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Abstract

Proposes a theory of motivation and emotion in which causal ascriptions play a key role. Evidence is presented indicating that in achievement-related contexts there are a few dominant causal perceptions, and it is suggested that the perceived causes of success and failure share the 3 common properties of locus, stability, and controllability, with intentionality and globality as other possible causal structures. The perceived stability of causes influences changes in expectancy of success; all 3 dimensions of causality affect a variety of common emotional experiences, including anger, gratitude, guilt, hopelessness, pity, pride, and shame. Expectancy and affect, in turn, are presumed to guide motivated behavior. The theory therefore relates the structure of thinking to the dynamics of feeling and action. Analysis of a created motivational episode involving achievement strivings is offered, and numerous empirical observations are examined from this theoretical position. The strength of the empirical evidence and the capability of this theory to address prevalent human emotions are stressed, and examples of research on parole decisions, smoking cessation, and helping behavior are presented to illustrate the generalizability of the theory beyond the achievement-related theoretical focus. (3½ p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... To answer these questions, we ground our research in social information processing theory (Salancik and Pfeffer 1978) and attribution theory (Weiner 1985(Weiner , 2001 to explain both the complex social dynamics among misbehaving customers and FLEs in such multi-actor settings and the cognitive processes underlying the contagion. Drawing on self-reported data and observed behavior from two online experiments and one field experiment in the context of co-working and transportation services, our findings reveal that FLE-directed blame attributions drive the spread of C2C misbehavior while perpetratordirected blame attributions reverse it. ...
... The theoretical foundations of this research are social information processing theory (Salancik and Pfeffer 1978) and attribution theory (Weiner 1985(Weiner , 2001. Both theories account for the role of the social environment without neglecting the influence of cognitive processes on human behavior. ...
... Attribution theory (Weiner 1985(Weiner , 2001, in turn, explains how people make attributions to understand the causes of external events, their behavior, and the behavior of others (Weiner 1985). Characterized as an innate human tendency, attributions describe people's causal ascriptions that can generally be differentiated along three dimensions: locus of causality (whether a perceived cause is internal or external), stability (whether a perceived cause is permanent), and controllability (whether a perceived cause is under volition) (Weiner 1985). ...
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Service encounters nowadays are increasingly characterized by customer-to-customer (C2C) interactions where customers regularly become targets of other customers' misbehavior. Although previous research provides initial evidence of the conta-giousness of such C2C misbehavior, it remains unclear whether, how, and why C2C misbehavior spreads when frontline employees (FLEs) are involved and what FLEs can do to curb it. Two online and one field experiment in the context of co-working and transportation services reveal that FLE-directed blame attributions drive the spread of C2C misbehavior while perpetrator-directed blame attributions reverse it. These blame attributions are greater the more severely customers judge other customers' misbehavior. Findings further rule out alternative contagion mechanisms (social norms and emotional contagion) and show that contagion spills over to C2C misbehavior unrelated to the initial transgression. By specifying how contagion unfolds and by explicating the central role blame attributions play in C2C misbehavior contagion, this research uncovers its social dynamics, thus extending existing theory on customer misbehavior and attribution theory in multi-actor settings. Managerially, this research provides FLEs with explicit guidance on what they should do (personalized FLE interventions delivered either in person or remotely) and avoid doing (disapproving looks, FLE service recovery) when faced with C2C misbehavior.
... Aspects of HRM practices and systems can either facilitate or hinder this communication process (Bowen & Ostroff, 2004). Most HRM process scholars draw upon attribution theories (Heider, 1958;Kelley, 1967Kelley, , 1973Weiner, 1985) to understand how managers communicate their intentions through HRM systems, and why employees react and understand HRM in different ways in the same organization. ...
... Following this, scholars have paid increasing attention to the HRM process over the past two decades, arguing that the mechanisms through which HRM practices exert their effects can be further explained by focusing on the way HRM is communicated, and how employees understand and attribute HRM within organizations (Boon et al., 2019;Hewett et al., 2019;Ostroff & Bowen, 2016;Wang et al., 2020). To this end, attribution theories (e.g., Heider, 1958;Kelley, 1967Kelley, , 1973Weiner, 1985) are applied to explain the differences in employees' ...
