Article

Infants' Interactions with Mother, Sibling, and Peer: Contrasts and Relations between Interaction Systems

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Abstract

The role of the mother in structuring interactions with the infant during free play was examined at 6 and 9 months. Maternal scaffolding of turn-taking exchanges was then contrasted to the forms of turn-taking apparent in sibling-infant and peer-infant observations. Infants spent more time in turn-taking exchanges with their mothers than with their siblings or peers. These exchanges most often took the form of mothers creating sequences by responding to infants' social and nonsocial acts and by eliciting social and nonsocial responses from the infants. Infants' exchanges with older siblings were briefer and more typically involved the older children eliciting nonsocial responses from the infants but not responding contingently to the infants' interests and actions. Infant peers spent less time in turn-taking exchanges, and their interactions showed less evidence of scaffolding. At the same time, the proportion of strictly social interactions was greatest with peers. Relations were apparent between infants' turn-taking experiences with their mothers and the infants' subsequent interactions with their siblings and with their peers. Relations were also found between infants' interaction experiences with their older siblings and subsequent peer interaction. Those infants with more extensive turn-taking experience with more skilled social partners were subsequently observed to engage in more extensive turn-taking interactions with a peer. These results are discussed in terms of studies on mother-infant attachment and peer competence, maternal scaffolding, and Vygotsky's zone of proximal development.

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... Before the age of one, infants do not only react emotionally to their peers' affective states, but also engage with them in simple forms of interaction involving behaviors within their motor-repertoire. For example, Vandell and Wilson 35 showed that the interactions between infants become increasingly reciprocated from 6-to 9-months, as reflected by the presence of turn taking. Looking at the peer with or without associated vocalizations, moving towards the peer, touching the body of the peer or the toy she holds, as well as gesture-like movements were the type of behaviors that efficiently supported the reciprocated social engagement 35,36 . ...
... For example, Vandell and Wilson 35 showed that the interactions between infants become increasingly reciprocated from 6-to 9-months, as reflected by the presence of turn taking. Looking at the peer with or without associated vocalizations, moving towards the peer, touching the body of the peer or the toy she holds, as well as gesture-like movements were the type of behaviors that efficiently supported the reciprocated social engagement 35,36 . Interestingly, these behaviors have also been recorded during naturalistic interactions in response to peers' distress 30 . ...
... For example, the activation of the brain regions functionally linked to the motivation to act and not those typically associated with experiencing emotions predicted how much adults behave prosocially during everyday life 16 . The interactions between infants become increasingly reciprocated from 6-to 9-months, relying on simple motor acts, such as moving towards and touching their peer 30,35 . Importantly, these simple motor acts continue to be present during toddlerhood and preschool years, when they are related to complex prosocial behaviors, such as helping and comforting, as well as measures of emotional and cognitive dimensions of empathy 17,18 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Infants are sensitive to and converge emotionally with peers’ distress. It is unclear whether these responses extend to positive affect and whether observing peer emotions motivates infants’ behaviors. This study investigates 8-month-olds’ asymmetric frontal EEG during peers’ cry and laughter, and its relation to approach and withdrawal behaviors. Participants observed videos of infant crying or laughing during two separate sessions. Frontal EEG alpha power was recorded during the first, while infants’ behaviors and emotional expressions were recorded during the second session. Facial and vocal expressions of affect suggest that infants converge emotionally with their peers’ distress, and, to a certain extent, with their happiness. At group level, the crying peer elicited right lateralized frontal activity. However, those infants with reduced right and increased left frontal activity in this situation, were more likely to approach their peer. Overall, 8-month-olds did not show asymmetric frontal activity in response to peer laughter. But, those infants who tended to look longer at their happy peer were more likely to respond with left lateralized frontal activity. The link between variations in left frontal activity and simple approach behaviors indicates the presence of a motivational dimension to infants’ responses to distressed peers
... Over the past few years, authors have shown that the sibling relationship has a great impact on the development of prosocial behaviors (Dunn & Munn, 1986;Howe & Recchia, 2008;Pike, Coldwell, & Dunn, 2005) and on best friend relationship quality (McCoy, Brody, & Stoneman, 1994, Vandell & Wilson, 1987. However, no study has examined the combined contribution of sibling relationships and prosocial behaviors to best friend relationship quality. ...
... Concerning the link between the quality of children's relationships with siblings and best friends, the findings remain unclear. While some scholars have found negative or not significant associations between sibling and best friend relationship quality (Abramovitch, Corter, Pepler, & Stanhope, 1986;East & Rook, 1992;Stocker, 1994), other authors found that children with warm sibling relationships have more affectionate and supportive best friend relationships (McCoy et al., 1994, Vandell & Wilson, 1987, highlighting the consistency and continuity across the two relationships. The latter is in line with the social learning theory (Bandura, 1977), which explains how certain behaviors can be learned through modeling and reinforcement. ...
... Rather, high-quality sibling relationships influence the development of prosocial behaviors and better close relationships. In fact, the results of this study seem to support the hypothesis of consistency and continuity across sibling and best friend relationships, as documented by other authors (Bank, Burraston, & Snyder, 2004;Criss & Shaw, 2005;McCoy et al., 1994, Vandell & Wilson, 1987. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to explore whether the sibling condition (having a sibling) and sibling relationship quality affect prosocial behaviors and best friend relationship quality, deepening the mediating role of prosocial behaviors on the relationship between sibling relationship quality and best friend relationship quality. A sample of 310 children (161 males and 149 females) aged 8 to 11 years (M = 9.50, SD = 0.66) completed a battery of questionnaires. Results revealed that the sibling condition did not affect prosocial behaviors and best friend relationship quality. However, the quality of sibling relationships positively affected prosocial behaviors, which in turn positively influenced best friend relationship quality, supporting the mediator hypothesis. Limitations, strengths, and further development of the present study are discussed.
