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An Experimental Approach to Dreams and Telepathy: II. Report of Three Studies

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An Experimental Approach to Dreams and Telepathy: II. Report of Three Studies

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Three studies were designed to investigate telepathic effects in REM sleep. On each night a target (art print) was randomly selected by an agent who spent the night in a distant room attempting to telepathically influence the subject's dreams, which were monitored by EEG techniques and tape recorded. Typed transcripts were sent to outside judges fbr blind comparisons with the targets. For each study, the ratings given the actual target-transcript combinations were significantly higher than those given the incorrect target-transcript combinations.
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1282
[116] Anier. J. Psichiat. /26: 9. March 1970
An Experimental Approach to Dreams and Telepathy: II.
Report of Three Studies
BY MONTAGUE ULLMAN, M.D., AND STANLEY KRIPPNER, PH.D.
Three studies were designed to investigate
telepathic effects in REM sleep. On each
night a target (art print) was rando,nly
selected by an agent who spent the night in
a distant room attempting to telepathically
influence the subject’s dreams, which were
monitored by EEG techniques and tape
recorded. Typed transcripts were sent to
outside judges fbr blind comparisons with
the targets. For each study, the ratings
given the actual target-transcript combina-
tions were significantly higher than those
given the incorrect target-transcript com-
binations.
INTEREST IN the possible occurrence of te-
lepathy in dreams moved from an anec-
dotal level (spontaneous reports of dreams
purporting to depict actual events simulta-
neously occurring unknown to and at a dis-
tance from the dreamer) to a clinical level
when reports of presumptively telepathic
dreams of patients occurring in the context
of the therapeutic situation began to appear
in the psychiatric literature. This began in
Freud’s own writings and has clustered in
publications appearing in the past two dcc-
ades(3).
With the development of electro-
physiological techniques for monitoring of
dreaming during the total period of sleep
it became possible for the first time to
engage in a dream study in a way that freed
Read at the 125th anniversary meeting of the Amer-
ican Psychiatric Association, Miami Beach, Fla., May
5-9. 1969.
The authors are with the Maimonides Medical
Center. 4802 Tenth Ave., Brooklyn. N. Y. 11219.
where Dr. UlIman is director, department of psy-
chiatry. and Dr. Krippner is senior research associate.
This work was supported in part by grants from the
Ittleson and Scaife Foundations and by the Society
for Comparative Philosophy.
The authors express their thanks to Charles Honor-
ton, research associate. Maimonides Dream Labora-
tory. for his assistance in the preparation of this
manuscript.
the experimenter from a precarious reliance
upon spontaneous recall. In its application
to the study of the telepathic dream it be-
came possible for the first time to transcend
the limitations of the clinical approach
and to introduce into the experimental
design a number of factors. These included
quantification-i.e., having a designated
number of subjects spend a certain number
of nights in the laboratory; control of
variables relating to the type of target
material one is trying to “send”; specifica-
tion of the conditions under which the
“sending” occurs-i.e., isolating the
“sender” or agent from the subject; and
random selection of the target picture. It
was also possible to have independent
judging-i.e., having outside judges who
know nothing about the order in which
the target pictures are chosen for a series
of experimental nights attempt to both
rank and rate their judgments as to which
target comes closest to the material
described in the transcribed record of
the subject’s dreams for a given night.
Finally, appropriate statistical techniques
for evaluating the results of the judging
process were developed.
Following an earlier report(3) describing
exploratory studies utilizing the application
of the REM monitoring technique to the
study of the telepathic dream, our labora-
tory has engaged in a number of follow-
up studies involving repeated nights with a
selected subject. Three of these studies
will be summarized.
First Study
The first experimental series to utilize a
single subject was completed in 1964. The
subject, a New York psychologist selected
on the basis of his performance in a pre-
liminary screening study, was paired with
a staff psychologist working in the labora-
tory. The main hypothetical formulation
FIGURE 1
Sacrament of the Last Supper
MONTAGUE ULLMAN AND STANLEY KRIPPNER 1283
Anier. J. P.sic/iiat. 126: 9. Marc/i /970 [117]
stated that telepathic transfer o1 informa-
tion from an “agent” (or sender) to a
sleeping subject could be experimentally
demonstrated.
