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Grip and Pinch Strength: Normative data for adults

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Abstract

The primary purpose of this study was to establish clinical norms for adults aged 20 to 75+ years on four tests of hand strength. A dynamometer was used to measure grip strength and a pinch gauge to measure tip, key, and palmar pinch. A sample of 310 male and 328 female adults, ages 20 to 94, from the seven-county Milwaukee area were tested using standardized positioning and instructions. Right hand and left hand data were stratified into 12 age groups for both sexes. This stratification provides a means of comparing the score of individual patients to that of normal subjects of the same age and sex. The highest grip strength scores occurred in the 25 to 39 age groups. For tip, key, and palmar pinch the average scores were relatively stable from 20 to 59 years, with a gradual decline from 60 to 79 years. A high correlation was seen between grip strength and age, but a low to moderate correlation between pinch strength and age. The newer pinch gauge used in this study appears to read higher than that used in a previous normative study. Comparison of the average hand strength of right-handed and left-handed subjects showed only minimal differences.
... [6][7][8] Cancer itself affects the dietary intake of patients, increasing the energy expenditure and putting patients in a negative energy balance. Changes in nutrient metabolism and inflammation will also IeJSME 2022 16 (1): [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] affect the overall nutritional status. [8][9][10][11] Chemotherapy is reported to affect nutritional status by inducing metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycaemia, hypercalcaemia, or micronutrients deficiencies, thus affecting the immune competency of the patients. ...
... The recruited patients were: (1) registered adult outpatients at SOPD, HTJ, (2) aged 18 years old and above and (3) scheduled for elective surgery. Patients who were diagnosed with dementia, pregnant or IeJSME 2022 16 (1): [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] lactating mothers, on enteral or parenteral feeding and had physical impairments were excluded from the study. ...
... The handgrip strength (HGS) of the patients was assessed using a calibrated Jamar Hydraulic Hand IeJSME 2022 16 (1): [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] Dynamometer, which is expressed in KgForce (KgF). The patients held the dynamometer in the hand to be tested, with the arm at right angles and the elbow by the side of the body. ...
Article
Background: Malnutrition is common among cancer patients, and it can impact the surgical outcomes of the patients undergoing elective surgery. Addressing malnutrition at the early stage of treatment will enhance the recovery process of the patients after anti-cancer treatments. Our study aimed to assess the nutritional status among breast and colorectal cancer patients who were scheduled for elective surgery and treatment.
... The NASA anthropometric source book (NASA, 1978) and some main studies on hand anthropometry (Imrhan et al., 1993;Imrhan et al., 2009;Jee & Yun, 2016;Mandahawi et al., 2008) were selected as the guide to define and measure hand dimensions. Grip strength and three types of pinch strengths including tip, key, and palmar were measured according to the recommendations of American Society of Hand Therapists (ASHT) and Mathiowetz et al. (Fess, 1981;Mathiowetz et al., 1985). ...
... Grip strength and tip, key and palmar pinches were measured according to the recommendations provided by Mathiowetz et al. and ASHT (Fess, 1981;Mathiowetz et al., 1985). During the measurement, a subject sat on a chair with the shoulder adducted and neutrally rotated, the elbow flexed at 90 degrees, and the forearm in a neutral position with the wrist between 0°and 30°of extension. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the hand anthropometric dimensions and strengths of three different occupations. A cross‐sectional study was designed to measure 34 hand dimensions and 4 hand strengths of 558 participants consisted of office workers, vehicle mechanics, and farmers. A digital caliper, a hand dynamometer, and a pinch meter were used to collect data. Percentile values for each measurement were tabulated at the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile levels. The analysis of variance, t test, and Cohen's d were performed to assess the differences in anthropometric variables between groups of workers. The findings demonstrated statistically significant differences in the mean size and strength of the hands across three occupations. Office workers' hands were significantly smaller than those of car mechanics and farmers, particularly in terms of hand depths and widths. Car mechanics' hand circumferences were bigger than those of farmers. Office workers produced the weakest hand strengths. Wrist breadth of workers showed the highest correlation with hand strengths. Compared to other studies, the hands of Iranian workers were wider and thicker, but the length of their hands was similar. Given the significant variances in hand anthropometry between occupational categories, these differences should be incorporated into the design and selection of hand‐related products such as gloves and hand tools for each group of workers.
