Sex-typed Behavior in Cross-Gender-Identified Children: Stability and Change at a One-Year Follow-up

Received 15 February 1985. Revised 26 June 1985. Accepted 1 July 1985. Available online 6 January 2010.
Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 12/1985; 24(6):710-9. DOI: 10.1016/S0002-7138(10)60114-8
Source: PubMed


Children referred because of concerns about their gender identity development were compared to their siblings on 4 sex-typed measures (15 variables) at both assessment and a 1-year follow-up. At assessment, the gender-referred children differed from their siblings on all but one variable. At follow-up, the gender-referred children either maintained or significantly reduced their degree of cross-gender behavior; compared to their siblings, however, they continued to differ on the majority of measures. Degree of behavioral change at follow-up correlated positively with number of therapy sessions (child, parent, and total) and the child therapist’s emphasis on gender identity issues.

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