Method
Seven postcard-size prints of famous
paintings served as potential targets. The
contents of this “pool” were unknown to
the subject. but he was told that the agent
would attempt to transmit an art print
to him on each experimental night. This
. as originall intended as a l2-
night series: due to the illness of the subject.
however, only seven nights were completed
and the data were analyzed on that basis.
The targets. randomly selected from the
pool for the seven experimental nights,
included “Bedtime” by Keane. “The
Yellow Rabbi” by Chagall. “The Sacra-
ment of the Last Supper” by Dali (figure
I), “School of’ the Dance” by Degas.
“Paris From a Window” by Chagall.
“Persistence of Memory” by Dali, and
“Apples and Oranges” by Cezanne. An
eighth target. “Boats on the Beach” by
Van Gogh, was used in a preliminary
screening session with the subject.
An eight-channel Model D Medcraft
EEG was used to monitor spontaneous
electrical brain activity and periods of
rapid eye movement. All verbal com-
munication between the subject and the
experimenter at the EEG controls was
mediated through an intercom system
and was recorded on tape. The agent
was in a room 40 feet distant, eliminating
the possibility of verbal communication be-
tween agent and subject once the experi-
ment had comnienced. The agent selected
an art print randomly once the subject
was in bed. All target pictures had been
placed in sealed envelopes so that their
identity would be unknown until the
agent reached his private room and
opened the container.
The experimenter awakened the subject
each time his EEG activity indicated
that he had been dreaming and asked the
subject to report his dream. As soon as
the subject was awakened in the morning.
a post-sleep interview was held over the
intercom by the experimenter. The purpose
of this interview was to obtain additional
information and associative material
relating to each dream. The tape was
1284 EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH TO DREAMS AND TELEPATHY
[118] Amer. J. Psychiat. 126.’ 9, March 1970
transcribed, and copies were sent to three
outside judges.
Copies of the target pictures were
sent to the judges, and a process of blind
matching produced statistical data that
could be used to evaluate the telepathy
hypothesis. The instructions to the judges
read, in part:
Familiarize yourself with all seven of the
targets. Familiarize yourself with the first dream
protocol. Rank the targets against the dream
protocol. giving the rank of #1 to that target
which comes closest to the dream content and the
rank of #2 to that which comes next closest,
etc. When you are finished, you will have seven
separate rankings. one for each target. Go on
to the second dream protocol. Again rank the
targets, giving the rank of #1 to that target
which comes closest to the dream content, etc.
Repeat the procedure until all seven targets have
been ranked against all seven dream protocols.
Results
The ranks were initially evaluated by
means of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov one-
sample test; the rankings of one judge were
not significant (Judge A: D =0.428, p <0.15)
and those of two judges were statistically
significant (Judge B: D =0.571, p <0.02;
Judge C: D =0.57 1, p <0.02).
The means of the ranks of Judges A, B,
and C were then subjected to two-way
analysis of variance according to the Scheff#{233}
technique(2). These results were statistically
significant (F =18.14, p <0.001, 1 and 34
dfl. Example #1. The following excerpts
illustrate the correspondences between the
target and dreams when Dali’s “The
Sacrament of the Last Supper” was random-
ly selected:
FROM SUBJECT’S DREAM REPORTS:
Ihaven’t any reason to say this but somehow
boats come to mind. Fishing boats. Small size
fishing boats. ...Adozen or so men pulling
a fishing boat ashore right after having returned
from a catch. ...I was looking at a. . . Christ-
mas catalog. Christmas season. . . . The picture
that I’m thinking about now is the doctor
sitting beside a child that is ill. . . . It’s one of
those classical ones. . . . It’s called “The Phy-
sician.”
FROM SUBJECTS ASSOCIATIONAL
MATERIAL:The fisherman dream makes
me think of the Mediterranean area, perhaps
even some sort of Biblical time. Right now my
associations are of fish and the loaf, or even the
feeding of the multitudes. . . . Once again I think
of Christmas.
SUBJECT’S GUESS AS TO THE TAR-
GET: “Having to do with. . . fishermen. . .
The picture ofthe physician.”
Second Study
Two years following the completion of
the first study with a single subject, a replica-
tion was attempted using the same subject-
agent combination and the same judges. An
eight-night series was completed in which
a number of additional precautions were
taken to ensure against sensory leakage. In
addition, special efforts were made to involve
the agent more deeply with the target
material.