... Barbara et al. studied the effect of contextual variables on the grip strength and found no significant correlation between age and grip strength of participants [54]. Further studies indicated that aging led to lower grip strength [55][56][57][58]. Mathiowetz et al. concluded that young people aged 25-39 had higher grip strength [56]. ...
... Further studies indicated that aging led to lower grip strength [55][56][57][58]. Mathiowetz et al. concluded that young people aged 25-39 had higher grip strength [56]. Schmidt et al. found that people aged 27-32 had higher grip strength compared to other age groups [59]. ...
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Abstract Background hand-arm vibration is one of the typical annoying physical factors. Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is a disorder caused by vibrating working tools which vibrate hands beyond the threshold. Long-term HAVS may result in damage to blood vessels, chronic numbness in the fingers, bone injury, and muscular weakness. People are exposed to high-rate noise vibration in a variety of situations, including vessel employment and operating in tiny boats. Moreover, the extant study was conducted to examine manual function disability levels caused by Sailing Speed Vessels (SSV) vibration. Methods The extant study was quasi-experimental research in which, 52 male sailors in SSVs were chosen as the experimental group, and 27 office personnel were selected as the control group. The demographic factors questionnaire, DASH questionnaire, grip and pinch strength tests, the neurosensory exam, and the skill-dexterity test were all employed in this study. SPSS23 software was used to analyze the data. Results The findings suggested that the experimental group experienced greater vibration disorder symptoms than the control group. Because the experimental group had a higher score, the individuals experienced poorer circumstances in terms of arm, shoulder, and hand impairment as compared to the control group. The mean grip strength of hands and fingers in two hands of the experimental group was lower than the control group (P
... During the 3-week CR stay, intensity levels were carefully increased depending on the blood pressure values and the perception of the experienced therapists. As part of our standard functional diagnostics, a six-minute-walking-test (6MWT) [15,16], a handgrip-strength-test [17] (Fig. 2) and the Berg-Balance-Scale (BBS) [18] were performed at the start and end of CR in standardized approach. Likewise, rehabilitation routines included 24-h electrocardiogram (ECG) and 24-h blood pressure measurement. ...
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Background To date, no studies on the feasibility or outcomes of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) after percutaneous mitral valve reconstruction using clipping procedures have been published. The aim of this study was to report on our first experiences with this special target group. Methods Monocentric retrospective analysis of 27 patients (72 ± 12 years old, 52% female) who underwent multimodal inpatient CR in the first 2 month after MitraClip™ implantation. A six-minute-walking-test, a handgrip-strength-test and the Berg-Balance-Scale was conducted at the beginning and end of CR. Echocardiography was performed to rule out device-related complications. Results Adapted inpatient CR started 16 ± 13 days after clipping intervention and lasted 22 ± 4 days. In 4 patients (15%) CR had to be interrupted or aborted prematurely due to cardiac decompensations. All other patients (85%) completed CR period without complications. Six-minute-walking-distance improved from 272 ± 97 to 304 ± 111 m (p < .05) and dependence on rollator walker or walking aids was significantly reduced (p < .05). Results of handgrip-strength-test and Berg-Balance-Scale increased (p < .05). Overall, social-medical and psychological consultations were well received by the patients and no device-related complications occurred during rehabilitation treatments. Conclusions The results indicate that an adapted inpatient CR in selected patients after MitraClip™ implantation is feasible. Patients benefited from treatments both at functional and social-medical level and no device-related complications occurred. Larger controlled studies are needed.
... The contralateral arm with regard to the vascular access was assessed. Both assessments were performed in triplicate and the best effort was expressed as absolute value and as percentage of the predicted value based on age and gender [16,18]. ...
