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The modern day health care system in the Cook Islands is a combination of neo-traditional ways and Western medicine. The practice of "Maori medicine" is widespread in the Cook Islands, with native healers using a variety of herbal medicines and traditional practices to treat many of the common ailments affecting the people. After a historical review, the current methods of preparing and administering herbal medicines are discussed, followed by a discussion of what is commonly called "ghost sickness (maki tupapaku) in the islands. Included is a list of the 49 plants most commonly used in native cures, with information on how often and for what they are used. Also included is a glossary of Maori terms for the various ailments with which the healers are familiar.
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... Medicinal plants have also played an important role in drug discovery, development, and production (16). In particular, the plants of Morinda citrifolia L., popularly known as noni, are one of the commonly used traditional medicinal plants discovered by Polynesian ancestors and have been used in Polynesia and almost worldwide for over 2000 years (17). Traditionally, noni has been used in the treatment of various diseases and medical disorders, including cancer, infection, cold, flu, diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, gastric ulcer, sprain, depression, senility, muscle ache, and pain (18). ...
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Background Hyperuricemia is generally defined as the high level of serum uric acid and is well known as an important risk factor for the development of various medical disorders. However, the medicinal treatment of hyperuricemia is frequently associated with multiple side-effects. Methods The therapeutic effect of noni ( Morinda citrifolia L.) fruit juice on hyperuricemia and the underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated in mouse model of hyperuricemia induced by potassium oxonate using biochemical and high-throughput RNA sequencing analyses. Results The levels of serum uric acid (UA) and xanthine oxidase (XOD) in mice treated with noni fruit juice were significantly decreased, suggesting that the noni fruit juice could alleviate hyperuricemia by inhibiting the XOD activity and reducing the level of serum UA. The contents of both serum creatinine and blood urine nitrogen of the noni fruit juice group were significantly lower than those of the model group, suggesting that noni fruit juice promoted the excretion of UA without causing deleterious effect on the renal functions in mice. The differentially expressed microRNAs involved in the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia in mice were identified by RNA sequencing with their target genes further annotated based on both Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases to explore the metabolic pathways and molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect on hyperuricemia by noni fruit juice. Conclusion Our study provided strong experimental evidence to support the further investigations of the potential application of noni fruit juice in the treatment of hyperuricemia.
... Non-biomedical belief systems continue to play an important role in health-seeking behaviour in LMICs. Anthropology studies from the Pacific Islands reveal the co-existence of multiple health belief models, and that people accept multiple services to meet their health-seeking needs [23][24][25][26][27][28]. The evidence suggests that Pacific Islander populations may attribute childhood disability to supernatural causes [29]. ...
Objectives: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of 150 female caregivers in Samoa to childhood hearing loss and hearing services, and to compare findings between urban (n = 100) and rural-dwelling (n = 50) caregivers. Methods: A semi-structured interview using a 26-item questionnaire was administered to participants in the Samoan language. Participants were required to respond "yes", "no", or "unsure". Results: Highest awareness of aetiology of childhood hearing loss was found for otitis media (88.7%), followed by noise exposure (64.7%) and family history (38%). Highest awareness of public health measures that may prevent/reduce otitis media was found for routine childhood immunizations (74.7%) and breast-feeding for first 6 months of life (69.3%). Overall, 40% of Samoan caregivers agreed that curses may cause childhood hearing loss. There was overwhelming support for community-based hearing services for newborns/infants (98%) and school students (97.3%). Conclusions: There is positive support for community-based hearing health services for children among female caregivers of Samoa. There was high awareness of otitis media as a major cause of childhood hearing loss, as well as good knowledge of public health measures that reduce/minimise the risk of otitis media.
... Therefore, various plants are great sources of therapeutic agents and are customarily utilized for various purposes, including medicines against virus, bacteria and fungi (Bessong et al. 2006). Morinda citrifolia is one of the therapeutic plants with wide nutraceutical properties and known for its therapeutic qualities beginning around 2000 years in Asia and Australia (Whistler 1985). It is type of subtropical and tropical plant widely seen on the Pacific islands and has been utilized to treat around 2000 diseases (McClatchey 2002). ...