... Peers are not only attractive to growing children but also become sources of social, emotional, and cognitive stimulation and support, particularly when stable and enduring relationships develop. Patterns of reciprocal interaction are evident in child care facilities even among toddlers (e.g., Brownell & Carriger, 1990;Finkelstein, Dent, Gallacher, & Ramey, 1978;Rubenstein & Howes, 1976;Vandell & Wilson, 1987), although these early interactions typically involve simple rituals because infants and toddlers have difficulty coordinating their actions with peers. The everyday encounters with peers made possible by enrollment in child care may facilitate the acquisition of social skills, however. ...
... Many of the skills that children use when interacting with parents are not directly transferable to interactions with peers (e.g., Mueller, 1989;Vandell & Wilson, 1987). It is thus important to understand the unique features of peer culture that shape group dynamics in child care settings. ...
... Several investigations highlight the fact that siblings cannot 'tune in' to infants as much as parents can (Vandell and Wilson 1987;Mannle and Tomasello 1987;Mannle, Barton, and Tomasello 1991;Barton and Tomasello 1994). This has various consequences. ...
... This may prepare them for communication with other people. Vandell and Wilson (1987) observe that, in interacting with the sibling, the infants may suffer from the fact that their own interests are not appreciated as much as in interactions with their mother. It is rather the case that the infant has to respond to the older sibling. ...
... Peers are not only attractive to growing children but also become sources of social, emotional, and cognitive stimulation and support, particularly when stable and enduring relationships develop. Patterns of reciprocal interaction are evident in child care facilities even among toddlers (e.g., Brownell & Carriger, 1990;Finkelstein, Dent, Gallacher, & Ramey, 1978;Rubenstein & Howes, 1976;Vandell & Wilson, 1987), although these early interactions typically involve simple rituals because infants and toddlers have difficulty coordinating their actions with peers. The everyday encounters with peers made possible by enrollment in child care may facilitate the acquisition of social skills, however. ...
... Many of the skills that children use when interacting with parents are not directly transferable to interactions with peers (e.g., Mueller, 1989;Vandell & Wilson, 1987). It is thus important to understand the unique features of peer culture that shape group dynamics in child care settings. ...
... It is not clear why humans would be exempt from this evolutionary pressure. The fact that deontic reasoning appears subject to early emergence is consistent with the view that the demands of social living shaped the evolution of human cognition; its ''footprint'' can be seen in newborns' preference for looking at faces (Goren, Sarty, & Wu, 1975), the precocity with which infants interpret emotional facial expressions (Entremont & Muir, 1997), infants' desire to engage in reciprocal turn-taking games (Vandell & Wilson, 1987), and, yes, even the precocity with which they approach the acquisition and implementation of social norms. ...
Article
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In their discussion of young children's deontic reasoning performance, Astington and Dack (2013) made the following claims: (1) Children need more cues to elicit cogent social norm reasoning than adults require, namely, explicit reference to authority; (2) Deontic reasoning improves with age, and this is evidence against a nativist view; (3) All evolutionary explanations of deontic reasoning advantages require positing a ''domain-specific deontic reasoning module."; and (4) young children excel at deontic reasoning because it is easier. Here, I refute each claim. Instead, I argue that (1) Social norm reasoning is one type of deontic reasoning that has been the target of selective pressure; (2) Development does not preclude nativism; (3) Epistemic utterances make no greater processing demands than deontic utterances; and (4) both adult and child norm reasoning performance is strongly influenced by reference to or implication of authority.
... If children with PIMD have the chance to come in contact with typically developing peers, it is often with their siblings. For most children, siblings are important interaction partners in their social environment, because siblings are the peers whom children mostly may have contact with (Vandell & Wilson 1987;Anderson et al. 1994;McHale et al. 2012). Sibling relationships can be very supportive throughout life and form a rich social context in which children can learn and practice a range of social skills. ...
Article
Background: The complex disabilities of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) impede their presentation of peer directed behaviours. Interactions with typically developing peers have been observed to be more frequent than those with peers with PIMD. The typically developing peers with whom people with PIMD have frequent contact are their siblings. In this study, the amount of peer directed behaviours was compared between an interaction with a sibling and an interaction with a peer with PIMD. In addition, the attention directing strategies of the siblings, and how these affect the presentation of peer directed behaviours, were examined. Method: Thirteen children and young people with PIMD, who had a typically developing sibling, were identified. For each of these thirteen children, a peer with PIMD and a sibling were selected. The child with PIMD was observed together with a peer with PIMD and together with a sibling. In both conditions, video observations were conducted. A coding scheme for the peer directed behaviours of the children and young people with PIMD and a coding scheme for the attention directing behaviours of the siblings were used. Descriptive, comparative and sequential analyses were conducted. Results: Significantly, more peer directed behaviours of the children with PIMD were observed in the condition with the sibling (30.76%) compared with that of the condition with the peer with PIMD (13.73%). The siblings presented attention directing behaviours in 30% of the time; the most frequently used was nonverbal behaviour. When the siblings presented a combination of verbal and nonverbal attention directing behaviours, they elicited multiple peer directed behaviours in the children and young people with PIMD. Conclusions: Persons with PIMD interact more with their siblings compared with their peers with PIMD. Interacting with siblings may probably be more motivating and encouraging. Presenting a combination of verbal and nonverbal behaviours attracts more attention of the persons with PIMD.
