationally similar to how they learned for themselves, consistent with the possibility that social learning engages empathic processes. Further supporting this interpretation, an individualized model parameter that indexed sensitivity to others’ punishments was inversely associated with trait antisociality. Modeled sensitivity to others’ losses also mapped onto post-task motivation ratings, but was not associated with self-reported trait empathy. This work is the first to apply a social reinforcement learning task that spans affect and action requirement (go/no-go) to measure multiple facets of empathic sensitivity.
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Anger is a key factor affecting drivers' subjective judgment and driving skills. The influence of anger on driving behavior has been widely studied, but there is a lack of comparative research under different lighting conditions. Through a driving simulation experiment, this paper studies the influence of anger on left-turn driving behavior under two light conditions day and night. In the experiment, 32 licensed participants were divided into two groups, one in emotional neutrality and the other in anger. Among them, the emotional state of anger is induced by a traffic-related video. The results showed that compared with daytime participants, participants at night had higher anger intensity, shorter gap acceptance, and post encroachment time (PET) when left-turn driving. In addition, compared with neutral emotion participants, angry participants tended to accept shorter gap acceptance and PET when turning left. This indicates that participants failed to respond correctly to left-turn driving behavior in a state of anger. However, the response of gender differences to situational driving anger was not affected by light conditions. The anger intensity of male participants during the day and night was higher than that of female participants, and the gap between acceptance and PETs during left-turn was shorter than that of female participants. This shows that male participants are more likely to produce high-intensity anger and are more likely to make dangerous driving decisions in a state of anger. This paper puts forward some suggestions on identifying anger and preventing angry driving.
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In this book, Joseph Pleck examines and analyzes the full body of research literature on the male role that has appeared since the 1930s and subjects it to a devastating critique. He identifies the components of the "male sex role paradigm" which has been the basis of research for the past forty years, and notes numerous instances of blatant misrepresentation of data, twisted reinterpretations of disconfirming results, misogyny, homophobia, and class bias. He proposes a new theory, the "sex role strain paradigm," offers a reinterpretation of sex role stereotyping, and a critique of research by sociobiologists that allegedly demonstrates a biological basis for male aggression.
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One method of combining the results of a series of two-group experiments involves the estimation of the effect size (population value of the standarized mean difference) for each experiment. When each experiment has the same effect size, a pooled estimate of effect size provides a summary of the results of the series of experiments. However, when effect sizes are not homogeneous, a pooled estimate can be misleading. A statistical test is provided for testing whether a series of experiments have the same effect size. A general strategy is provided for fitting models to the results of a series of experiments when the experiments do not share the same effect size and the collection of experiments is divided into a priori classes. The overall fit statisticHT is partitioned into a between-class fit statisticHB and a within-class fit statisticHw. The statisticsHB andHw permit the assessment of differences between effect sizes for different classes and the assessment of the homogeneity of effect size within classes.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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Reviews the literature on sex differences in empathy (defined as vicarious affective responding to the emotional state of another) and related capacities (affective role taking and decoding of nonverbal cues). The literature is discussed according to method used to assess empathy and affective role taking. Where appropriate, meta-analyses were also computed. In general, sex differences in empathy were found to be a function of the methods used to assess empathy. There was a large sex difference favoring women when the measure of empathy was self-report scales; moderate differences (favoring females) were found for reflexive crying and self-report measures in laboratory situations; and no sex differences were evident when the measure of empathy was either physiological or unobtrusive observations of nonverbal reactions to another's emotional state. Moreover, few sex differences were found for children's affective role taking and decoding abilities. (156 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This chapter discusses the contextualist epistemology as an appropriate metatheory for psychology. Contextualism's implications for reforming the process and product of psychology are also discussed in the chapter. The two phases of needed process reforms are described in the chapter for creatively generating hypotheses and developing them by the means of empirical confrontation. In the chapter, the psychological product is also discussed by reviewing the various theoretical depictions of the person that have guided and grown out of the research process. These implications are described for the process of developing psychological theory and then as relative to the product—the theories that emerge from the process. The various internal criteria for judging the relative adequacy of competing theories—that are sometimes even mutually contradictory—illustrates a basic descriptive tenet of contextualism. The four types of theories guiding and emerging from the research are (1) categorical theory, (2) process theories, (3) axiomatic theories, and (4) guiding-idea theories. The sixteen partial views of human nature that have served as guiding-idea theories for psychological research are tabulated in the chapter. The content aspect of social psychology or contextualism reveals the need for an ecumenical stance toward theory for recognizing the existence and utility of a wide variety of formulations to generate insights into the contents and determinants of experience and behavior.
