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Composition of the essential oil of Ocimum canum grown in Rwanda

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The essential oil from leaves and flowers of Ocimum canum Sims, growing wild in Rwanda, was investigated by LSC, GLC and GC-MS. All samples were characterized by a high content of linalool (60-90%). Neither camphor nor citral and methyl cinnamate, compounds reported to be characteristic for different types of O. canum, could be detected. All monoterpene hydrocarbons were present in minor amounts (less than 1.5%). The oil samples with the lowest linalool content consisted of relatively large amounts of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as bergamotene (about 10%) and beta-caryophyllene (about 5%). Oct-1-en-3-ol and 3-octanol were the only oxygen-containing components, besides linalool, that amounted to more than 1% in most of the oil samples.

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... Il s'agit des propriétés antimicrobiennes (Janssen, 1989; Baba-Moussa, 1997 ; Oussou et al., 2004), répulsives et larvicides de Ocimum canum Sims (Lukwa, 1994). L'étude de la composition chimique des huiles essentielles a permis de décrire plusieurs chémotypes de la plante dont les plus importants sont: linalol (88%) au Rwanda (Ntezurubanza et al., 1985), eugénol (67%) au Nigeria (Ekundayo et al., 1989 ), αterpinéol/camphre (63,1%) au Mali (Chalchat et al., 1995), camphre (60%) en Guinée (Nianga et al., 1995), 1,8-cinéole (60,1%) au Burkina Faso (Bassole et al., 2001aBassole et al., , 2005b Stewart et al., 2008) ettrans-méthylcinnamate (79,7%) à Sao Tomé (Martins, 1999). Une variété de chémotypes en fonction du lieu de récolte a été décrite au Togo (Sanda et al., 1998) : un type à terpine-4-ol (24,0 à 34,8%)/γ-terpinène (10,1 à 13,2%), un type à linalol (29,4 à 60,6%)/(E)-α-bergamotène (11,3 à 13,6%)/β-caryophyllène (8,9 à 11,6%) et un type à terpine-4-ol (14,5 à 32,2%)/bicyclogermacrène (8,7 à 12,2% ) (E)α-bergamotène (9,2 à 21,4%), et dans l'île de la Grande Comore(Hassane et al., 2011) : un type à 1,8-cinéole (48,88%)/camphre (14,98%) et 1,8-cinéole (34,22%)/camphre (13,69%)/propanoate d'isopropyle (9,13%). ...
... Ces différents chémotypes n'ont encore jamais été décrits au Bénin. Cette variation de chémotypes observée sur le même site au cours de la journée peut s'expliquer par l'interconversion d'un composé en un autre sous l'effet des rayons solaires (Poulose and Croteau, 1978; Yayi et al., 2001) et justifie en partie la variété de chémotypes décrit pour cette espèce à travers la littérature au Bénin (Yayi et al., 2001) et dans d'autres pays comme le Togo, le Rwanda (Ntezurubanza et al., 1985), le Nigeria (Ekundayo et al., 1989), le Mali (Chalchat et al., 1995), la Guinée (60%) (Nianga et al., 1995), le Burkina Faso (Bassole et al., 2005; Goretti et al., 2008), Sao Tomé (Martins et al., 1999) et dans l'île de la Grande Comore(Hassane et al., 2011). La variation des composés majoritaires de Ocimum canum est différente de celle décrite pour l'Ocimum gratissimum du Bénin (Yayi et al., 2004) mais proche de celle décrite par De Vasconcelos et al. (1999) pour cette même plante au Brésil. ...
... The existence of linalool, eugenol, trans-methylcinnamate, methyl chavicol, eucalyptol, and camphor chemotypes of leaf oil of O. canum have been reported in Rwanda, Nigeria, Sao Tome, Brazil, India, and Cameroon (5,(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14). Similarly, linalool, cis-and trans-piperitol chemotypes of flower oil of the plant grown in Rwanda and Burkina-Faso have been discovered (9,15). ...
... The existence of linalool, eugenol, trans-methylcinnamate, methyl chavicol, eucalyptol, and camphor chemotypes of leaf oil of O. canum have been reported in Rwanda, Nigeria, Sao Tome, Brazil, India, and Cameroon (5,(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14). Similarly, linalool, cis-and trans-piperitol chemotypes of flower oil of the plant grown in Rwanda and Burkina-Faso have been discovered (9,15). ...