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Background Physical performance is an important determinant of quality of life in patients on haemodialysis. An association between physical performance and survival could further enhance the importance of physical performance. We aimed to assess the association between different measures of physical performance and survival in dialysis patients. Methods 117 patients on haemodialysis were included from December 2016 and followed up to September 2020. Muscle strength (quadriceps, handgrip strength, and sit-to-stand), exercise capacity (six-minute walking test, 6MWT) and the risk of falls (Dialysis Fall Index, Tinetti, and Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques) were measured at the time of inclusion. Hospitalisation, morbidity (Davies Stoke index) and death were recorded. Data were analysed by least squares linear regression models and competing risks survival hazard models. Results During the observation period (median 33, min 30 max 45 months), 45 patients died (= 38.5%), resulting in a mortality rate of 15% per year. Cardiovascular disease (42.9%) was the most common cause of death. All domains of physical performance were associated with mortality, with the highest hazards for an increased risk of falls (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 20.4, p = 0.003) and poor exercise capacity (HR = 7.4, p <0.001). A score lower than 298 meters (specificity = 0.583; sensitivity = 0.889) on the 6MWT was established as a haemodialysis-specific cut-off point for mortality risk. Each increase in 6MWT (m) corresponded with a 0.4% decrease in mortality risk (HR = 0.996, 95%CI [0.994; 0.998]). The 6MWT as also associated with comorbidity (F-value = 6.1, p = 0.015). Physical performance was not associated with hospitalisation. Conclusions The 6MWT is associated with mortality in patients on haemodialysis and can be considered as a valid assessment tool to identify high-risk patients.
... Weakness was assessed by measuring hand grip strength according to a standardized protocol using a Jamar hydraulic hand dynamometer manufactured by Medifor (Fall River, MA) [26,27]. The maximum value of the dominant hand was compared to published normative values for children (6-19 years) [28] and adults [29]. Slowness/gait speed was determined using the two-minute walk test (2MWT) per instructions in the NIH Toolbox [30]. ...
Article
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Frailty is a standardized, quantitative metric used to assess multisystem physiologic reserve and vulnerability to poor health outcomes. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) positively impacts patient outcomes, including frailty, in adult cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, both the frailty paradigm and CR are understudied in pediatric CVD. This retrospective, single-center cohort study aimed to determine baseline composite frailty for pediatric-onset CVD patients and examine its change throughout CR using a proposed frailty assessment tool. Youth with pediatric-onset CVD participating in CR were stratified into five CVD diagnostic groups: post-heart transplant (HTx) (n = 34), post-ventricular assist device (VAD) (n = 12), single ventricle (n = 20) and biventricular (n = 29) congenital heart disease, and cardiomyopathy (n = 25), and frailty was assessed at baseline and every 30 days during CR. Post-HTx and post-VAD groups had significantly higher median frailty scores at baseline (6/10 and 5.75/10, respectively) driven by reduced strength, gait speed, and functional status. All groups except post-VAD displayed a significant absolute reduction in frailty from baseline to 120 days (HTx: − 3.5; VAD: − 3; SV CHD: − 1; BV CHD: − 1; CM: − 1.5), with similar median post-CR scores (1–3/10 in all groups). These improvements did not significantly correlate with number of CR sessions attended. This study established that frailty exhibits discriminatory utility across pediatric-onset CVD groups at baseline and is significantly modifiable over time. Improvements in frailty and other fitness metrics are likely due to a combination of post-operative recovery, post-diagnosis pharmacological and lifestyle changes, and CR. Further study of this frailty tool is needed to explore its prognostic utility.
... Currently, there are no standardized tables of HGS for MHD population. The reference HGS value in kg for a 55-year-old right-handed male is 21.7 [34,35], which is almost certainly not appropriate for dialysis patients. In our study population, the mean age was 50 years and 19 Kg, which is 10% lower as compared to what was found among healthy adult population. ...