Chapter
Stereotypically, women have been regarded as more emotional than men. Presumsably, men learn that “big boys don’t cry” and tend to inhibit the spontaneous expression of emotion (except in special restricted circumstances, e.g., at sports events). But there is an important exception to this stereotype. In the case of anger, women are thought to be less, not more, emotional than men.
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Two experiments were conducted to investigate the role of the victim in the initiation of aggression. The three major factors of the semantic differential were used to construct scripts portraying eight different target types. Scripts validated in Experiment 1 were reenacted live by targets in Experiment 2, in which subjects who overheard the scripts subsequently had the opportunity to aggress against the target in a competitive game. Male subjects shocked both the bad, strong, active and the bad, strong, passive targets much more than the good, strong, active targets. Females shocked all three targets at a low rate. Late in the game, all subjects shocked the bad, strong, passive target more often than the other targets. Sex differences in shocking were attributed to a sex difference in the disposition to behave aggressively.
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Experiments that find larger differences between groups than actually exist in the population are more likely to pass stringent tests of significance and be published than experiments that find smaller differences. Published measures of the magnitude of experimental effects will therefore tend to overestimate these effects. This bias was investigated as a function of sample size, actual population difference, and alpha level. The overestimation of experimental effects was found to be quite large with the commonly employed significance levels of 5 per cent and 1 per cent. Further, the recently recommended measure, ω2, was found to depend much more heavily on the alpha level employed than the true population ω2 value. Hence, it was concluded that effect size estimation is impractical unless scientific journals drop the consideration of statistical significance as one of the criteria of publication.
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Quantitative methods for research synthesis usually involve calculation of an estimate of effect size for each of a series of studies. Statistical analyses in research synthesis attempt to relate explanatory variables to the effect sizes obtained from the series of studies. Some problems with ad hoc methods, such as ordinary least squares regression analysis using estimates of effect size, are described. Maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters in linear models for effect sizes is discussed and the asymptotic distribution of the estimators is obtained. An alternative estimator is derived which is computationally simpler, but has the same asymptotic distribution as the maximum likelihood estimator. A natural test for model specification is also given. The small sample accuracy of the asymptotic distribution theory derived in this paper is investigated via a simulation study.
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According to our social-role theory of gender and helping, the male gender role fosters helping that is heroic and chivalrous, whereas the female gender role fosters helping that is nurturant and caring. In social psychological studies, helping behavior has been examined in the context of short-term encounters with strangers. This focus has tended to exclude from the research literature those helping behaviors prescribed by the female gender role, because they are displayed primarily in long-term, close relationships. In contrast, the helping behaviors prescribed by the male gender role have been generously represented in research findings because they are displayed in relationships with strangers as well as in close relationships. Results from our meta-analytic review of sex differences in helping behavior indicate that in general men helped more than women and women received more help than men. Nevertheless, sex differences in helping were extremely inconsistent across studies and were successfully predicted by various attributes of the studies and the helping behaviors. These predictors were interpreted in terms of several aspects of our social-role theory of gender and helping.
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Glass's estimator of effect size, the sample mean difference divided by the sample standard deviation, is studied in the context of an explicit statistical model. The exact distribution of Glass's estimator is obtained and the estimator is shown to have a small sample bias. The minimum variance unbiased estimator is obtained and shown to have uniformly smaller variance than Glass's (biased) estimator. Measurement error is shown to attenuate estimates of effect size and a correction is given. The effects of measurement invalidity are discussed. Expressions for weights that yield the most precise weighted estimate of effect size are also derived.
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The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of defensive behavior by neighbors and returning occupants against the invasion of marked seats at a racetrack. On 39 occasions, four female undergraduates took empty seats that were marked with a newspaper, handkerchief, clothing, etc., in the unreserved sections of the grandstand. In the 32 cases in which there was a neighbor present, 20 of them defended the marked seat. There were no sex or age differences between defenders and non-defenders. Compared with one neighbor, presence of two did not increase defenses. The proportion of defenses in this study was greater than in previous studies in other settings, and this difference was discussed with respect to the respective costs in different settings for permitting successful invasions.