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Morinda citrifolia is a traditional plant used in Asian and African countries for its wide nutraceutical and therapeutic effects for the treatment of various ailments. The fruit of M. citrifolia has various biological properties such as anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer. Using the molecular docking based investigation; we explored around twenty three bioactive phytochemicals in M. citrifolia fruit against human cancer. MAPK6 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 6) was selected as target protein and these twenty three phytochemicals along with a known MAPK6 inhibitor were docked against the target protein. The docking scores of the bioactive phytochemicals against MAPK6 protein range between - 4.5 kcal/mol to - 7.9 kcal/mol and the docking score of the standard drug (CID: 447077) was - 7.3 kcal/mol. Based on the binding affinity five phytochemicals asperuloside (- 6.7 kcal/mol), asperulosidic acid (- 7.2 kcal/mol), deacetylasperulosidic acid (- 7.0 kcal/mol), eugenol (- 6.8 kcal/mol) and rutin (- 7.9 kcal/mol) were chosen for further evaluation. These five compounds were further investigated through RC plot analysis, density function theory and ADMET properties. Stable linkage of protein-ligand interaction was observed through RC plot, density function theory showed the structural stability and reactivity of bioactive compounds through the energy gap between HOMO and LUMO and the ADMET (adsorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) studies showed the safety profile of the bioactive compounds. These in silico results support the utilization of M. citrifolia fruit in the traditional medication and the initiation for the development of new drug against human cancer through in vivo and in vitro evaluation. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40203-022-00130-4.
... The medicinal applications, both traditional and modern, span a vast array of conditions and illnesses, although most of these have yet to be scientifically supported. It has been reported to have a broad range of therapeutic and nutritional value [8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21]. Salveo Andaman Noni is the ...
... Morinda Citrifolia Juice (MCJ) is a natural fruit juice which has been used for centuries (Whistler, 1985), due to its suggested numerous health benefits (Wang et al., 2002), in endodontics (Murray et al., 2008) assessed the potential role of combined with EDTA. ...
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Regenerative endodontics philosophy comprises a departure from conventional endodontics, adopting a biological approach aiming to restore lost dental pulp with a newly regenerated tissue, ideally resembling natural dentine-pulp complex in physiology and function. The level of current clinical evidence supporting regenerative endodontic procedure for immature teeth is considered satisfactory to recommend treatment in necrotic open apex cases, however, in mature teeth, clinical trials are still scarce and insufficient to endorse the treatment clinically. This research aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current and future directions of regenerative endodontics in mature teeth by combing systematic and narrative review design, exploring the level and quality of the available evidence for immature and mature necrotic teeth in the systematic component, while the narrative segment delved into the biological science behind regenerative endodontics. An electronic search with multiple related keywords was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane library, ScienceDirect, King’s Library, springer, furthermore, International Endodontic Journal, Journal of Endodontics, Dental Traumatology Journal, Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology, and Endodontology Journal. A total of 169 clinical reports were identified, 20 of them were clinical reports of regenerative endodontic procedure on mature teeth, only 18 reports satisfied inclusion criteria and proceeded for qualitative analysis. Results demonstrated a low level of evidence to support regenerative endodontics procedure in mature teeth, multiple protocols described in the literature for immature and mature teeth. the regenerative endodontic procedure, and interdisciplinary incorporation behind the science of regenerative endodontics. In conclusion, despite a low level of evidence to recommend a regenerative endodontic procedure for mature teeth, a conspicuous trend toward biological-based endodontic treatment will eventually lead to the future of endodontic treatment.
... Extracts and formulations of Morinda citrifolia have been used as nutritional and medicinal supplements for over 2000 years [118]. It has been reported to contain several phytochemicals including scopoletin, octoanoic acid, terpenoids, alkaloids, and anthraquinones. ...
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The management of neuropsychiatric disorders relies heavily on pharmacotherapy. The use of herbal products as complimentary medicine, often concomitantly, is common among patients taking prescription neuropsychiatric drugs. Herb-drug interaction, a clinical consequence of this practice, may jeopardize the success of pharmacotherapy in neuropsychiatry. Besides the well-known ability of phytochemicals to inhibit and/or induce drug-metabolizing enzymes and transport proteins, several phytoconstituents are capable of exerting pharmacological effects on the central nervous system. The consequent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions with orthodox medications often result in deleterious clinical consequences. This study reviewed the relevant literature and identified 13 commonly used herbal products – celery, echinacea, ginkgo, ginseng, hydroxycut, kava, kratom, moringa, piperine, rhodiola, St John’s wort, terminalia/commiphora ayurvedic mixture and valerian – which have shown clinically relevant interactions with prescription drugs used in the management of neuropsychiatric disorders. The clinical focus is aimed to provide easily accessible information that will be of interest to clinicians, researchers, and the drug-consuming public.