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Flowers (1000g) of Ocimum canum harvested at different time (7am, 10am, 1pm, 4pm and 7pm) in a day were separately hydrodistilled and yielded 0.19 - 0.27% (w/w) of essential oils. GC, GC-MS analyses revealed that the oils were predominated by oxygenated monoterpenoids (51.2-74.4%). Hydrocarbon monoterpenoids constituted 6.2-10.2% of the oils. Percentage composition of hydrocarbon and oxygenated sesquiterpenoids in the oils were in the range of 1.3-22.0%. The most abundant constituent of the oils was linalool (40.5-58.7%). Other principal constituents were; limonene (0.6 –7.5%), terpinen-4-ol (1.4–5.6%), eugenol (4.4–8.9%), geranyl acetate (0.2–4.9%), α-trans-bergamotene (3.2–9.4%) and E-isoeugenol (4.1–5.5%). The predominance of linalool in the oils showed that the oils were of linalool chemotype. Antibacterial activity of the oils was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli using agar diffusion method. Irrespective of the time of collection of the flower, the oils were found to be active against the tested organisms. However, they are more active on Escherichia coli than Staphylococcus aureus. The activity of the oils on the organisms was concentration dependent.
... OCO was previously reported to have different major compounds such as camphor (37,38), 1,8-cineole (39), citral (40), eugenol (41), geraniol (32), and linalool (42). However, in the present study, E-citral (41.01%) and Z-citral (37.04%) were found at the highest level in this EO. ...
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The aims of this study were to investigate the anesthetic and cytotoxic effects of essential oils (EOs) of Ocimum basilicum (OBO), O. canum (OCO), and O. sanctum (OSO) on Cyprinus carpio (koi carp). For anesthetic effect, induction time to surgical anesthesia and recovery time were determined. For cytotoxicity effect, viability of fish peripheral blood nuclear cells (PBMCs) was investigated. Results indicated that increasing oil concentration caused significant (p < 0.01) decrease of induction time. OSO at 100, 200, and 300 mg/L gave the induction time of 169.5 ± 10.2, 62.8 ± 2.3, 45.3 ± 2.2 sec, respectively, significantly shorter than OCO, and OBO. The recovery time of anesthetized fish was dose dependent (p <0.01). Among them, OCO showed the longest recovery time of 313.0 ± 8.1, 420.7 ± 12.6, 616.6 ± 12.1 sec for concentrations of 100, 200, and 300 mg/L, respectively, followed by OSO and OBO, respectively. Within 10 min contact time of the EOs and fish PBMCs, the fish PBMC viability was higher than 80%. Increase contact time and EO concentration caused an increase in cytotoxicity to fish PBMC. OBO showed less toxic than OSO and OCO. Based on the desired induction and recovery times for anesthetizing koi carp, OBO, OCO, and OSO at 300, 200, and 100 mg/L, respectively were suggested to be the most suitable. It was concluded that OBO, OCO, and OSO can be used as natural anesthetics for fish.
... While trans-β-bergamotene (8.2 %), terpinen-4-ol (5.9 %) and epi-α-muurolol (5.4 %) were noted as minor components. Although, The last chemotype is comparable to the oils composition noted by several authors [14][15][16][17][24][25][26] , the presence of eugenol as main component in our sample markes a chemical difference. ...
Article
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Ocimum canum Sims. were collected from different localities from Côte d’Ivoire. The oils obtained by hydrodistillation of fresh leaves were analysed by CG and CG-MS. Three new chemotypes were found. The oils from Bouaké (center) were rich in 1,8-cineole (28.7–34 %) and camphor (15.7–18 %). 1,8-cineole (13.1 %), bornyl acetate (10.2 %), (E)-β-farnesene (9.5 %) and (Z,E)-α-farnesene (15.1 %) were major components of essential oil from Dabou (south). The predominent components of essential oil from Man (west) were linalool (38.4 %) and eugenol (13.3 %).
... In this respect, both the Sierra Leone and Nigeria O. americanum L. leaf materials were thus identified as the linalool chemotype, constituting 49.1% and 39.6% respectively, in the present study. This chemotype of O. americanum L. is consistent with those previously reported in Benin [14], Rwanda [15], Cameroon [6] and Brazil [16]. The high content of linalool in some varieties of O. ...
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Chemical composition of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L., O. gratissimum L. and O. americanum L. varieties found in Sierra Leone and Nigeria were determined by GC-FID and GC-MS. The antimicrobial test was evaluated by agar diffusion. The Sierra Leone and Nigeria O. americanum L. varieties were identified as the linalool chemotype and similarly, varieties of O. gratissimum L. from both countries are thymol chemotype. The high thymol content is consistent with the relative high antimicrobial activity of the O. gratissimum L oils. The Sierra Leone O. basilicum L. sample was established as the methyl eugenol chemotype while the Nigerian collection is predominantly methyl chavicol in composition. The high methyl eugenol content of the Sierra Leone collection is consistent with the observation of attraction of fruit flies to the distillate. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report on essential oils of Ocimum species in Sierra Leone, hitherto.
... Some of such chemotypic entries include terpenen-4-ol type from O. canum and thymol type from O. gratissimum (Sanda et al. 1998; Yusuf et al. 1998; Keita et al. 2000); geranyl acetate type from O. minimum (Ozcan and Chalchat, 2002); citral and camphor types from O. americanum (Mondello et al. 2002); and p-cymene type from O. suave (Keita et al. 2000). A report on the chemical constituents in O. canum from Rwanda indicated the oil to be composed of 60-90 percent linalool (Ntezurubanza et al. 1985). There is a substantial wealth of literature on the chemical composition and biological activities of basil. ...