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Male and female undergraduate students (N = 44), categorized as either immediate-action or deliberating-action Ss by their responses on an inventory developed by Goldman and Rhoads, were forced to choose between immediate and delayed expression of an evalution of an experimental confederate (C). The results indicated that immediate-action Ss forwarded their evaluations in the more immediate manner, while deliberating-action Ss avoided such immediate and direct feedback. Additionally, deliberating-action Ss reported a significantly greater negative shift in mood than did immediate-action Ss exposed to the same experimental C, and male Ss, regardless of immediacy predisposition, reported a greater negative shift in mood than did female Ss.
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The outcomes of 148 studies of whether men and women differ in how easily they are influenced are examined meta-analytically. The analysis indicates that (a) women are more persuasible and more conforming than men in group pressure situations that involve surveillance by the influencing agent. In situations not involving surveillance, women are also more conforming, but this effect is vulnerable to the "file-drawer" problem discussed by R. Rosenthal (1979). Effect-size estimates show that the sex difference in influenceability is generally small. The present article also describes a study with 83 male and 118 female undergraduates that supported the hypothesis that sex of researchers is a determinant of the sex difference. 79% of the authors of influenceability studies were male, and men obtained larger sex differences in the direction of greater persuasibility and conformity among women. In studies authored by women, there was no sex difference. (43 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Men and women are believed to differ in how influential and easily influenced they are: Men are thought to be more influential, and women more easily influenced. In natural settings, men and women tend to differ in these ways, but these differences stem largely from formal status inequalities by which men are more likely than women to have high-status roles. Status is important because of the legitimate authority vested in high-status roles. Within appropriate limits, people of higher status are believed to have the right to make demands of those of lower status, and people of lower status are expected to comply with these demands. Yet, small, stereotypic sex differences in leadership and social influence generally have been found in laboratory experiments and other small-group settings where men and women have equal formal status. These small sex differences may occur because experience with hierarchical social structures in which men have higher status creates expectancies about male and female behavior, and these expectancies affect social interaction in ways that foster behavior that confirms the expectancies. Sex differences that occur in the laboratory as well as natural settings may stem from social structural factors—namely, from the existing distributions of women and men into social roles. (77 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conducted a meta-analysis of studies of gender differences in aggression, based on the sample of studies in the E. E. Maccoby and C. N. Jacklin (1974) review and a recent sample of studies from 1978 to 1981, for a total of 143 studies. Meta-analysis techniques were also extended to applications of interest to developmental psychologists. The median value of ω–2 for gender differences in aggression was .05, and the median value of d was .50, indicating that, although the differences appear fairly reliably, they are not large. There was a trend for gender differences to be smaller in recent studies. Gender differences tended to be larger in naturalistic, correlational studies than in experimental studies. Gender differences also tended to be larger when the method of measurement was direct observation, a projective test, or peer report, and smaller when self-reports or parent or teacher reports were used. Finally, there was a modest negative association between magnitude of gender differences and age. For studies in which mean Ss' age was 6 yrs or less, the median ω–2 was .07 and d was .58; in contrast, for studies of college students the median ω–2 was .01 and d was .27. Overall results indicate that approximately 5% of the variance in aggression is due to gender differences. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the effects of assertion training and trainers on 90 adolescents selected for their unassertive or aggressive behavior with teachers. Structured learning training (SLT) was compared with instruction conditions and no-treatment conditions on self-report and in vivo measures of assertive behavior. For SLT groups, trainers were varied for their situational similarity to teachers. The result yielded a 2 × 5 factorial design, varying type of participant (unassertive vs aggressive) and type of training (SLT with teachers, parents, or students as trainers vs verbal instructions and no-treatment conditions). SLT improved assertive behavior in teacher situations. Effects generalized to novel teacher, parent, and student situations and to the in vivo test as a 1 wk follow-up. The SLT with teacher trainers produced more assertive behavior in teacher situations than did all other groups. Test performance was differentially affected by type of participant. Results suggest person and situation specificity of behavior. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes methods for combining the probabilities obtained from 2 or more independent studies. The reporting of an overall estimated effect size to accompany the overall estimated probability is recommended. (49 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conducted 2 experiments with 120 undergraduates to determine the effects of parametric manipulations of blocking and winning on aggression in a competitive game. Both manipulations affected the number of blocks delivered by Ss, but neither manipulation influenced shocking. The failure to find aggression effects is attributed to the low levels of nonarbitrary frustration produced by the manipulations. Mood data from Exp I (Profile of Mood States) confirmed the validity of the shock response in the competition paradigm. (3 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