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Background Traditional Polynesian medicine for children has been poorly documented, and few data are available on their efficacy and safety. In this context, the aim of this study was to identify traditional practices used for treating children and then assess the efficacy and safety of the most cited remedies by reviewing the literature. Methods In 2022, a semi-structured survey was carried out on five islands from the Society archipelago (Bora Bora, Huahine, Moorea, Raiatea, and Tahiti). A total of 86 participants were interviewed including 19 experts in herbalism. A thorough literature review was performed on the most cited plant species to gather the relevant ethnobotanical, pharmacological, and clinical data of each remedy. Results Participants mentioned using 469 remedies to treat 69 health disorders. The most represented health categories were digestive system, skin disorders, infectious diseases, and respiratory system. A total of 67 plant species (representing 731 use-reports) were mentioned and Annona muricata, Gardenia taitensis, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were the main plants reported. Regarding the safety of cited remedies, one plant (Microsorum grossum) showed high risk of toxicity, and its use should be avoided in infants and children. Conclusion Our survey confirms the importance of traditional medical practices for children in the Society Islands. A lack of data in children for most cited remedies demonstrate the need for more pharmacological and toxicological research on Polynesian medicinal plants. Finally, the potential risk of toxicity for some cited plant species reported calls for a better information of traditional medicine users and healers.
Abortion has existed throughout history, often outside of formal health care systems. This type of care, now called self-managed abortion, has historically been achieved in part through botanicals and traditional medicines. Their use continues into the modern day, especially in Asia, Hawai'i, and other Pacific Islands, where indigenous medicine traditions practice alongside allopathic medicine. Many of these botanicals, such as papaya leaves, hibiscus flowers, and young kī, and traditional medicines, such as tianhuafen, yuanhua, and Shenghua Decoction, have undergone scientific and clinical investigation of their potential abortifacient and antifertility action. The incidence of self-managed abortion with such abortifacients in countries with severe abortion restrictions are only estimates, leading to the possibility that legal rulings and societal pressures may cause underreporting. The Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander communities in the United States also suffer from a lack of abortion access in addition to unique health disparities and barriers to reproductive health care. As difficulties in abortion access increases due to the Supreme Court decision in Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization, some may seek or even prefer self-managed abortion through traditional methods that have been passed down in their communities. Midwives and other health care providers may then be contacted during this process. This narrative review provides an overview of the literature on the use of botanicals, herbs, and traditional medicines used for self-managed abortion, specifically in Asia, Hawai‧i, and other Pacific Islands. Their implications for practice for providers in the United States and further opportunities for research are also presented.
Burns are health problems that overwhelm the Unified Health System (SUS) in Brazil. Despite the new therapeutic strategies, the costs of treating burns ate still quite high, and there are no effective alternatives for healing the skin. The use of plants with therapeutic potential is popularly used, due to its low cost, easy access and great Brazilian biodiversity. Mc LTP1, a lipid transfer protein isolated from Morinda citrifollia (noni) seeds, has shown antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidative effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of McLTP1 on the healing of superficial burns in mice. The study was approved by CEUA NPDM – UFC (protocol: 02170619-0). The burn was induced by direct contact with a square stainless-steel plate (1.5 cm ² ). The animals were divided into five experimental groups (n=6-7/grupo) and treated daily with 0.9% NaCl saline solution (Sham), or with topical treatment performed with dermatological creams: Silver sulfadiazine 1% (Sulfa 1%), lanette cream (Vehicle), cream lanette containing 0.25% and 0.5% of Mc LTP1. The animals were euthanized after 14 days. Mc LTP1 promoted total wound closure after 2 weeks of treatment, reduced histopathological scores at 3 rd day, as well as induced the formation of a thicker epithelium and collagens synthesis on 14 th day, modulated inflammation by reducing MPO activity, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels and increasing IL-10 after 3 days of burn, modulated VEGF production at three times analyzed in this study, increased TGF-β and immunostaining for FGF after 7 days, reduced immunostaining for TNF-α on the 3 rd day and exerted an antioxidant function by reducing MDA and nitrite and increasing GSH at day 3. In short, Mc LTP1 showed an important healing action in this burn model, showing additional anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.