... These have mainly supported the hypothesis of a sequential transfer between them (Ardelt & Day, 2002). It has, for example, been shown with cross-lagged correlations that the interactional experiences of infants with their mothers at 6 months of age affect subsequent relationships with both siblings and peers (Vandell & Wilson, 1987). In the same study, the quality of interactions of infants with siblings at 6 months of age was found to influence their social exchanges with peers at 9 months of age. ...
Article
The objective of the current research was to test the hypotheses arising from the epigenetic view of social development and from the wider perspective offered by the social network model with three interactional systems, that is, child-parent, child-sibling, and child-peer. They were tested in two prospective longitudinal studies using a multi-informant and multimethod strategy. Study 1 was conducted among 83 children and their parents and Study 2 among 190 children. Attachment security with parents was assessed when the children were 4 years of age, relationships with siblings at 5 years of age, and relationships with peers at 6 years of age. Attachment to parent was found to explain a limited part of variations in later social relationships with siblings and peers. The sibling interactional system had a consistent and enduring effect on later peer relationships. With regard to the two theoretical backgrounds under consideration, neither was able to account for equivocal findings displayed in the two studies as well as in previous research. The wonderful story of social development seems to be a very complex process for which new models are needed.
... This was done to Initial interview Collection of video-recorded data of infant social interactions Video-stimulus interviews using extracts of video recordings strengthen and add depth to the emerging patterns by providing examples of similar and diverse perspectives within each code. The codes were further informed by revisiting literature on early peer relationships and examining these statements with reference to the infants' social and communicative capabilities (Brownwell and Brown, 1992;Eckerman et al., 1979;Liszkowski, 2005;Vandell and Wilson, 1987), socially coordinated behaviours (Brownwell et al., 2006;Lokken, 2009) and shared understandings (Deynoot-Schaub and Risken-Walraven, 2006;Williams et al., 2007). Once the initial coding was complete, both authors scrutinised the codes to decide how they might form main themes and sub-themes (Braun and Clarke, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
This research adopted a qualitative methodology to investigate the reported beliefs and pedagogical practices relating to infant peer relationships held by three early childhood infant educators. Thematic analysis was used to derive commonalties and differences that reflected these educators’ views and practices about children’s early peer relationships. Results indicate in-depth understandings about children’s capacities that did not, however, appear to be translated into their reported practice. This research has implications for planning and programming experiences designed for social interactions, along with the significant role of the early childhood educator in recognising and fostering young children’s early peer relationships.
... Other converging evidence from the developmental and comparative literatures, however, speaks against this interpretation. Within the first year of life, infants engage in reciprocal turn-taking behavior with caregivers (Vandell & Wilson, 1987), and by at least the third year of life, children are selective in their distribution of altruistic acts, preferring to aid those who have aided them in the past (Smith, 1988). Children as young as four years of age reason effectively about reciprocal exchange, correctly identifying instances of compliance as well as instances of cheating (Harris, in press). ...
... Myriad empirical studies have shown that effective scaffolding practices promote cognitive development (e.g., Wood, Wood, and Middleton, 1978;Rogoff and Gardner, 1984;Pratt et al., 1988;Henderson, 1990;Diaz, Neal, and Vachio, 1991), language development (e.g., Bruner, 1983;Lucariello, 1990;Schrader, 1990;Fivush, 1991), and social development (e.g., Vandell and Wilson, 1987;Denham et al., 1995). Scaffolding practices have been found to promote development in infancy (e.g., Ratner and Bruner, 1978;Hodnapp, Goldfield, and Boyatzis, 1984;Ross and Lollis, 1987;Turkheimer, Bakeman, and Adamson, 1989) as well as in the older child (e.g., Pratt et al., 1992). ...
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Child psychotherapy has been an underdeveloped area of study. Existing studies have focused primarily on the efficacy of behavior modification and cognitive-behavioral techniques, whereas other approaches, such as psychodynamic play therapy, remain underinvestigated. This study applied single-case research methodology to clinical material derived from transcribed therapy sessions of a child referred for psychodynamic play therapy. Analyzing the data from actual clinical sessions allows for the study of the psychotherapeutic process, which, in this case, centered around the relationship between the therapist's interventions and the child's progress in expressing emotions.
... Social relationship theory, as opposed to group socialization theory, posits that multiple relationships are important because they meet different developmental needs (Howes et al., 1998;Ladd et al., 1997;MacKinnon-Lewis, Starnes, Volling, & Johnson, 1997;Vandell & Wilson, 1987;Vondra, Shaw. Swearingen, Cohen, & Owens, 1999;Wentzel, 1998). ...
Conference Paper
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Three propositions that are central to J. R. Harris's group socialization theory (1995, 1998) are considered in this review. These propositions are as follows: (a) parental behaviors have no long-term effects on children's psychological characteristics, (b) peer groups are the primary environmental influence on psychological functioning, and (c) dyadic relationships are situation-specific and do not generalize. The evidence that J. R. Harris has outlined in support of each of these propositions is reviewed, as is additional empirical research not considered by J. R. Harris. Serious limitations to each proposition are identified. The available evidence is more consistent with a model of multiple socialization agents. An expanded research agenda that permits a more definitive test of J. R. Harris's propositions and social relationship theory is proposed.