... Some of such chemotypic entries include terpenen-4-ol type from O. canum and thymol type from O. gratissimum (Sanda et al. 1998; Yusuf et al. 1998; Keita et al. 2000); geranyl acetate type from O. minimum (Ozcan and Chalchat, 2002); citral and camphor types from O. americanum (Mondello et al. 2002); and p-cymene type from O. suave (Keita et al. 2000). A report on the chemical constituents in O. canum from Rwanda indicated the oil to be composed of 60-90 percent linalool (Ntezurubanza et al. 1985). There is a substantial wealth of literature on the chemical composition and biological activities of basil. ...
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Fresh aerial parts of three species of basil, Ocimum basilicum, O. tacilium and O. canum were subjected to exhaustive hydrodistillation to afford pale yellow coloured oils in 1.0, 0.7 and 0.01 percent yields respectively. Detailed chemical evaluation by GC and GC/MS revealed O. basilicum to be composed of a total of eleven components representing 100 percent of the total oil composition. Neral (36.1 %) and geranial (44.5 %) were found to be the major components. Ocimum tacilium was found to be composed of five components representing 99.8 % of the total oil composition with estragole (96.6 %) being the major component. Five components were observed in O. canum, representing 72.3 percent of the total oil composition with eugenol (35.3 %) and linalool (27.2 %) as the major components. The high citral (neral + geranial) content in O. basilicum suggests that it belong to the citral chemotype while O. tacilium belong to the estragole chemotype and O. canum belong to the eugenol chemotype.
... Antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium spp was found at a concentration of 100 ppm. The oil has antifungal activity against a great number of fungi including some human pathogens (Ntezurubanza et al, 1986). ...
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the essential oil of Ocimum americanum L. on in vitro activity against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei and Candida albicans. An agar disk diffusion method was employed for screening antimicrobial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum cidal concentration (MCC) values of the oil against planktonic cells were determined using the Millipore membrane method. The antimicrobial potential of the essential oil was also investigated with a biofilm model. The results indicate that essential oil has antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. The MIC values of the oil against the three organisms was 0.04% v/v whereas the MCC values for S. mutans, L. casei and C. albicans were 0.08%, 0.3% and 0.08% v/v, respectively. S. mutans and C. albicans were more sensitive to the essential oil than L. casei. With the biofilm assay, a 5-minute exposure to 3% v/v essential oil eliminated 3 logo10 of the tested microorganisms. At a lower concentration (0.3% v/v), a 2 log10 reduction in S. mutans and C. albicans was observed while the lactobacilli were more resistant. This finding indicates the possibility of using the essential oil of O. americanum L. in oral health care products for reducing these pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity.
... Twenty-two constituents were identified in O. basilicum oil with highest content of estragole (68.43%) while other studies have reported linalool and methyl chavicol as the highest major components with antimicrobial potency (Ntezurubanza et al., 1984). ...
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The antimicrobial activities of 10 essential oils extracted from various plant species were investigated and compared with the activities of 10 commercial antibiotics against 10 strains of bacteria using agar diffusion method. Although, all the essential oils were active at concentration ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 mg/ml, their activities were more lower than the commercial antibiotics. However, being natural products the oils have been reported to be much safer than the antibiotics. Another advantage of the essential oils used in this study was their broad spectrum activities against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques in order to determine their active compounds.