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Malnutrition is associated with high rates of mortality among patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD). There is a paucity of data from Bangladesh, where around 35,000–40,000 people reach ESKD annually. We assessed protein-energy wasting (PEW) amongst 133 patients at a single hemodialysis setting in Dhaka. Patients were 49% male, age 50 ± 13 years, 62% were on twice-weekly hemodialysis. Anthropometric, biochemical, and laboratory evaluations revealed: BMI 24.1 ± 5.2 kg/m2, mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) 21.6 ± 3.6 cm, and serum albumin 3.7 ± 0.6 g/dL. Based on published criteria, 18% patients had PEW and for these patients, BMI (19.8 ± 2.4 vs. 25.2 ± 5.2 kg/m2), MAMC (19.4 ± 2.4 vs. 22.2 ± 3.8 cm), serum albumin (3.5 ± 0.7 vs. 3.8 ± 0.5 g/dL), and total cholesterol (135 ± 34 vs. 159 ± 40 mg/dL), were significantly lower as compared to non-PEW patients, while hand grip strength was similar (19.5 ± 7.6 vs. 19.7 ± 7.3 kg). Inflammatory C-reactive protein levels tended to be higher in the PEW group (20.0 ± 34.8 vs. 10.0 ± 13.9 p = 0.065). Lipoprotein analyses revealed PEW patients had significantly lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol (71 ± 29 vs. 88 ± 31 mg/dL, p < 0.05) and plasma triglyceride (132 ± 51 vs. 189 ± 103 mg/dL, p < 0.05), while high density lipoprotein cholesterol was similar. Nutritional assessments using a single 24 h recall were possible from 115 of the patients, but only 66 of these were acceptable reporters. Amongst these, while no major differences were noted between PEW and non-PEW patients, the majority of patients did not meet dietary recommendations for energy, protein, fiber, and several micronutrients (in some cases intakes were 60–90% below recommendations). Malnutrition Inflammation Scores were significantly higher in PEW patients (7.6 ± 3.1 vs. 5.3 ± 2.7 p < 0.004). No discernible differences were apparent in measured parameters between patients on twice- vs. thrice-weekly dialysis. Data from a larger cohort are needed prior to establishing patient-management guidelines for PEW in this population.
... Three trials with one-minute intervals in between were performed successively on each hand, and the results were recorded. The mean of the three trials was analyzed in this study [25]. ...
... Handgrip strength (kg) of the dominant hand was examined with the Jamar handheld dynamometer ® (Patterson Medical, Glossop, UK) [31]. However, when the dominant hand was medically unfeasible due to, for example, a PCI/stenting procedure on that hand, the non-dominant hand was tested. ...
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Frailty is an age-related decline in physical, socio-psychological and cognitive function that results in extreme vulnerability to stressors. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate which tests have to be selected to detect frailty in a comprehensive and feasible manner in cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients based on multivariate regression and sensitivity/specificity analyses. Patients (n = 133, mean age 78 ± 7 years) hospitalised for coronary revascularisation or heart failure (HF) were examined using the Fried and Vigorito criteria, together with some additional measurements. Moreover, to examine the association of frailty with 6-month clinical outcomes, hospitalisations and mortality up to 6 months after the initial hospital admission were examined. Some level of frailty was detected in 44% of the patients according to the Vigorito criteria and in 65% of the patients according to the Fried criteria. Frailty could best be detected by a score based on: sex, Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Katz scale, timed up-and-go test (TUG), handgrip strength, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) and total number of medications. Frailty and specific markers of frailty were significantly associated with mortality and six-month hospitalisations. We thus can conclude that, in patients with CVD, sex, MNA, Katz scale, TUG, handgrip strength, MMSE, GDS-15 and total number of medications play a key role in detecting frailty, assessed by a new time- and cost-efficient test battery.
Article
Distal radius fracture (DRF) is a common injury, affecting both function and activity performance. Postoperative rehabilitation is an essential part of the treatment of a surgically treated DRF. The study aims were to assess pain, hand function, activity performance and apprehensiveness and their association, during the first three months after a surgically treated DRF. Eighty-eight patients with a DRF were assessed for pain, hand function, activity performance and apprehensiveness three days and two, six and 12 weeks after surgery. The results indicated that pain, range of motion (ROM), grip strength, apprehensiveness, and activity performance (PRWE) improved significantly between follow-ups (p < .001-.01). Apprehensiveness correlated moderately with activity performance on all visits (0.40-0.47, p < .01), which implies a correlation between the variables, but the regression model showed that the differences in the PRWE at twelve weeks cannot be explained by the differences in apprehensiveness or range of motion at cast removal. At 12 weeks, the study participants had regained almost 70% of their grip strength and 74-96% of the ROM of the uninjured hand.The study shows that, during the study period, the participants improved in both pain, hand function and activity performance, and indicates that a simple question on apprehensiveness in terms of using the injured hand in daily life could be an important factor in distal radius fracture rehabilitation.
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