... Can you hold Chapter 2. The evolution and the rise of human language 39 still, Do you want some of this?). The highly patterned repetitive interactions of social exchange imprint the infant brain and form a trajectory that manifests (in its adult form) as the sociolinguistic interchange patterns of the group (Lock 2000;Lock & Peters 1996;Rogoff 1990;Vandell & Wilson 1988). ...
... Can you hold still, Do you want some of this?). The highly patterned repetitive interactions of social exchange imprint the infant brain and form a trajectory that manifests (in its adult form) as the sociolinguistic interchange patterns of the group (Lock 2000;Lock & Peters 1996;Rogoff 1990;Vandell & Wilson 1988). ...
Book
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The emergence of symbolic culture, classically identified with the European cave paintings of the Ice Age, is now seen, in the light of recent groundbreaking discoveries, as a complex nonlinear process taking root in a remote past and in different regions of the planet. In this book the archaeologists responsible for some of these new discoveries, flanked by ethologists interested in primate cognition and cultural transmission, evolutionary psychologists modelling the emergence of metarepresentations, as well as biologists, philosophers, neuro-scientists and an astronomer combine their research findings. Their results call into question our very conception of human nature and animal behaviour, and they create epistemological bridges between disciplines that build the foundations for a novel vision of our lineage's cultural trajectory and the processes that have led to the emergence of human societies as we know them.
... A importância deste tipo de fala é apresentada por autores como Gallaway e Woll (1994) e Conti-Ramsden (1994), que afirmam haver uma relação entre o progresso rápido da linguagem e a rica disponibilidade da fala semanticamente contingente. Os resultados de Vandell e Wilson (1987) apresentam-se na mesma direção. Esses autores realizaram um estudo com 3 grupos de díades-mãe-criança, criança-colega, criança-irmão, totalizando 26 crianças, divididas igualmente em função do gênero e da classe social (média e baixa), na faixa etária de 6 a 9 meses. ...
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The studies on the influence of social factors on language acquisition were largely influenced by the criticism made to Chomsky's ideas. Researchers following the social interaction perspective disagree with Chomsky and stress the influence of input on language acquisition. This perspective recognises the role of social interaction between adult and child, especially the mother, in the development of infant language. The relationship is characterised by a bidirectional model in which both parts contribute to the course of interaction. In this perspective, language is considered communication, and so initiate before the emission of words. The aim of this paper is to present the explanations of Social Interaction perspective regarding children's language acquisition. Maternal speech styles (motherese) and their influence on child's language, and different input styles are discussed, considering the child's characteristics.
... Daha önce de belirtildiği gibi duygular üzerinde konuşma ve ana babaların bu konuda rehberlik etmesi duygu sosyalleştirme yollarından biridir (Eisenberg ve ark., 1998). Bununla beraber, yaşa uygun bir şekilde verilen tavsiye ve yönlendirmeler, kardeşleri ve akranları ile sosyal etkileşimlerinde çocuklara rehberlik etmektedir (McDowell ve Parke, 2009;Vandell ve Wilson, 1987). ...
... Vandell & Wilson, 198743 Kokkinaki, Germanakis & Pratikaki, 2012 44 Anjali, 2013 45 Blau, 2000 46 Gonzalez-Mena & Eyer, 2009;Scarr, Lande & McCartney, 1989 47 Creps & Vernon-Feagans, 2000 48 Hamre, Pianta, Mashburn & Downer, 2012 49 Hamre & Pianta, 2001 50 ‫ה‬ ‫את‬ ‫וה‬ ‫שיטות‬ ‫אמצ‬ ‫עים‬ ‫ה‬ ‫עומד‬ ‫ים‬ ‫לרשות‬ " ‫האחרים‬ " ‫ל‬ ‫התורמים‬ ‫קידום‬ ‫התפתחות‬ ‫הילד‬ ‫של‬ ‫ו‬ ‫הרך‬ ‫בגיל‬ . ‫הכלים‬ ‫ל‬ ‫שיש‬ " ‫אחרים‬ " ‫לקידום‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מידה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫התפתחות‬ ‫הרך‬ Tamis-LeMonda & Bornstein, 1996;Piaget, 1952 56 Gonzalez- Mena & Eyer, 200957 Maxwell, 200758 Booren, Downer & Vitiello, 2012 59 Sroufe, 2005 60 ‫ו‬ ‫הרבה‬ , ‫לה‬ ‫יש‬ ‫פוטנציאל‬ ‫כדי‬ ‫ל‬ ‫גבש‬ ‫פנימי‬ ‫מצפן‬ ‫ההורים‬ ‫אצל‬ ‫שיוביל‬ ‫אותם‬ ‫להענקת‬ ‫טיפול‬ ‫מיטבי‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ילד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫מותאמ‬ ‫החלטות‬ ‫ולקבלת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫לצורכי‬ ‫יותר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫תינוקם‬ . ...
Research
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This paper will focus at the “others” that take an essential part in child development. The paper will focus first on the maternal role with her ability to establish secure attachment, which is crucial for development in all domains. The article will also present findings regarding the paternal role, which was recently shown to be as important as the maternal role, significantly contributing to the infant’s social development. The long-term implications of unsecure attachment and the ability of the others to support children at risk and help them overcome adversity will also describe in the paper. The current work will describe also the role of extended family members in development – siblings, grandfather, grandfather, and the role of educators – caregivers and kindergarten teachers. Since these others have a significant role in development, the paper’s second part will focus on the tools that others can acquire to accomplish the full potential of their role. The paper’s implication is threefold: a. increase the awareness of individuals about their pivotal role in development for preserve and strength their ability to establish secure attachment, b. represent insights that steam from the review regard the intervention in the case of children that face adversity, c. suggest further directions for research that evoke from the innovative ways of attachments’ inquiry.