... The three samples of O. gratissimum differ according to their geographical origins. Those from New Caledonia, with a high content of eugenol in their essential oils, may be compared to samples collected in Algeria (Brada et al. 2011 More recently, the two chemotypes (thymol and eugenol) were described from samples collected in Cameroon and Various chemotypes were previously described for O. canum samples from different geographical origins; the most often described were rich in camphor that explains a previous appellation of this species as "camphor basil" (Chagonda et al. 2000); nevertheless, some samples with a high content of linalool were described in Cameroon (Tchoumbougnang et al. 2009) and Rwanda (Ntezurubanza et al. 1985); methyl cinnamate was the major component of a sample from Sao Tome (Martins et al. 1999) while citral characterized a sample from Thailand (Bunrathep et al. 2007); finally, methyl chavicol and linalool were the main chemical components of a Brazilian sample (Nascimento Jeferson et al. 2011). The essential oil of O. canum described in this study is completely different, characterized by a high content of 1,8-cineole (70.2 %); a similar composition was previously described by our team with a sample collected in Cameroon which differed nevertheless by a high content of (Z)-β-ocimene (Tchoumbougnang et al. 2006); an essential oil obtained from leaves and flowers of O. canum from Burkina Faso contained 60.1 % of 1,8-cineole (Bassole et al. 2005); finally, three chemotypes were described for O. canum collected in different localities of Ivory Coast, among which two were characterized by 1,8-cineole/camphor and 1,8-cineole/bornyl acetate, respectively (Tonzibo et al. 2008). ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus of essential oils from three Ocimum species. Acaricidal activity of five essential oils extracted from Ocimum gratissimum L. (three samples), O. urticaefolium Roth, and O. canum Sims was evaluated on 14- to 21-day-old Rhipicephalus microplus tick larvae using larval packet test bioassay. These essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) showing great variations of their chemical compositions according to the botanical species and even within the O. gratissimum species; the acaricidal activity of their main compounds was also evaluated. The essential oils of O. urticaefolium and O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon were the most efficient with respective LC50 values of 0.90 and 0.98 %. The two essential oils obtained from O. gratissimum collected in New Caledonia were partially active at a dilution of 5 % while the essential oil of O. canum collected in Cameroon showed no acaricidal activity. The chemical analysis shows five different profiles. Whereas the essential oils of O. urticaefolium from Cameroon and O. gratissimum from New Caledonia contain high amounts of eugenol (33.0 and 22.3-61.0 %, respectively), 1,8-cineole was the main component of the oil of an O. canum sample from Cameroon (70.2 %); the samples of O. gratissimum oils from New Caledonia are also characterized by their high content of (Z)-β-ocimene (17.1-49.8 %) while the essential oil of O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon is mainly constituted by two p-menthane derivatives: thymol (30.5 %) and γ-terpinene (33.0 %). Moreover, the essential oil of O. urticaefolium showed the presence of elemicin (18.1 %) as original compound. The tests achieved with the main compounds confirmed the acaricidal activity of eugenol and thymol with residual activity until 0.50 and 1 %, respectively, and revealed the acaricidal property of elemicin, which was the most efficient compound with 100 % of acaricidal activity at a dilution of 0.25 % and could be a valuable acaricide for the control of the cattle tick R. microplus.
... The antimicrobial activity of O. americanum oil was studied . [1] The black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon ( Huf.) is one of the most severe insect pests in Egypt, this noctuid is polyphagous and attacks a large number of field and vegetable crops. The growers usually use the conventional insecticides, especially organophosphates, in controlling this pest. ...
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The seeds of Ocimum americanum were introduced and cultivated in Egypt as a new source of the essential oil. The growth, yield and essential oil of O. americanum were studied during two successive seasons. Chemical constituents of the essential oil were studied with (GLC). The mean values of the growth parameters of the second cut in both seasons were higher than those of the first cuts. Essential oil percentage ranged from 0.175% to 0.253% in both seasons, while the essential oil yield ranged from 27.8 to 41.69 liter per feddan. The total yield of the essential oil reached 60 and 76 liter per feddan in the first and second season, respectively. Eugenol was identified as the major compound in the essential oil and accounted for 28.46 %. Methyl chavicol was found to be the second main compound and reached 17.34%. The insecticidal properties of the American basil essential oil and its major component were evaluated against the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon in laboratory and a semi field trail. There was a positive correlation between the concentration and the percentage of larval mortality and malformed pupae and adult. Basil oil at 3% (conc.), only 35 % of the larvae reached the pupal stage with 67.16 % reduction than control and 13 % of the pupae were deformed. Eugenol caused 40 % larval mortality with 36.84 % reduction in pupation % than control. Pupal weights were significantly lower than control. In semi field experiment, basil oil was more effective on adult longevity than eugenol. Basil oil had repellent effect on A.ipsilon moths with 66.42 and 35.95% repellency at (3 %) in case of basil oil and eugenol, respectively. The basil essential oil was more effective than its active component (eugenol) on the concerned biological aspects of A.ipsilon.
... Nevertheless, alcohols such as propanol, 1-hexanol, 2-butanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, present especially in Ubriaco di Raboso cheese, were identified in wine by-products (Silva et al., 1996). 3-Octanol, which was found only in Barricato San Martino cheese, is one of the major alcohol components of thyme and rosemary (Ntezurubanza et al., 1985;Díaz-Maroto et al., 2005). The level of aldehydes in Barricato San Martino and Vento d'Estate cheeses (4 months of ripening) was lower than the levels of other chemical classes. ...
