Estimation of Fetal weight with the use of head, body and Femur measurements; A Prospective study

American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Impact Factor: 4.7). 03/1985; 151(3):333-7. DOI: 10.1016/0002-9378(85)90298-4
Source: PubMed


In utero estimates of fetal weight were evaluated prospectively in 109 fetuses with the use of sonographic models developed in a previous study. This report confirms that the best in utero weight estimates result from the use of models based on measurements of head size, abdominal size, and femur length. Since the accuracy of these models (1 SD = 7.5%) is significantly better than those based on measurements of head and body (e.g., biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference), we recommend routine use of such models in obstetric sonography.

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    • "Gestational age was determined by ensuring that the last menstrual period was confirmed by ultrasound examination as first-trimester crownerump length. FGR was defined as an EFW < 5 th percentile based on sonographic measurements of the fetal head circumference (HC), biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur length (FL) according to growth standards [12]. All fetuses considered as growth restriction were justified by birth weight. "
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the factors which affect the perinatal deaths in early and late fetal growth restriction (FGR) fetuses using threshold of estimated fetal weight (EFW) < 5th percentile.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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    • "a Values are given as mean ± SD or number (percentage), unless stated otherwise. b By Hadlock formula [10]. Fig. 2. Receiver operating characteristic curve for the association between head circumference and prolonged second stage of labor requiring intervention. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the association between sonographically measured head circumference (HC) and labor outcome. Methods: In a retrospective study at a tertiary medical center in Israel, data were reviewed for all term singleton deliveries between July 2007 and December 2012 with HC measurements up to 7. days before delivery. HC was compared between women with operative vaginal delivery (OVD) or cesarean delivery for prolonged second stage and those with normal vaginal delivery. The impact of HC above the 75th percentile on pregnancy outcome was analyzed. Results: The study included 2351 women, of whom 2045 (87.0%) had a normal vaginal delivery, 259 (11.0%) underwent OVD, and 47 (2.0%) cesarean. Each 10. mm increase in HC was associated with increased risk for obstetric intervention because of a prolonged second stage (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.46). HC above the 75th percentile was independently associated with increased odds of OVD (aOR 1.77; 95% CI 1.30-2.41), 1-minute Apgar score less than 7 (aOR 2.91; 95% CI 1.50-5.66), and neonatal asphyxia (aOR 2.19; 95% CI 1.02-4.71). Conclusion: Term HC above the 75th percentile was associated with increased rates of obstetric interventions because of a prolonged second stage and might be associated with neonatal asphyxia.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    • "The fetal parameters recorded (in mm) were femur length (FL), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), and biparietal diameter (BPD). Estimated fetal weight (EFW) was calculated using the Hadlock algorithm (Hadlock et al. 1985). We had access to the records of any other ultrasound performed to women in the same hospital unit "
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    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates may affect fetal growth; however, previous findings are inconsistent and based on few studies. We assessed whether prenatal exposure to BPA and phthalates were associated with fetal growth in a Spanish birth cohort of 488 mother-child pairs. We measured BPA and eight phthalates [four di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites (DEHPm), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and three low molecular weight phthalate metabolites (LMWPm)] in two spot-urine samples collected during the first and third trimester of pregnancy. We estimated growth curves for femur length (FL), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), biparietal diameter (BPD), and estimated fetal weight (EFW) during pregnancy (weeks 12-20 and 20-34), and for birth weight, birth length, head circumference at birth, and placental weight. Overall, results did not support associations between exposure to BPA or DEHPm during pregnancy and fetal growth parameters. Prenatal MBzP exposure was positively associated with FL at 20-34 weeks resulting in an increase of 3.70% of the average FL (95% CI: 0.75, 6.63%) per doubling of MBzP concentration. MBzP was positively associated with birth weight among boys (48 g; 95% CI: 6, 90) but not in girls (-27 g; 95% CI: -79, 25) (interaction p-value = 0.04). The LMWPm mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) was negatively associated with HC at 12-20 pregnancy weeks (-4.88% of HC average [95% CI: -8.36, -1.36%]). This study, one of the first to combine repeat exposure biomarker measurements and multiple growth measures during pregnancy, finds little evidence of associations of BPA or phthalate exposures with fetal growth. Phthalate metabolites MBzP and MnBP were associated with some fetal growth parameters, but these findings require replication.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Environmental Health Perspectives
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