AN ESSAY ON THE PROBLEM OF ULTIMATE CONCERN, I.E., ON " "THAT WHICH DETERMINES OUR BEING OR NOT BEING . . . .' " IN THIS CONTEXT, 2 TERMS, AGENCY AND COMMUNION, ARE DEVELOPED "TO CHARACTERIZE 2 FUNDAMENTAL MODALITIES IN THE EXISTENCE OF LIVING FORMS, AGENCY FOR THE EXISTENCE OF AN ORGANISM AS AN INDIVIDUAL, AND COMMUNION FOR THE PARTICIPATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL IN SOME LARGER ORGANISM OF WHICH THE INDIVIDUAL IS A PART." THESE NOTIONS, AND THE PROBLEM OF ULTIMATE CONCERN, ARE DISCUSSED IN RELATION TO "SOCIAL ORGANIZATION, SCIENCE, IDEOLOGY, MYTH, SEXUALITY, DEATH, DISEASE, AND MAN'S PSYCHOLOGICAL LIFE." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
As a test of the possibility that recently-angered people can "purge" their anger through viewing filmed scenes of aggression, 160 college men and women were shown a 7-minute prize fight scene after having been either deliberately insulted or treated in a neutral fashion by a male graduate student. Just before the Ss saw the movie, E, a female graduate student, provided them with 1 or 2 synopses of the movie plot. In ½ of the cases E told the Ss the film protagonist (who took a bad beating in the flight) was a downright scoundrel. The fantasy aggression witnessed by this group was presumably regarded as justified. The remaining Ss were told that the protagonist was not really bad, and they presumably came to regard the filmed aggression as less justified. All Ss rated the male graduate student after seeing the movie. In opposition to the thesis of vicarious hostility reduction, the authors had predicted that the justified fantasy aggression would produce heightened overt hostility toward the insulting male graduate student by lowering inhibitions against aggression. The questionnaire ratings support the prediction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated the motives underlying 40 male undergraduates' performance on an aggression machine. Results indicate that under the standard "learning" instructions devised by A. Buss (see PA, Vol. 36: 2AIO7B), the amount of shock directed by Ss against a confederate was positively related to their expressed desires to help this individual and make the experiment a success. Thus, altruistic motives appeared to exert an important effect upon their behavior. When the experiment was described as an investigation of the effects of shock upon physiological reactions, however, the influence of such motives upon Ss' behavior was apparently eliminated. Implications for the laboratory study of human aggression are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Based on theory of self-awareness, it was hypothesized that Ss would use their attitude to determine their behaviors when (a) that attitude was salient and (b) their attention was directed toward themselves. A total of 64 undergraduates who on questionnaires had indicated that they opposed or condoned the use of punishment, were given the opportunity to shock a male confederate in 2 (bogus) learning experiments. Each S was instructed to use his or her own attitude in choosing shocks to punish incorrect persons. Self-awareness was increased among half the Ss by the presence of a mirror. In each of 2 experiments, a Punitiveness * Self-Awareness interaction resulted: High Punitive-Mirror Ss shocked higher than low Punitive-Mirror Ss, but their respective No-Mirror controls did not differ from each other. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the consequences of prejudice against accepting the null hypothesis through (a) a mathematical model intended to stimulate the research-publication process and (b) case studies of apparent erroneous rejections of the null hypothesis in published psychological research. The input parameters for the model characterize investigators' probabilities of selecting a problem for which the null hypothesis is true, of reporting, following up on, or abandoning research when data do or do not reject the null hypothesis, and they characterize editors' probabilities of publishing manuscripts concluding in favor of or against the null hypothesis. With estimates of the input parameters based on a questionnaire survey of 75 social psychologists, the model output indicates a dysfunctional research-publication system. Particularly, the model indicates that there may be relatively few publications on problems for which the null hypothesis is (at least to a reasonable approximation) true, and of these, a high proportion will erroneously reject the null hypothesis. The case studies provide additional support for this conclusion. It is concluded that research traditions and customs of discrimination against accepting the null hypothesis may be very detrimental to research progress. (44 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
An analysis of military indoctrination as a powerful adult socialization process is crucial to an understanding of adult male role definitions since a significant proportion of the male population has undergone the basic training experience. How the values and norms of masculinity are structured by and for the military and the ways in which they act as socializing agents are explored in a model of military socialization. Some attention is paid to the shift to the all-volunteer armed force (AVAF) and the military as an occupation. The article demonstrates the type of socialization common to adult males vis-à-vis the operationalization of the prototype of masculinity.