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Four Italian cheeses (Casciotta di Urbino, Barricato San Martino, Vento d'Estate, and Ubriaco di Raboso) nonconventionally ripened under different plant materials (walnut leaves, herbs, hay, and wine by-products, respectively) were compared for compositional, microbiological, biochemical, and volatile profile characteristics. Mean values for gross composition were rather similar. Because primary starters were not used for manufacture, the endogenous lactic acid bacteria were mainly present (7.0 to 9.0 log10 cfu/g). Except for Lactobacillus paracasei and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, which were commonly identified in 3 cheeses, Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus sanguinicola, Lactobacillus brevis, Enterococcus durans/Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Weissella cibaria/Weissella confusa were variously found in the 4 cheeses. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA-PCR analysis showed the biodiversity among the strains, and the species of lactobacilli were in part grouped according to their origin. As shown by the principal component analysis of reverse-phase fast protein liquid chromatography data for the pH 4.6-soluble fractions and by the determination of free AA, the secondary proteolysis of Barricato San Martino and Vento d'Estate mainly differed from the other 2 cheeses. Purge-and-trap and solid-phase microextraction were coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine volatile compounds. Vento d'Estate showed the highest levels of almost all chemical classes, and Casciotta di Urbino was characterized by a very low level of volatile components. Esters, ketones, and terpenes were the chemical classes that mainly differentiated the cheeses. Several volatile compounds seemed to be released directly from the plant materials used for ripening, especially terpenes for Vento d'Estate cheese. The lowest level of volatile free fatty acids was found in Casciotta d'Urbino, in which rennet paste was not used during manufacture. The highest concentration of free fatty acids, especially butyric and caproic acids, was found in Vento d'Estate cheese.
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Capillary GC analysis of the essential oils of Ocimum basilicum var. canum Sims and O. gratissimum L. grown on Aruba showed that O. basilicum var. canum belonged to the methyl cinnamate type. Half of the material of O. gratissimum belonged to the methyl cinnamate chemotype and the other half contained sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and varying amounts of eugenol as the main volatile components, indicating the existence also of a sesquiterpene hydrocarbon-eugenol chemotype of O. gratissimum.
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The essential oils of OCIMUM CANUM, O. GRATISSIMUM and O. MINIMUM grown in S. Tomé, where they are used in Traditional Medicine mainly as febrifuge and for the treatment of respiratory diseases, were investigated. The essential oils were obtained from the aerial parts by hydrodistillation and subsequently analysed by GC, GC-MS and (13)C-NMR. (13)C-NMR SPECTROSCOPY proved to be an important tool, which can be very useful in the identification of most of the constituents. Major compounds in the volatile oil of O. GROTISSIMUM were thymol (48.1%) and P-cymene (12.5%). The essential oil of O. CANUM was characterized by its high content of TRANS-METHYL cinnamate (79.7%), whereas the most important oil constituent of O. MINIMUM was linalool (52.7%).
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The use of acaricides had limited efficacy in reducing tick infestations and is often accompanied by serious drawbacks, including the selection of acaricide resistant ticks, contamination of environment, and milk and meat products with drug residues. The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) utilizing aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum canum Sims (Labiatae) against the larvae of Hyalomma anatolicum (a.) anatolicum Koch, 1844 and Hyalomma marginatum (m.) isaaci Sharif, 1928 (Acari: Ixodidae). The synthesized AgNPs results were recorded from UV-vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The production of the AgNPs synthesized from the leaf extract of O. canum was evaluated through UV-visible spectrophotometer in a range of wavelength from 300 to 600 nm. This revealed a peak at 426 nm in leaf extracts of O. canum, indicating the production of AgNPs. The XRD spectrum compared with the standard confirmed spectrum of silver particles formed in the present experiments were in the form of nanocrystals, as evidenced by the peaks at 2θ values of 27.71°, 32.16°, 38.08°, 46.15°, 54.70° and 57.35°. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at 818, 1,045, 1,381 and 1,616 in the region 500-3,000 cm(-1). The peaks correspond to the presence of a C-H vibration of the aromatic ring, stretch vibration of C-O, carbonyl groups and flavanones. SEM analyses of the synthesized AgNPs were clearly distinguishable, which measured 25-110 nm in size. It is clear that the rod and cylindrical structures have an average size of 95 nm. The EDX spectra showed the purity of the material and the complete chemical composition of the synthesized AgNPs. Parasite larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of O. canum and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The acaricidal activities of aqueous crude leaf extracts of O. canum against the larvae of H. a. anatolicum and H. m. isaaci have LC(50) and LC(90) values of 15.31 and 13.85 mg/L, and 62.41 and 48.86 mg/L, respectively. The efficacies of 1 mM AgNO(3) solution against H. a. anatolicum and H. m. isaaci were LC(50) = 12.25 and 12.17 mg/L, LC(90) = 49.17 and 46.52 mg/L, respectively, and the maximum efficacy was observed in the synthesized AgNPs against H. a. anatolicum and H. m. isaaci with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 0.78 and 1.00 mg/L, and 1.51 and 1.68 mg/L, respectively. This method is considered as an innovative alternative approach to control parasites.
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The essential oils of ten wild growing Ocimum americanum L. of the family Lamiaceae collected from different locations in Uttarakhand, India, were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). On the basis of chemical composition and cluster analysis, O. americanum was classified into six groups. Group I was significantly rich in methyl chavicol, 1,8-cineole, (E)-γ-bisabolene, β-bisabolene and eugenol, while group II has (E)-γ-bisabolene, aliphatic hydrocarbons, eugenol, β-bisabolene and methyl chavicol as major constitu-ents. Eugenol and (E)-caryophyllene were found in abundant quantity in group III and linalool with methyl chavicol in group IV. Group V contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, eugenol, camphor and 1,8-cineole in high content while cam-phor and aliphatic hydrocarbons were found in group VI. Linalool was positively correlated with methyl chavicol, while eugenol with (E)-α-bisabolene and β-bisabolene with (E)-γ-bisabolene. The essential oil composition of O. amercanum was found to be affected by variation in soil properties and microclimatic conditions.