... where the focal object of attribution is an individual's behaviour embedded within a HRM context (e.g., internal attributions of performance; Chiang & Birtch, 2007), and attributions of intent, where the focal object of attribution is on HRM, management, or the organization (e.g., commitment-focused HR attributions; (Hewett et al., 2019). This decision can be justified as each conceptualisation originates from similar attribution(al) theories (Heider, 1958;Kelley, 1967;Weiner, 1985) and both types of attribution offer meaningful insights into the variance of HR attributions caused by imprinting factors in a HRM context. In a similar vein, perceived HR strength papers that examined either individual or combined meta-features of perceived HR strength (i.e., distinctiveness, consistency, or consensus) were included for the conceptual and theoretical relevance of this review. ...
Thesis
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Since the publications of Bowen and Ostroff’s (2004) HRM system strength and Nishii and colleagues’ (2008) HR attributions, HRM process researchers have advanced a plethora of research that demonstrates the importance of well-communicated HRM systems for positive employee and organizational outcomes. However, researchers have contended that the antecedents of the HRM process (i.e., HRM system strength and HR attributions) are less understood. To remedy this gap, a small but emerging body of research suggests that employees’ personal histories affect their assumptions and expectations about work and management, which ultimately influences how they currently understand and interpret HRM in their organization. Past experiences and associated presuppositions of HRM - referred to as ‘imprinting factors’ - can manifest in early childhood and/or adolescence. Following an imprinting perspective, it is argued that individuals form career expectations during sensitive developmental periods (e.g., parent-child relationships, educational processes, and early social experiences) which shape their understanding and attributions of HRM in later life. Yet, this body of work is still in its nascency. Very little is known to what degree employees are influenced by their personal histories and upbringing. Even less is known about the organizational and cultural contextual factors that act as boundary conditions in these relationships. Given that imprinting factors can cause employees’ to understand and interpret HRM differently from what is intended by management, it is important to understand to what degree past experiences affect the HRM process, and how these effects can be actively managed. This thesis investigates the extent to which imprinting factors influence employees’ perceived HR strength and HR attributions. To this end, a series of three studies are presented: 1) a systematic review of the existing body of work, 2) an empirical examination of parental behaviours on perceived HR strength, and 3) an empirical examination of family motivation on HR attributions. In addition, multi-level contextual factors (i.e., HRM content and national values) are included as important boundary conditions in these models. The findings within this thesis contribute to the HRM process literature by the integration of an imprinting perspective with HRM process theories to offer a better understanding of the intrapersonal, non-work antecedents of perceived HR strength and HR attributions. Several avenues of research are presented which act as a platform for future scholarship. This thesis also has implications for HR professionals and managers who intend to design HRM systems for maximum effectiveness on positive employee outcomes.
... Recently, research on cancer fatalism was extended to investigating its connection to causal attributions of cancer, suggesting that they may serve as the source of fatalistic beliefs (Cohen, 2022;Cohen et al., 2021). This conceptualization draws on the theory of causal attribution theory, explaining how people interpret causes of events (Roesch & Weiner, 2001;Weiner, 1985). Attribution theory suggests that individuals search for causes of events or uncertain outcomes; thus, they formulate causal attributions to understand, predict, or control what is happening or might happen in the future. ...
... Attribution theory suggests that individuals search for causes of events or uncertain outcomes; thus, they formulate causal attributions to understand, predict, or control what is happening or might happen in the future. A main aspect of attribution theory is the perception of causality, which refers to the assignment of causal explanations to events, either internally (self) or externally to uncontrollable conditions (Roesch & Weiner, 2001;Weiner, 1985). Casual attribution theory was previously applied to explain individuals' perceptions of and reactions to health matters (Roesch & Weiner, 2001). ...
... Additionally, recent studies demonstrated that causal attributions of cancer consist of distinct factors that are differently associated with occurrence and outcome cancer fatalism (Cohen et al., 2021. The present findings support the theory of attribution of causality (Weiner, 1985) and its relevance to cancer (Roesch & Weiner, 2001). Moreover, the findings expand the scope by identifying the two distinct sets of causality attribution, namely divine providence and chance, fate, or luck. ...