Article
This paper addresses the neglect of work on feminine psychology as a symptom of the far broader impoverishment of contemporary work in personality. Bakan's concepts of agency and communion are invoked toward understanding the constraints imposed by current research paradigms. Agentic (masculine) modes of inquiry involving manipulation, quantification, and control need to be complemented by the communal (feminine) research styles (naturalistic, qualitative, open) developed in other disciplines. Three issues are proposed for research in personality: duality in human nature, typology and qualitative patterning and biological bases of personality. These issues are consonant with the nature of feminity, engage the talents of female investigators, and could foster development of the new research paradigms required for serious inquiry in personality. Suggestions for conceptual elaboration and empirical research are proposed.
Article
Consensus about the differing characteristics of men and women exists across groups differing in sex, age, marital status, and education. Masculine characteristics are positively valued more often than feminine characteristics. Positively-valued masculine traits form a cluster entailing competence; positively-valued feminine traits reflect warmth-expressiveness. Sex-role definitions are incorporated into the self-concepts of both men and women; moreover, these sex-role differences are considered desirable by college students and healthy by mental health professionals. Individual differences in sex related self-concepts are related to sex-role relevant behaviors such as achieved and ideal family size. Sex-role perceptions also vary as a function of maternal employment.
Article
Conclusion In conclusion, I'll briefly reiterate my major points in the hope that recency effects will overcome my error in trying to say a bit too much in one paper. I've said that psychology of women has already added much to psychology in its recognition and emphasis on the role of values in science. We can add even more with our openness to communal forms of methodology, particularly when they are used in concert with agenie forms of methodology; a combination of wet and hard science it worthy of pursuit. I then discussed three important sources of questions: (1) our own experience in combination with qualitative and observational methodologies, (2) the importance of public policy consequences of our questions, and (3) attention to situational aspects in concert with personological approaches, but in contrast to solely intrapsychic approaches. Finally, I discussed androgyny and sex difference research as examples of good and bad approaches to research in psychology of women. What are the questions in psychology of women? We all need to consider this issue and open ourselves to new research processes at the same time.
Article
Ninety-five undergraduates served as subjects in an experiment where they could administer electric shock to an opponent and receive the same from an opponent. The independent variables were subject's sex, subject's sex role identification (as measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory), opponent's sex, as well as degree of provocation from the opponent. Aggression was defined as level of shock chosen by the subject for the opponent. The results indicated that masculine subjects facing a male opponent were more aggressive than individuals of other sex role identifications whether or not they were provoked. It was also found that masculine males were more aggressive than other males or any of the females. Furthermore, opponent's sex influenced the males' aggressiveness but had no effect on the degree of aggression in females. Finally, aggression increased in all subjects following increases in provocation. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for psychological androgyny.
Article
A sample of 128 college males and females rated a typical and desirable man or woman on 54 items taken from the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ). Comparisons of the ratings of a typical man versus a typical woman yielded significant differences (p<.01) on 53 of the 54 items. Thus, stereotypes of the sexes apparently remained strong during the 1970s. Comparisons of the ratings of a desirable man versus desirable woman yielded significant differences on only 12 of the 54 items. These results are interpreted as reflecting a difference between stereotypes (of the typical person) and attitudes (about desirable characteristics). While atttitudes may have changed in the 1970s, stereotypes remained remarkably stable.
Article
One hundred and twenty subjects competed in a reaction-time task similar to that of Taylor (1967). Subjects were randomly assigned to a white noise, fine, or control condition. In the fine and noise conditions programmed opponents administered increasing provocation to subjects over a series of 24 trials. Control subjects were not provoked. As predicted, males retaliated with higher levels of noise than did females, while there were no sex differences in the fine condition. Contrary to prediction, sex of opponent had no effect. Subjects in all conditions tended to view the task as competitive but to devalue their opponent only in the noise condition. The prevalent assumption of female passivity in the face of instigation was rejected. Instead a dichotomy was proposed that while females are less likely than males to reciprocate to physical provocation, they are just as likely to respond to provocation of a nonphysical nature.