Ethnopharmacological relevance In French Polynesia, many pathologies common or endemic to the territory cause diarrhea. This is the case for rotavirus gastroenteritis, salmonella food poisoning, ingestion of water contaminated by bacteria, and ciguatera. To treat these ailments, the population may employ traditional medicine for cultural reasons, geographical isolation, and poor health coverage. Polynesian remedies are often used without medical consultation and there is no data on their benefit-risk balance. A few ethnobotanical studies have been carried out in order to identify the traditional remedies used for various ailments, but few studies have focused on gastrointestinal pathologies. In this context, an ethnobotanical survey was carried out to identify treatments used for diarrhea and ciguatera, inventory the plants used, better understand the local representation of these remedies, and provide efficacy and safety data on these uses. Materials and methods From February to April 2021, a semi-structured survey was conducted on six islands in French Polynesia, including one island in the Windward Islands archipelago (Tahiti), three islands in the Marquesas archipelago (Hiva Oa, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata), and two islands in the Leeward Islands archipelago (Raiatea, Tahaa). A total of 133 people was interviewed including 34 specialists (of which 29 experts in herbalism). Results These people mentioned the use of 27 plants for the treatment of diarrhea, and 24 for the treatment of ciguatera. Citrus aurantiifolia, Psidium guajava and Cordyline fruticosa were the three most cited plant species used for treating diarrhea, while Cocos nucifera, Punica granatum and Barringtonia asiatica were the most cited for ciguatera. A large majority of plants are widespread and introduced plants, which is congruent with the history of Polynesian people. While some plants are well known for similar uses (e.g. Psidium guajava for diarrhea, Heliotropium arboreum for ciguatera), others are less well known and may present toxicity risks (e.g. Barringtonia asiatica for ciguatera). Conclusion Traditional Polynesian medicine is an integral part of the local culture so important to be preserved and valued. However, more pharmacological and toxicological studies are still needed to determine the benefit-risk balance of some of these remedies and to allow their official integration into the Polynesian health system.
The "English-Hawaiian Dictionary," companion volume to the "Hawaiian-English Dictionary," compiled by the same authors in 1957, contains Hawaiian equivalents of approximately 12,500 English words. While serving as a key to the 25,00 entries in the Hawaiian-English volume, this dictionary is designed to be used independently. Certain features of the language and the method of compilation are described in the Introduction. Entries having variation in their English meaning, as well as semantic nuances in Hawaiian which do not exist in English, are indicated separately. A special feature is a supplement giving the Hawaiian equivalent of some 700 English given names. A bibliography of works cited or consulted concludes the volumes. (AMM)
Head-pieces; initials.; C & C 5985.; Beddie 712.; Sample plates available in an electronic version via the Internet at; Rex Nan Kivell Collection NK873, NK2702.; RB copy inscribed by R. Sutherland.; RB copy accession no. 1076.
A Dictionary of the Muon' Language of the Rarotonga. Department of Island Territories, Wellington, New Zealand, 460 pp. Te Rangi Hiroa (1932) Ethnology of Tongareva
  • S Savage
Savage, S. (1962) A Dictionary of the Muon' Language of the Rarotonga. Department of Island Territories, Wellington, New Zealand, 460 pp. Te Rangi Hiroa (1932) Ethnology of Tongareva. B.P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 92, l-225. Te Rangi Hiroa (1932a) Ethnology of Manihiki and Rakahanga. B.P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 99, l-238. Te Rangi Hiroa (1934) Mangaian society. B.P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 122, l-207.
Polynesian Herbal Medicine. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden
  • W A Whistler
Whistler, W.A. (1985) Polynesian Herbal Medicine. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Kauai, Hawaii (in press).
An infected puncture wound (such as from stepping on a fish bone), especially one on the hand or foot. This usually requires an incision. Literally, dry or hard bone
  • Ivi
  • Maro
IVI MARO ( 4) An infected puncture wound (such as from stepping on a fish bone), especially one on the hand or foot. This usually requires an incision. Literally, dry or hard bone. Also recorded by MacKenzie.