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Chemical composition of the essential oil of Ocimum americanum Linn., syn. Ocimum. canum Sims from Burkina Faso. The yields of the essential oils of the air-dried leaves of O. americanum from the different locations varied from 1 and 2% (v/w). The chemical composition of the essential oils of the three samples were analysed using GC and GC-MS. The three samples belonged to majority component: 1,8-cineol in 60 and 45%. To cite this article: A.K. Djibo et al., C. R. Chimie 7 (2004).
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A new variety of Ocimum americanum L. rich in citral, has been developed by natural selection and raised for two successive sowing seasons to examine the seasonal variations in herb yield and oil content, chemical variation and citral content. The new strain was selected because it was a short duration crop (100 days) for the production of a citral-rich oil. Analysis of the oil using GC, H-NMR, C-NMR and MS revealed that the oil contained a total citral content of 76% (neral 23.0%, geranial 51.5%).
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Les huiles essentielles d’Ocimum canum Sims (Lamiaceae) obtenues par hydrodiffusion de feuilles collectées à différents moments de la journée ont été analysées par GC/FID et GC/SM puis testées sur différentes bactéries par la technique de microdilution. Le rendement et la composition chimique des huiles essentielles varient selon le temps et l’ensoleillement. Abondant le matin à 7 heures (1,71 ± 0,01 %), le rendement décroît progressivement avec l’augmentation des rayons solaires, jusqu’à son minimum à 13 heures (1,35 ± 0,01 %) quand le soleil est au zénith, avant de croître à nouveau à sa valeur la plus élevée (1,78 ± 0,02 % à 19 heures) au coucher du soleil. Plus de 54 composés représentant près de 98 % des hydrodiffusats ont été identifiés dans les différents échantillons. Les principaux sont: α-thujène (5,56 à 7,85 %), β-myrcène (2 à 6,94 %), δ-3-carène (3,07 à 4,84 %), p-cymène (14,61 à 22,8 %), Γ-terpinène (6,05 à 10,7 %), carvacrol (7,94 à 30,8 %), β-caryophyllène (0,15 à 18,86 %) et β-sélinène (2,74 à 14,41 %). Les taux de certains constituants comme le β-caryophyllène et le β-sélinène croissent avec l’ensoleillement contrairement à ceux du carvacrol et du p-cymène. Cette variation diurne modifie la synergie d’action des constituants de l’huile essentielle qui présentent une forte activité inhibitrice (CMI=0,38 à 7,19 mg/ml) sur Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii et Staphylococcus aureus résistante. Les huiles essentielles obtenues à 7 et 19 heures sont les plus efficaces (CMI=0,38 à 2,88 mg/ml). Pour la première fois, l’interaction est démontrée entre variation diurne de la composition chimique et propriétés antimicrobiennes de l’huile essentielle d’Ocimum canum Sims du Bénin.
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The chemical compositions of the essential oils of Ocimum canum Sims (Lamiaceae) areal part cultivated in Togo were investigated by GC-MS and tested for possible insecticidal activity against the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) under laboratory. Eighteen constituents (98.5 % of the total oil) were identified in the volatile oil of O. canum leaf. The main constituents found in the oil were terpineol-4 (34.7 %), linalool (22.7 %), λ-terpinene (7.3 %), trans-thujan-4-ol (5.9 %), trans-α-bergamotene (4.9 %) and caryophyllene (4.6 %). Other components were also identified by at minor concentrations ranging from 0.12 % (Thymol) to 2.7 % (Limonene). In the insecticidal activity test, crude essential oil of O. canum emulsions of exhibited adulticidal activity against coffee berry borer and response was being dose-related. The LD50 were 320 ppm for O. canum essential oil and 450 ppm for endosulfan and the conventional insecticide used as standard, respectively. The results indicate that the O. canum essential oil has a potential insecticidal activity and can be used as active ingredient in natural and sustainable pesticide within an Integrated Pest Management approach to combat the coffee berry borer.