Article
To assess some of the mediators between a frustrating incident and subsequent aggressive behavior in a field situation, 320 male and female subjects were assigned to one of 32 experimental conditions in a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Either a male or female experimenter, saying “Excuse me” or not, dressed in high or low status clothing, cut in line in front of the subject, who was standing near the front or back of the line. Verbal and nonverbal aggressiveness were coded and summed to measure total aggression. Subjects near the front of the line or interacting with a low status experimenter were more aggressive than those at the back of the line or seeing a high status experimenter. Less aggression was directed against the female experimenter or one who said “Excuse me,” and there was a strong tendency for subjects to be more aggressive to a same-sex experimenter. It was suggested that further research on instigators to aggression be carried out in such field situations.
Article
The present experiment attempted to reconcile previous results in the area of humor and aggression. It was hypothesized that humor serves two functions, arousal and attentional shift, with regard to its influence on the relation of prior anger arousal and aggression. As a test of this assumption, subjects in the present experiment were subjected to three forms of humor (high arousing, low arousing, nonhumor) after being angered or treated in a neutral manner by a confederate. In an analysis on subsequent aggression toward the confederate, it was found that female subjects reduced their aggression after exposure to low arousing humor while maintaining aggression at a high level for high arousing stimuli. Male subjects were not influenced by humor exposure. Possible reasons for this sex difference are examined in light of the arousal and attentional shift properties of humorous stimuli.
Article
Based on a theory of self-awareness it was hypothesized that induced attention to the self would facilitate aggression if the salient standard of behavior was one in which high aggression was positively valued. Female subjects were given an opportunity to shock a male confederate of the experimenter in a presumed learning experiment. Self-awareness was induced in half the subjects by the presence of a mirror. The Mirror group delivered significantly higher shocks to the confederate than did the No-Mirror control group.
Article
The main intent of this paper is to introduce a new statistical procedure for testing a complete sample for normality. The test statistic is obtained by dividing the square of an appropriate linear combination of the sample order statistics by the usual symmetric estimate of variance. This ratio is both scale and origin invariant and hence the statistic is appropriate for a test of the composite hypothesis of normality. Testing for distributional assumptions in general and for normality in particular has been a major area of continuing statistical research-both theoretically and practically. A possible cause of such sustained interest is that many statistical procedures have been derived based on particular distributional assumptions-especially that of normality. Although in many cases the techniques are more robust than the assumptions underlying them, still a knowledge that the underlying assumption is incorrect may temper the use and application of the methods. Moreover, the study of a body of data with the stimulus of a distributional test may encourage consideration of, for example, normalizing transformations and the use of alternate methods such as distribution-free techniques, as well as detection of gross peculiarities such as outliers or errors. The test procedure developed in this paper is defined and some of its analytical properties described in ? 2. Operational information and tables useful in employing the test are detailed in ? 3 (which may be read independently of the rest of the paper). Some examples are given in ? 4. Section 5 consists of an extract from an empirical sampling study of the comparison of the effectiveness of various alternative tests. Discussion and concluding remarks are given in ?6. 2. THE W TEST FOR NORMALITY (COMPLETE SAMPLES) 2 1. Motivation and early work This study was initiated, in part, in an attempt to summarize formally certain indications of probability plots. In particular, could one condense departures from statistical linearity of probability plots into one or a few 'degrees of freedom' in the manner of the application of analysis of variance in regression analysis? In a probability plot, one can consider the regression of the ordered observations on the expected values of the order statistics from a standardized version of the hypothesized distribution-the plot tending to be linear if the hypothesis is true. Hence a possible method of testing the distributional assumptionis by means of an analysis of variance type procedure. Using generalized least squares (the ordered variates are correlated) linear and higher-order
Article
Discusses some criticisms of laboratory experiments in psychology, emphasizing the claim that these experiments lack external validity. It is suggested that representative designs are inadequate for testing causal hypotheses, that ecological validity may facilitate the formulation of population estimates but is not necessary for causal hypothesis testing, and that experiments are not conducted to establish population estimates. The meaning that Ss assign to the laboratory setting and their actions, rather than the laboratory setting's mundane realism, affects the generalizability of the laboratory results. It is emphasized that whether laboratory results are generalizable to other situations is an empirical question. Research on aggression, especially in regard to the "weapons effect," is employed to illustrate the possible extension of laboratory findings to more natural situations. (47 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)