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This qualitative study examined fatalistic beliefs and cancer causal attributions among people without cancer. Participants were 30 Israeli women and men aged 51–70 from diverse sociocultural backgrounds who participated in four focus groups. Three main themes emerged, referring to the variability in fatalistic beliefs of cancer occurrence and cancer outcome, the duality in attributing causality to divine providence and mere luck or chance, and the connection between distinct fatalistic beliefs and health behaviors. Data analysis enabled an expansion of the understanding of cancer fatalism as a multidimensional structure, whereby interactions between causality attribution and different fatalistic beliefs are related to prevention and screening behaviors.
... When encountering the literature on motivation, teachers are likely to encounter a field that seems more complicated than simple in its potential to support them in motivating students. In part this is because there are simply so many theories of motivation including but not limited to achievement goal theory (Elliot, 1999), interest theory (Renninger et al., 1992), self-efficacy (Bandura, 1999), expectancy-value theory (Eccles and Wigfield, 1995), self-determination theory (Ryan and , mindset theory (Dweck, 2008), and attribution theory (Weiner, 1986). The ongoing relevance of these theories to the field of motivation can be highlighted through their inclusion in special issues over the span of two decades (Alexander, 2000;Wigfield and Koenka, 2020). ...
... 668) and have relevance to designing classrooms. Pintrich highlighted five principles based on adaptive selfefficacy and competence beliefs (Bandura, 1999), attributions and control beliefs (Weiner, 1986;Skinner, 1996), interest and intrinsic motivation (Renninger et al., 1992;, value (Eccles and Wigfield, 1995), and goals (Dweck and Leggett, 1988;Elliot, 1999). For each principle Pintrich offered instructional design recommendations to enact the principle in a way that supports adaptive student motivation and outcomes relative to less adaptive forms. ...
... Building on Pintrich's ideas, Urdan and Turner (2005) used achievement goal theory (Elliot, 1999), interest and intrinsic motivation (Renninger et al., 1992), self-efficacy (Bandura, 1999), expectancy-value theory (Eccles and Wigfield, 1995), selfdetermination theory (Ryan and , and attribution theory (Weiner, 1986) to develop a list of eight classroom practices theorized to enhance students' adaptive forms of motivation. Their eight recommendations were: ...
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Introduction Most theories of motivation have largely developed from the work of scholars rather than the perspectives of teachers. This means that although researchers have many recommendations to guide the way teachers motivate students, there is little understanding of what teachers naturally do to support student motivation. The purpose of this study was to prioritize teachers’ perspectives by asking them, separate from theory, what they do to motivate students. Methods Forty-two practicing teachers completed an open-ended online survey in which they described their personal strategies for motivating students. We used thematic analysis to identify codes and themes from practicing teachers’ responses in a qualitative descriptive design. Results We identified 36 discrete codes that gave rise to nine themes: relevance, interest, relationships, effort, safe environment, goals, student self-regulated learning, delivery, and rewards. Member checks were completed to provide evidence of confidence in the results. Discussion All of the strategies that teachers described align with recommendations motivation researchers would make with the exception of rewards, which, from a research perspective, are often discouraged. We discuss the results in light of motivation design principles and their relevance to partnering with teachers as a ubiquitous influence on student motivation.
... Moreover, guiding learners to deliberately err could potentially mitigate some negative side effects of other errorful approaches (Wong and Lim, 2019b). For instance, errors that arise incidentally or are induced during learning may unwittingly erode motivation and incur emotional costs such as frustration and shame, especially when learners attribute these errors to low ability on their part (Brodbeck et al., 1993;Pekrun, 2006;Weiner, 1985). In turn, such negative emotions may impair learning by diverting attention away from the task at hand (Eskreis-Winkler and Fishbach, 2019;Frese and Keith, 2015;Pekrun et al., 2002). ...