... For instance, empirical studies have shown that children are better able to regulate their emotions when their parents teach them appropriate expression and management of emotions (Gottman, Katz, and Hooven 1996). Maternal scaffolding in social play also guides the child's interactions with siblings and peers (McDowell and Parke 2009;Vandell and Wilson 1987). ...
... Yet, it is clear that there is no knowledge of pecking that is being transmitted hereit is the modulation of the developmental process created by the heartbeat that does the job. a convention usually scaffolded for children that seems to be retained as part of many other conventions (Vandell & Wilson, 1987), most significantly language (Levinson, 2016). ...
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We argue that the traditional theory of mind models of social cognition face in-principle problems in accounting for enculturation of social cognition, and offer an alternative model advanced within the interactivist framework. In the critical section, we argue that theory of mind accounts’ encodingist model of mental representation renders them unable to account for enculturation. We focus on the three problems: (1) the copy problem and impossibility of internalization; (2) foundationalism and the impossibility of acquisition of culturally specific content; and (3) the frame problems and the inadequacy of mental-state attribution as a way of coordinating social interaction among (encultured) individuals. The positive section begins with a brief sketch of the theoretical basics of interactivism, followed by a more focused presentation of the interactivist model of social cognition, and concludes with a discussion of a number of issues most widely debated in the social cognition literature.
... Can you hold still, Do you want some of this?). The highly patterned repetitive interactions of social exchange imprint the infant brain and form a trajectory that manifests (in its adult form) as the sociolinguistic interchange patterns of the group (Lock 2000;Lock & Peters 1996;Rogoff 1990;Vandell & Wilson 1988). ...
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In recent years, professionals in early childhood special education have been concerned with the social competence of young children with disabilities. Despite widespread interest in this topic, the availability of psychometrically sound, easy-to-use instruments to measure social competence has been limited. This study provides initial data concerning the psychometric properties of the Social Strategy Rating Scale. This scale was developed in order to provide a relatively simple method of measuring social competence in young children with disabilities across multiple contexts. Forty-seven toddlers with disabilities were observed at four data points over a 16-month period in three different social settings (with mothers, in dyads, and in a group setting). The scale was found to have relatively high interobserver agreement across items and high internal consistency. In addition, the scale seemed to detect differences that occurred over time and in varying contexts. Findings are discussed in terms of their application in early childhood intervention programs.
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This study is a third-year (34 months) follow-up investigation of the socioemotional behaviours of preterm and fullterm children previously seen at four points in time during the first two years of life. A total of 42 mother/ child pairs were seen for videotaped mother/child and child/peer play sessions. The tapes were coded on a second-to-second basis using Izard's MAX facial affect coding system and a vocal affect coding system. Data analysis focused on the contribution of the individual difference variables of gender, birth status, attachment classification, and maternal contingency behaviour, to children's expressive development. Expressive patterns in the third year were also compared with those obtained during the children's second year. Results indicated that contrary to developmental theory, facial expressivity does not decrease, at least during this developmental period, and moreover, that vocal affective expression increases. It is suggested that what children learn in development, is greater flexibility in the use of different systems to communicate affect, and greater facility in modulating expressivity according to context. Birth status was found to continue to affect the nature of affective development into the third year; preterm children were less vocally expressive than their fullterm counterparts, and preterm females showed greater facial negativity. Few other gender differences in expressivity were apparent, although mothers treated their children differentially. Moderate maternal contingency in infancy was related to greater vocal affectivity in children. Insecure attachment was associated with a degree of apparent tension and affective disharmony.
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Home observations of mother-infant interaction were done for 2 hours on 2 consecutive days in a large group of families at 4 and 12 months of age. The observations were analyzed for situation (e.g. caretaking or close). as well as grouping factors of maternal mental illness. social status. sex of child. and birth order. Large main effects for situation were uniformly found for mother-interactive and child-interactive behaviors. Some main effects of social status were found. but not for maternal mental illness. In addition. there were some social status or maternal mental illness by situation interactions. Sex differences were not found to be greater than expected by chance. Mental illness and social status. although related to each other. did not interact in their effect on interactive behavior. Proportion of variance explained by situation far outweighed that for any other factor. These data highlight the importance of considering contextual factors in the design and interpretation of interaction studies.
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This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of some of the major findings, and considers future issues, in the area of sibling relationships involving a child who is handicapped. The review includes an analysis of interaction patterns for nonhandicapped children, both preschool- and school-age, as well as an analysis of the impact of a sibling with a handicap. Factors that contribute to the sibling's adjustment, including family size, socioeconomic status, and characteristics of the child who is handicapped, are also explored. The interaction patterns and potential instructional roles of siblings are also evaluated. Finally, some suggestions for future research are presented, in particular, looking at the influences of siblings on another and at factors such as temperament and context.