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Plant materials from Ocimum canum Sims (basilic camphor) and Ocimum urticifolia Roth (Labiatae) from Zimbabwe were collected from the wild and steam-distilled or hydrodistilled. The O. canum oil contained 25% (w/w) of precipitated camphor and the decamphorated oil contained camphor (39.5–39.8%), limonene (24.4–25.1%), β-caryophyllene (7.0–7.2%), camphene (6.5–6.7%) and estragole (6.4–6.6%) as the major components. The oil obtained from air-dried plant material contained camphor (57.6%), limonene (16.3%), β-caryophyllene (6.4%) and camphene (5.4%) as the main components. The oil obtained by steam distillation of the fresh and air-dried plant material from O. urticifolia contained α-farnesenes (8.1–21.7%), linalol (4.9–19.7%), β-ocimenes (6.5–15.2%), eugenol (2.3–20.0%), elemicine (1.3–12.5%), camphor (1.4–11.7%) and β-elemene/β-caryophyllene (11.8–15.8%) as the major components, whilst oil from the hydrodistilled plant material contained linalol (23.2%), β-elemene/β-caryophyllene (11.7%), α-farnesenes (12.2%) and elemicine (7.1%) as the major components. Plants belonging to the family Labiatae are chief sources of essential oils and offer potential for cultivation in rural agriculture. Neither species has been previously reported from Zimbabwe. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Context: Clinical verification is an ongoing research program of the Council that verified many rare homoeopathic drugs. Aims: To clinically verify the “symptomatology” of Ocimum canum by ascertaining the prevalence of symptoms. Materials and Methods: The study was a multicenter, open, observational trial. A total of 214 patients were enrolled after matching with the available symptom compendium and eligibility criteria in seven units/institutes of the Council. The medicine was prescribed in 6C, 30C, 200C and 1M potencies as per the need of each patient, following homoeopathic principles and protocol developed by the Council. The collected data were presented in terms of descriptive statistics. Prevalence of the symptoms in the responding and nonresponding population was compared using Chi‑square or Fisher’s exact test. Results: A total of 173 complete cases were analyzed; male/female: 76/97; mean age: 31.09 years. There were “clinical successes” in 147 cases (85.0%) and failures in 26 (15.0%), judged subjectively by the physicians. A minimum of two prescriptions was considered for pick‑listing each symptom as per protocol. The number of symptoms verified was proving symptoms (n = 10), symptoms from other literature (n = 12), and new observations (n = 42). Conclusions: A total of 22 symptoms were verified, and 42 new clinical symptoms were identified. The newly observed general symptoms and polar symptoms may be worth consideration and evaluation. Further replication and estimation of likelihood ratio in general practice settings are crucial for confirmatory inclusion of the symptoms in homoeopathic literature.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Thai basil oils and their micro-emulsions, on in vitro activity against Propionibacterium acnes. An agar disc diffusion method was employed for screening antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil), Ocimum sanctum L. (holy basil) and Ocimum americanum L. (hoary basil) against P. acnes. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the basil oils were determined using an agar dilution assay. The obtained results indicated that the MIC values of sweet basil and holy basil oils were 2.0% and 3.0% v/v, respectively, whereas hoary basil oil did not show activity against P. acnes at the highest concentration tested (5.0% v/v). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that methyl chavicol (93.0%) was the major compound in sweet basil oil, and eugenol (41.5%), γ-caryophyllene (23.7%) and methyl eugenol (11.8%) were major compounds in holy basil oil. Hoary basil oil contained high amounts of geraniol (32.0%) and neral (27.2%) and small amounts of methyl chavicol (0.8%). The Oil-in-water (o/w) micro-emulsions of individual basil oils with concentrations corresponding to their MIC values were formulated. The stable o/w micro-emulsion system for basil oil consisted of 55.0% v/v water phase, 10.0% v/v oil phase (2.0 or 3.0% v/v sweet basil or 3.0% v/v holy basil oil plus 7.0% v/v isopropyl myristate), 29.2% v/v polysorbate 80 and 5.8% v/v 1,2-propylene glycol. Hydroxyethylcellulose at a concentration of 0.5% w/v was used as thickening agent. According to the disc diffusion assay, the formulations containing sweet basil oil exhibited higher activity against P. acnes than those containing holy basil oil, and the thickened formulations tended to give a lower activity against P. acnes than the non-thickened formulations. The prepared micro-emulsions were stable after being tested by a heat–cool cycling method for five cycles. These findings indicate the possibility to use Thai sweet and holy basil oil in suitable formulations for acne skin care. Le but de cette étude est d’évaluer l'efficacité in vitro des huiles de basilic thailandaises et de leurs microémulsions vis-à-vis de Propionibacterium acnes. On utilise une méthode de diffusion sur disque en agar pour étudier l'efficacité antimicrobienne des huiles essentielles d’Ocimum basilicum L. (basilic doux), d’O. Sanctum L. (basilic sacré) et O. americanum L. (basilic velu) vis-à-vis de P. acnes. On détermine la concentration d'inhibition minimum (CIM) des huiles de basilic par le test de dilution sur agar. Les résultats obtenus indiquent que les valeurs de concentration d'inhibition minimum du basilic doux et du basilic sacré sont respectivement 2.0% et 3,0% en V/V, alors que le basilic velu