Sex-typed Behavior in Cross-Gender-Identified Children: Stability and Change at a One-Year Follow-up
Received 15 February 1985. Revised 26 June 1985. Accepted 1 July 1985. Available online 6 January 2010.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 12/1985; 24(6):710-9. DOI: 10.1016/S0002-7138(10)60114-8
Children referred because of concerns about their gender identity development were compared to their siblings on 4 sex-typed measures (15 variables) at both assessment and a 1-year follow-up. At assessment, the gender-referred children differed from their siblings on all but one variable. At follow-up, the gender-referred children either maintained or significantly reduced their degree of cross-gender behavior; compared to their siblings, however, they continued to differ on the majority of measures. Degree of behavioral change at follow-up correlated positively with number of therapy sessions (child, parent, and total) and the child therapist’s emphasis on gender identity issues.
- "Again, systematic information on the question is scanty. The most relevant study found some evidence that parental involvement in therapy was significantly correlated with a greater degree of behavioral change in the child at a 1-year follow-up, but this study did not make random assignment to different treatment protocols, so one has to interpret the findings with caution (Zucker, Bradley, Doering, & Lozinski, 1985) "
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ABSTRACT: 29 prepubescent boys (aged 4.6–13.3 yrs) at initial referral were assessed by an independent clinical psychologist before any treatment was offered and again for follow-up at a mean of 4 yrs and 3 mo later. Completion of individualized behavioral treatment significantly accounted for long-term improvement in gender behavior and gender identity. Younger Ss received more severe initial diagnoses, were more likely to have completed treatment, and showed the greatest improvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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