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The pragmatics of sibling-infant and mother-infant conversations were compared. Sixteen children, 22 to 26 months of age, were videotaped for 15 minutes in dyadic interaction with their mothers and for 15 minutes in dyadic interaction with their preschool-aged siblings. Sibling-infant and mother-infant conversations were compared on three dimensions: quantitative characteristics, conversational style and conversational repair of potential breakdowns. Compared with mothers and infants, siblings and infants talked less and had shorter conversations. On an individual level, siblings asked fewer questions of the infants and issued more directives to them than did the mothers. Moreover, siblings failed to repair disruptions in conversations almost twice as often as mothers. The infants' conversational behaviours, however, did not differ when interacting with the siblings as opposed to the mothers. These results indicate that preschool-aged siblings are not yet adept at making the kinds of pragmatic adjustments in their speech that scaffold infants in their early conversational interactions. It is suggested that the experience later- born infants have with less responsive siblings may be valuable preparation for interacting with strangers, especially peers, who share many characteristics with siblings.
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The occupation of play, as mutually engaged in by parents and young children, is theorized to be central to the development of social competence. Two conceptual heuristics, Vygotsky's zone of proximal development, and Gibson's affordances, frame this examination of play's role in the child's ability to generate adaptive responses and capitalize on environmental opportunities fostering social competence. Research describing mother-child interaction during play is used to illustrate the mother's orchestration and grading of social interactions to stretch the child's emerging abilities and optimize the child's performance. Finally, the practical application of these concepts and specific strategies which occupational therapists can use to "tune" their assistance to the needs of young children and to foster their development are described.
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This short-term longitudinal research project was designed to compare the maternal behaviour of mothers whose toddlers had been born preterm with the maternal behaviour of mothers whose toddlers had been born at term; the outcomes for the toddlers were also assessed. Twenty-one toddlers who had been born preterm with low medical risk (1460-2420 grams) were compared with 21 term toddlers who were matched in terms of social class. The heightened maternal responsiveness that had been observed during the first year with preterm infants had disappeared by 12 months, and by 20 months it was the mothers whose infants had been born at term who were more vocally responsive. During the second year, the mothers of preterm toddlers were characterised by more maternal control behaviour than were the mothers of term toddlers. Assessments of cognitive and language performance at the gestationally corrected ages of 12 and 20 months did not differentiate the toddlers who had been born preterm and term. In terms of play skills, reflected during interaction with their mothers at 12 and 20 months, the preterm toddlers were more actively involved than were the term toddlers. Despite the successful adjustment of these low-risk preterm toddlers, maternal behaviour was affected by the circumstances of preterm birth, even after 20 months.
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Standard counseling practices with the families of young stutterers include recommendations that listeners' negative verbal behaviors be modified in order to reduce the likelihood of stuttering. This study tested the hypothesis that stuttering and normal disfluencies in preschool stutterers are related to selected verbal behaviors in conversational partners. Twelve 2- to 6-year-old stutterers were video recorded while playing with their mother, father, and a familiar peer. The resulting videotapes were transcribed and two types of social communicative analyses (total number of words and utterances, verbal intent of the speaker) were undertaken. Results suggested that fathers used more words and utterances than mothers and peers. Parents provided more positive interactions with their stutterer offspring than did peers. Parents also asked significantly more negative and routine questions when talking to their stuttering child. Peer playmates were significantly more negative and generally commented more frequently when interacting with stutterers than did the parents. Stutterers were involved in significantly more positive interactions with their fathers. The frequency of fluency failures did not differ significantly when stutterers communicated with their mother, father, or peer partners. Implications regarding verbal styles of partners in relationship to the stuttering of preschool children are discussed.
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Developmental changes were examined in behaviors that accompanied infants' naturally occurring cry sounds. By the age of 12 months, most infants were sometimes observed not only to direct their crying toward the caregiver but also to elaborate the sounds by the use of gestures; at the same time, most of them continued to exhibit simple, undirected crying. It appears that the development of the act of crying reflects no single, all-or-none transition but, instead, increasing variability and sophistication in communicative forms and functions.
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This study evaluated the association between family relations and changes in children's popularity during the school year when controlling for the influence of important third variables. Participants were 24 third-grade children and their parents. Sociometric nominations were used to measure popularity, and multiple self-report and observational measures were used to assess family relations. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceptions of positive family relations and observed paternal receptivity to children's proposed solutions on a teaching task were linked with favorable changes in peer acceptance even when the effects of the children's social competence and academic competence were statistically controlled. These findings support the view that positive family relations facilitates the development of children's peer relations.
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This research project, which is the first stage of a five‐year longitudinal study, was designed to investigate infants’ and toddlers’ social interactions with a baby in a group care setting. The 15 children ranged in age from four (4) to 42 months. A target infant, ranging in age from three (3) weeks to two (2) months, was placed in a specified observational area in a playroom and a behavioral checklist was used by trained observers to record interactions. Results showed that toddlers’ interactional behaviors toward an infant increased significantly at 18 months and older. At all ages, females demonstrated more social interactive behaviors than males. When the behaviors were grouped into categories of comforting, sharing, and cooperation, significant differences were found by age and by sex. Infant and toddler behaviors can be mediated and expanded upon by a caregiver who is knowledgeable and responsive to these beginning social interactions.