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Transfer of learning is a fundamental goal of education but is challenging to achieve, especially where far transfer to remote contexts is at stake. How can we improve learners’ flexible application of knowledge to distant domains? In a counterintuitive phenomenon termed the derring effect, deliberately committing and correcting errors in low-stakes contexts enhances learning more than avoiding errors. Whereas this benefit has been demonstrated with tests in domains similar to those in the initial learning task, the present set of three experiments (N = 120) investigated whether deliberate erring boosts far transfer of conceptual knowledge to dissimilar domains. Undergraduates studied scientific expository texts either by generating conceptually correct responses or by deliberately generating conceptually erroneous responses then correcting them. Deliberate erring improved not only retention (Experiment 1), but also far transfer on inferential test questions that required applying the learned concepts to remote knowledge domains (e.g., from biology/vaccines to geography/forest management techniques; Experiment 2). This advantage held even over a control that further involved spotting and correcting the same errors that one’s peers had deliberately made (Experiment 3). Yet, learners failed to predict or recognize the benefits of deliberate erring even after the test. Altogether, these results suggest that the derring effect is specific to generating incorrect, but not correct, elaborations. Neither does mere exposure to others’ errors nor juxtaposing these errors with the correct responses suffice. Rather, guiding learners to personally commit and correct deliberate errors is vital for enhancing generalization and far transfer of learning to distant knowledge domains.
... The results of such attributions lead to different psychological states in the leader, thus inducing different responses to employees' behaviors. In particular, when employees' behaviors are unexpected or contrary to individual intuition, it is more likely to cause leaders to attribute a judgment of authenticity to these behaviors (Weiner, 1985). For example, when employees attempt to ingratiate themselves with leaders, leaders may doubt the authenticity of their behavior, thus attributing employee behavior (Turnley et al., 2013;Bolino et al., 2016). ...
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Building on attribution theory, this study applied regression analysis and explored the double-edged sword effect of leader self-sacrifice behavior on employee work outcomes, thus revealing the potential negative impacts of such behavior. Specifically, when leadership self-sacrifice was met with low employee authenticity attribution, we found that employees tended to perceive leadership as hypocritical, thus reducing their organizational citizenship behavior. By contrast, when leaders’ self-sacrifice behavior was met with high employee authenticity attribution, employees tended to trust the leader and improve their task performance. Given these findings, we challenge the general scholarly consensus on leadership self-sacrifice behavior, enrich the current literature on leadership self-sacrifice, and emphasize the important role of employee attribution in the relevant leadership process.
... They were instructed to read the following instructions, and to type their responses in textboxes that were provided in the online survey. We utilised the prompts method so participants will be more likely to generate more upward counterfactuals spontaneously that are self-blaming Weiner, 1985), and therefore reflects the self-blaming and ruminative type of upward counterfactual thinking that are known to have dysfunctional emotional consequences (Rye et al., 2008). ...
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Upward counterfactual thinking involves imagining favourable situations that could have changed the outcome of a negative event. Although it has been reliably positively associated with depression, a causal relationship has not yet been investigated. This study addressed this gap in the literature by examining whether upward counterfactual thinking causally increases state depression. The online experimental study was conducted on 469 Philippine residents (Mage = 29.45; SD = 10.35; Range 18–72). As predicted, individuals who were induced to engage in an upward counterfactual thinking writing activity regarding a previous negative experience related to an unattained goal reported higher state depression relative to individuals who completed a neutral writing task. Consistent with the sequential negative cognitions-to-affect framework articulated by theories of depression, regret mediated the link between upward counterfactual thinking and depression. Contrary to expectation, induced upward counterfactual thinking increased state depression when perceived personal control over the negative experience was low or moderate but not when high. Future opportunity to change the negative experience was independently associated with decreased state depression but did not interact with upward counterfactual thinking to influence responses. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
Résumé Alors que le e-commerce se développe de plus en plus, les consommateurs recourent massivement à la livraison à domicile et subissent régulièrement des incidents de livraison. Comment y réagissent-ils ? En l’absence d’information sur les causes réelles de la défaillance, qui incriminent-ils spontanément : le e-commerçant ou le transporteur ? De qui attendent-ils réparation ? Leurs représentations sont-elles influencées par leur niveau de familiarité avec ces situations d’achat et d’échec de service, ou par le niveau de typicité et de sévérité perçues de l’incident ? Ancrée dans la théorie de l’attribution, une enquête par questionnaire, réalisée auprès de 118 personnes, est menée pour répondre à ces questions. Elle fournit des résultats qui invitent notamment les transporteurs du dernier kilomètre à assumer une plus grande visibilité dans les chaînes logistiques du e-commerce et à s’engager dans des démarches de marketing relationnel vis-à-vis des consommateurs.