ne présente pas d'activité vis-à-vis de P. acnesà la concentration testée la plus élevée (5,0% en V/V). Il ressort de l'analyse de chromatographie en phase gazeuse et de spectométrie de masse (CG-SM) que le méthyl chavicol (93%) est le constituant principal de l'huile de basilic doux, et que l'eugénol (41,5%), le gamma-caryophyllène (23,7%) et le méthyl eugénol (11,8%) sont les constituants principaux de l'huile de basilic sacré. L'huile de basilic velu contient des quantités élevées de géraniol (32,0%) et de néral (27,2%) et de petites quantités de méthyl chavicol (0,8%). On formule des microémulsions H/E de chaque huile de basilic aux concentrations correspondant aux valeurs de concentration d'inhibition minimum. Le système de microémulsion H/E stable pour l'huile de basilic consiste en: - 55% en V/V d'eau et 10% en V/V de phase huileuse (2.0 ou 3.0% en V/V d'huile de basilic doux ou 3.0% en V/V d'huile de basilic sacré plus 7.0% en V/V d'isopropyl myristate), - 29.2% en V/V de polysorbate 80 et 5.8% en V/V de 1,2-propylène glycol. On utilise l'hydroxyethylcellulose à la concentration de 0,5% en P/V comme agent épaississant. Selon la méthode de diffusion sur disque, les formulations contenant l'huile de basilic doux présentent une efficacité plus élevée contre P. acnes que celles contenant l'huile de basilic sacré; les formulations épaissies ont tendance à présenter une activité contre P. acnes inférieure aux formulations non épaissies. Suite à des tests basés sur la méthode des cycles chaud/froid (5 cycles), les microémulsions préparées se révèlent stables. Ces résultats montrent qu'il est possible d'utiliser les huiles de basilic doux et sacré d'origine thaïlandaise dans des formulations adaptées pour traiter la peau acnéique.
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During LSC of naturally occurring monoterpene hydrocarbon mixtures from essential oils using silica gel as adsorbent alterations in the composition of the mixtures were observed by means of gas chromatography. Impurities (metals) and active sites on dried silica gels were found to be responsible for a series of isomerizations of a number of the constituents. After purification by washing the silica gel with acid and base and after deactivation of the dried silica gel by adding water (5%) the isomerization processes could be avoided. This was tested by means of the monoterpene hydrocarbon mixtures of three essential oils and a number of pure monoterpene hydrocarbons.
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The essential oil from herb ofDucrosia anethifolia (DC.) Boiss., growing wild in Iran, was investigated by LSC, GLC and GC-MS. The oil consisted mainly of aliphatic compounds. α-Pinene, myrcene and limonene were main components of the hydrocarbons present in the oil, whilen-decanal,n-dodecanal,n-decanol,trans-2-dodecenal, andcis-chrysanthenyl acetate were the major oxygen-containing constituents. The oil and the main oxygen-containing aliphatic components showed a remarkable antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, a yeast, and some dermatophytes.
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A liquid-solid column chromatographic method for separation of mixtures of naturally occurring oxygen-containing monoterpenes has been developed. The LSC was carried out on a column of silica gel applying a 2.5%–50% gradient elution of ethyl ether in pentane and collecting a number of fractions. The enrichment of the various components in the fractions led to a better gas chromatographic separation and identification. The elution sequence during LSC gave extra information about the functional group of the compounds. Isomerization processes could be avoided by using purified and deactivated silica gel.
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The essential oil from herb of Ducrosia anethifolia (DC.) Boiss., growing wild in Iran, was investigated by LSC, GLC and GC-MS. The oil consisted mainly of aliphatic compounds. alpha-Pinene, myrcene and limonene were main components of the hydrocarbons present in the oil, while n-decanal, n-dodecanal, n-decanol, trans-2-dodecenal, and cis-chrysanthenyl acetate were the major oxygen-containing constituents. The oil and the main oxygen-containing aliphatic components showed a remarkable antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, a yeast, and some dermatophytes.
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The essential oil of OCIMUM KILIMANDSCHARICUM Guerke, growing wild in Rwanda, was investigated by LSC, GLC and GC-MS. The oil contained 62% 1.8-cineole, indicating the occurrence of a new chemotype of the species concerned. In addition to 1.8-cineole, 16 oxygen-containing compounds and 14 monoterpene hydrocarbons were identified, of which limonene and beta-pinene were the main components. Most of the constituents were not previously known to be present in the essential oil of O. KILIMANDSCHARICUM.
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The essential oil from THYMUS PRAECOX Opiz ssp. arcticus (E. Durand), Jalas, a widely distributed plant in Iceland, was proved to contain linalyl acetate as main component (70%). Within the sesquiterpene fraction, beta-caryophyllene (4%), germacrene D (3%), beta-bisabolene (2%), beta-sesquiphellandrene (1%), gamma-cadinene (0.5%), and a couple of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (13%) were found by means of GLC-MS. Additionally four such compounds were isolated and identified by means of IR and NMR spectroscopy as nerolidol (3%), T-cadinol (1%), hedycaryol (7%), and 7-hydroxygermacrene (about 2%).
Monoterpenes in the essential rhizome oil ofAlpinia galanga (L.) Willd
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