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The main objective of this study was to investigate the interactional aspects of mother-child relation with late development in expressive language and mother-child with typical language development based on the social interaction perspective. Participated in this study twelve mother-child dyads, with children aged from 24 to 36 months equally distributed between two children groups. The motherchild interactions were recorded in a free play situation, and the data registrations and analysis were carried out using the CHILDES (Child Language Data Exchange System) computer program. Through the comparison using proportions test, it was verified that there were variations on mother’s conversation directed to these two groups of children. The analysis of the mother’s semantic contingency pointed that the used continuity expressions with children that presented typical language development. It was observed that children with late development in expressive language received more directive expressions, and mothers presented more requests to children with typical language development. data were analyzed considering that children with typical language development presented more spontaneous speech and adequate verbal answers, and children with late development in expressive language presented more non-verbal answers, spontaneous repetition and no answers. These aspects emphasizes the importance of considering the influence of both maternal linguistic input and child characteristics. Keywords: mother-child interaction; typical language development and late development in expressive language.
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The purpose of this research was to examine the moderating role of sibling relationship quality in the associations between shyness and indices of socioemotional adjustment in an early childhood education context. Participants were 79 children ages 4 to 6 (M = 4.74 years) who had at least one sibling. Parents completed ratings of child shyness, sibling relationship quality was assessed with parent and child self-report, and teachers and children completed assessments of child socioemotional functioning at preschool. Among the results, shyness and sibling relationship quality uniquely predicted adjustment at preschool. In addition, positive sibling relationships moderated relations between shyness and indices of preschool adjustment. For example, among children with less positive sibling relationships, shyness was more strongly associated with indices of internalizing problems. In contrast, these associations were attenuated among children with more positive sibling relationships. Results are discussed in terms of the protective role siblings may play in shy children's socioemotional adjustment at preschool.
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Sue Savage-Rumbaugh (nee en 1946) est entree dans la recherche sur la capacite d’acquisition du langage humain chez les primates au moment meme ou bien des espoirs anterieurs semblaient tomber, du fait de l’echec de Herbert Terrace et son eleve chimpanze nomme Nim Chimpsky [1] . Au cours des annees 1980, Savage-Rumbaugh fut la premiere a pratiquer une methode d’immersion linguistique (utilisant des lexigrammes, un clavier electronique, ainsi que la communication orale) avec un bonobo, Kanzi. Ses experiences avec Kanzi, puis d’autres membres de la meme famille, ont ete largement documentees dans des centaines de publications et des milliers d’heures d’enregistrements videos. Elles suscitent, aux Etats-Unis en particulier, un engouement remarquable (des doctorats honoris causa au classement parmi les cent personnes les plus influentes de Time magazine en 2011), que seule egale une critique sans fin, et le plus souvent sterile, sur la validite, la verite, voire la moralite de semblables etudes. Absolument indisciplinee, Savage-Rumbaugh a desormais franchi les limites de la science ordinaire, estimant que les protocoles usuels etaient incapables de rendre compte d’une situation inouie, ces singes non humains parlant et pensant autrement avec du langage humain. L’article est ici cosigne avec William Fields (ne en 1949), anthropologue d’origine et (recemment encore) directeur du laboratoire prive ou travaillent Savage-Rumbaugh et les bonobos. Voici donc un exemple de cette audacieuse reelaboration de l’humanite, entre primatologie, genetique, psychologie cognitive, philosophie, et pensee en general. Le point de depart, trouve chez Deacon – l’Homo Symbolicus – permet une aventure conceptuelle assez unique.L.D.
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Conflict resolution skills have been taught to young people of elementary and high school age for more than 20 years. Young people capably mediate the conflicts of their peers when provided with the skills and structures to do so. These in−school programs were begun by a wide variety of individuals and institutions, including court systems, the Society of Friends (Quakers), and community mediation centers. The motivation in many cases was to promote peace and decrease destructive conflicts by giving young people problem−solving and anger management skills. While a number of short−term evaluations of school mediation
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When an individual’s sense of well-being, confidence, or security is shaken in a romantic relationship, however fleetingly, negative affective states such as anxiety, fear, and sadness are often experienced. When this occurs, behaviors that have developed over the course of a lifetime to cope with negative affect immediately come into play in an attempt to restore a positive arousal state. In some instances, these coping behaviors may be disruptive to the relationship, as when an individual responds to elicited negative affect by impulsively withdrawing, criticizing, striking out, spending money, seeking addictive substances, or seeking sexual experiences. Such reflexive behavior may startle, shock, or otherwise distress the partner, thus shaking the partner’s sense of well-being or security and possibly leading to instability in the relationship.
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If personal experience is the basic raw material for psychology, why do all the major psychologies of the past century find reason to marginalize or deny it? Benjamin Bradley presents a thought-provoking study which explores the way our everyday experience of life has been marginalized within the scientific discipline of psychology. Arguing that an experience-based approach to psychology should complement the more traditional scientific approach, Bradley takes a bold initial step towards reclaiming the Enlightenments vision for the discipline.
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Almost everything that Alice encountered in her Adventures in Wonderland was somewhat other than it should have been. A baby turned out to be a pig, white roses were painted red by playing-card gardeners, and a cat disappeared into its own grin. Even the author’s name, Lewis Carroll, was not real but the pseudonym of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson.
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By the preschool years, children spend long periods in play with other children. Their social play is jointly managed, complex, and facile. There also are identifiable and relatively stable individual differences in the affect, skill, and motivation to play with age-mates. These competencies set the stage for much of subsequent socioemotional and cognitive development (Hartup, 1983).