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This study examined the effects of joint academic study involving minority students from the Bedouin population in Israel with the general population on out-group and in-group trust. Using a modified version of the trust game as a serial game with complete information and 135 students from both populations in a joint academic programme, we found that the level of trust of the Bedouin students towards the general population decreases over time, despite their having assimilated into this group. We discuss the theoretical explanations and implications of this result, along with practical recommendations for introducing complementary steps to enhance trust over time between the two populations. The latter includes creating more social and academic encounters between the groups and offering better incentives for cross-sector collaboration. This study is the first to examine the development of trust over time in academia between different ethnic groups while the groups are in national conflict.
Article
The purpose of the study is to develop and evaluate a measure of attributions about partner online behavior. The attributions that intimate partners make for one another's actions foreshadow deterioration in relationship satisfaction. Although online communication is now pervasive, tools for assessing the attributions partners make for online behavior (e.g., why a partner hasn't responded to a text message) are not yet available. College students (Sample 1) and individuals recruited via Qualtrics panels (Sample 2) completed an online survey assessing attributions, relationship satisfaction, attachment anxiety, jealousy, and depression. The Relationship Attribution Measure–Online Behavior (RAM‐OB) is internally consistent, unifactorial, and reasonably stable. Maladaptive attributions (i.e., internal, stable, and global explanations for negative behavior) are negatively correlated with relationship satisfaction and positively correlated with attachment anxiety, jealousy, and depression (Study 1). Further, we demonstrate that maladaptive attributions covary with lower levels of relationship satisfaction even after controlling for anxious attachment, jealousy, and depression, and that the relationship between attributions and satisfaction is stronger for women and for people living with lower incomes (Study 2). The RAM‐OB is a reliable and valid measure of the attributions partners make about online behavior. The availability of the RAM‐OB may create new opportunities for understanding the role of technology and media‐related behaviors in intimate relationships.
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Assessed the impact of outcome (success vs failure) and attribution (internal vs external) on affect in an achievement setting. Following the theorizing of B. Weiner et al (1978, 1979), it was anticipated that the outcome manipulation would determine general positive and negative affective reactions, whereas the attribution manipulation would influence affects related to self-esteem. 53 female undergraduates received success or failure feedback on a social accuracy test and were induced to attribute their performance to either an internal (ability) or an external cause (characteristics of the task). A factor analysis revealed 3 dimensions: Negative Affect, Positive Affect, and Self-Esteem. ANOVA indicated that the nature of the attribution influenced all 3 forms of affective reactions. Success produced greater positive affect, less negative affect, and higher self-esteem than failure only when ability attributions were induced. Although additional analyses offered some support for the presence of affects influenced solely by outcome, the majority of analyses supported the notion that attributions are the primary determinants of affective reactions to success and failure. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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Distinguishes 2 types of self-blame--behavioral and characterological. Behavioral self-blame is control related, involves attributions to a modifiable source (one's behavior), and is associated with a belief in the future avoidance of a negative outcome. Characterological self-blame is esteem related, involves attributions to a relatively nonmodifiable source (one's character), and is associated with a belief in personal deservingness for past negative outcomes. Two studies are reported that bear on this self-blame distinction. In the 1st study, with 120 female college students, it was found that depressed Ss engaged in more characterological self-blame than nondepressed Ss, whereas behavioral self-blame did not differ between groups; depressed Ss were also characterized by greater attributions to chance and decreased beliefs in personal control. Characterological self-blame is proposed as a possible solution to the "paradox in depression." In a 2nd study, 38 rape crisis centers were surveyed. Behavioral self-blame, and not characterological self-blame, emerged as the most common response of rape victims to their victimization, suggesting the victim's desire to maintain a belief in control, particularly the belief in the future avoidability of rape. (35 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Two experiments were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between causal attribution and expectancy in failure condition. In Exp. I, subjects were college students. On three achievement-related tasks, the expectancy was lower in the subject who ascribed their failure to stable factors than those who ascribed to unstable factors. After three experiences of failure, most of the subjects came to ascribe them more to stable causal factors. In Exp. II, subjects were junior high school pupils. In the midterm examination, subjects who ascribed failures to stable causal factors expected to get less marks in the next examination than those who ascribed failures to unstable factors. The effects of the attribution to stability dimension on expectancy were confirmed.