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The study of sibling relationships is an underdeveloped and challenging arena in social and personality development. The dearth of research and theory about siblings is likely owed to traditional emphases on the parent-child relationship, in particular the mother-child dyad, and to the enormous diversity that characterizes sibling behavior. This diversity can create confusion among behavioral scientists who attempt to characterize siblings’ behavior along well-defined, conceptual themes. In part, this is because sibling relationships vary along a power-status continuum, which might be expected to influence both structural and qualitative aspects of sibling behavior. In addition, sibling relationships have frequently been described in terms of what are traditionally termed constellation variables, such as gender, family size, birth order, and birth spacing, each of which has played a role in discussions of sibling behaviors and influences (e.g., Wagner, Schubert, & Schubert, 1979; Zajonc & Markus, 1975). Finally, sibling relationships, especially in the early years, cannot be understood without consideration of the family contexts in which siblings develop.
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This study was designed to describe the changes in the social exchanges of young children with disabilities with their mothers and with a familiar playmate over a 16-month period. Thirty children were observed for 15-minute sessions with each partner for four data points. Data were analyzed using a modification of a coding system developed by Vandell and Wilson (1979) to determine changes in the frequency, complexity, and content of the social exchanges. Results indicated that children engaged in more exchanges over time, and that these exchanges became more completely social. In addition, children showed more vocal behavior and more object-related acts over the 16-month period of the study.
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2 studies were undertaken to assess the positive affective correlates of secure attachment in infancy and to assess the relation between secure attachment in infancy and competence in the peer group at age 3 1/2 years. In study 1, smiling and smiling combined with vocalizing and/or showing toys distinguished securely from anxiously attached infants during free play at age 18 months. Rated quality of affective sharing distinguished securely from anxiously attached infants during free play at 18 months and 24 months. Thus, secure attachment involves more than the absence of negative or maladaptive behavior directed toward a caregiver. Study 2 assessed cross-age, cross-situational, and cross-behavioral consistency in quality of social adaptation. Quality of infant-mother attachment relationships at age 15 months was related to Q-sort assessments of personal and interpersonal competence in the preschool play-group at age 3 1/2 years. The results contribute to the validation of attachment as an important developmental construct. They also suggest that age appropriate assessment of developmental social competence constructs can be a useful alternative to the study of homotypic behavioral continuity.
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The nature of early games and how they might assist the infant in language acquisition were explored in a longitudinal study of two mother–infant dyads, using video-recordings of their free play. Analysis of appearance and disappearance games, in particular, revealed: (1) a restricted format, with a limited number of semantic elements, and a highly constrained set of semantic relations; (2) a clear repetitive structure, which allowed both for anticipation of the order of events and variation of the individual elements; (3) positions for appropriate vocalizations which could in turn be used to mark variations; and (4) the development of reversible role relationships between mother and child.
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In a longitudinal study, infants 6-18 months of age were observed in their homes playing with their mothers and with peers. Of primary concern was how they coordinated their attention to people and objects. Observations were coded using a state-based scheme that included a state of coordinated joint engagement as well as states of person engagement, object engagement, onlooking, and passive joint engagement. All developmental trends observed were similar regardless of partner: person engagement declined with age, while coordinated joint engagement increased. Passive joint engagement, object engagement, and onlooking did not change with age. However, the absolute amount of some engagement states was affected by partner: both passive and coordinated joint engagement were much more likely when infants played with mothers. We conclude that mothers may indeed support or "scaffold" their infants' early attempts to embed objects in social interaction, but that as attentional capabilities develop even quite unskilled peers may be appropriate partners for the exercise of these capacities.
Article
Maternal behaviors within mother-infant games were examined to determine the amount, type, and functional value of maternal helping behaviors. 17 mother-infant pairs were videotaped on monthly visits from 8 to 16 months as they played 5 separate games. 2 of these games, roll the ball and peekaboo, were analyzed in terms of "rounds" of each game. Results show that dyads play more rounds of both games in the first months that infants perform game-relevant behaviors (e.g., returning a ball, performing uncovering or covering-uncovering). Maternal attention-getting and physical "stage-setting" behaviors occur in the early rounds of both games. In roll the ball, maternal hands-out and reinforcement behaviors increase in the months after the child begins to return the ball, while the percentage of rounds in which dyads play nonreturn variants decreases. Infants are more likely to return a ball when mother holds out her hands than when she does not. Infants are also able to perform returning or uncovering in game contexts before they perform similar behaviors in cognitive tests. The general similarity of findings in the peekaboo and roll-the-ball games, in spite of differences in the amounts of scaffolding, attention-getting, stage-setting, and reinforcement behaviors between the 2 games, indicates that the types and functions of maternal helping behaviors may be generalizable to other contexts of mother-infant interactions.
Article
Home observations were made of the social interactions of 14 infants and their mothers when the infants were 6, 8, and 12 months of age. The purpose was to document how changing social and motor capabilities of infants affect their daily social encounters. To this end, the social interactions between the mother and infant were taken as the units of analysis; changes in the initiations and the contents or themes of interactions were shown to be related to developmental changes in infants. With increasing age, infants more often initiated interactions using directed social behaviors, and mothers more frequently initiated games, terminated or redirected infants' ongoing activities, and issued verbal requests. Mothers also performed proportionally fewer caretaking activities and less repositioning of their infants. Certain initiation types and themes showed reliable correlations as well as changes in the rate of occurrence over the 6-month period. Infants' locomotor ability was shown to be related to many of these changes in maternal behavior and, particularly, to the increasing frequency of infants' activities that mothers attempted to terminate or redirect. The results demonstrate (a) that the infant's social environment is determined in part by the infant's developmental status but (b) that there are consistent differences among infant-mother dyads across time.