Method
A pool of ten postcard-size prints of
famous paintings was created; each potential
target picture was enclosed in an opaque
envelope, which was sealed. Each envelope
had a small letter in its upper corner match-
ing a letter on a sealed box of multisensory
material relating to the art print. During the
first study, the nightly log of the agent indi-
cated that he had spontaneously dramatized
or acted out some of the scenes depicted in
the target picture. In order to facilitate this
dramatization as well as to more deeply
involve the agent in the theme and mood of
the target, an assistant prepared a series of
the objects relating to each art print. These
objects, taken in conjunction with the picture,
were designed to create a multisensory
involvement of the agent with the target
picture. For example, Daumier’s “The Bar-
rel Organ” was accompanied by a Protes-
tant hymnal. The other targets included
“Downpour at Shono” by Hiroshige (figure
2), accompanied by a small Japanese um-
brella and instructions to “take a shower”
(figure 3), “Portrait of Jahangir as a Young
Prince” by Bichitr (accompanied by Indian
beads), “Both Members of the Club” by Bel-
lows (accompanied by a boxing glove), the
Major Pelham exhibit from the Civil War
Centennial display in Richmond. Va. (ac-
companied by several toy soldiers), “The De-
scent from the Cross” by Beck mann (accom-
panied by a crucifix), “Interior of the Syna-
gogue” by Katz (accompanied by candles
and matches), and “Advice to a Young Ar-
tist” by Daumier (accompanied by water
Hiroshige.
NY
FIGURE 3
Multisensory Materials for Target 2
li
MONTAGUE ULLMAN AND STANLEY KRIPPNER 1285
A,ner. J. Psychiat. /26: 9, March /970 [119]
FIGURE 2
Downpour at Shono
colors, a brush, and canvas).
During each experimental night the subject
was sleeping in a darkened sleep room; the
agent was situated in a suite 96 feet distant.
Upon arriving in his suite, the agent opened
the randomly selected envelope and the
box containing the multisensory materials.
He acted out the instructions in the box and
utilized the multisensory materials in con-
junction with the target picture. attempting
to influence the subject’s dreams.
After the protocols for all eight experi-
mental nights had been collected and tran-
scribed. three outside judges rated each of
the 64 possible target-protocol pairs. These
64 pairs were presented to each judge in a
different random order; eight judgings were
presented at a time so that the “sitting” effect
could be evaluated as well as the target effect,
the experimental night effect, and the telep-
athy effect. A Latin-square analysis of
variance was utilized to evaluate the data.
The judging sheet for each target-protocol
pair contained a 100-unit scale and read, in
part. “Color the space that represents, in
your judgment. the correspondence between
target material and protocol content.”
Results
Means of the three judges’ ratings were
entered in the analysis of variance matrix:
the eight actual target-protocol combina-
lions were compared with the 56 incorrect
target-protocol pairs. The resulting data were
statistically significant (F =6.43, p <0.001, 7
and 21 dl). Therefore the telepathy hypoth-
esis was confirmed and the results of the
previous study were replicated.
Example #2. When Hiroshige’s “Down-
pour at Shono” was randomly selected,
the agent stood in a shower (located in his
suite) under a small Japanese umbrella.
The following excerpts demonstrate the type
of target-protocol correspondences obtained.
FROM SUBJECT’S DREAM REPORTS:
It’s as though I was doing some drawing. . . . I
had the feeling as though it were in a down posi-
tion. like a low table. Down on the floor. Seems
that’s what I meant by “down.” Something
about an Oriental man. ...Walking with some-
one on the street. Raining. .
FROM SUBJECT’S ASSOCIATIONAL
MATERIAL: The fountain makes me think of
pictures and scenes I’ve seen of Rome. . . They
have so man fountains. ...I remember
talking about fountains being renewing of
life. . . . Iwas walking on the street. It seemed
it was raining a little bit. . . . Of course, it
was raining. .
SUBJECT’S GUESS AS TO THE TAR-
GET: In terms of just standing out. I would say
the fountain. . . . For some reason I’m going
to say that it had something to do with. . . foun-
tains or something. ...Fountain. Maybe water.
Supplementary Analysis. A frequent
criticism of the first study centered around
the allegation that dreams are so ambiguous
that virtually any picture would correspond
in some way to a dream transcript. This
argument can be effectively countered by
pointing out that the judges worked blind
1286 EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH TO DREAMS AND TELEPATHY
[120] Amer. J. Psvchiai. 126: 9, March /970
and that they matched each of the eight
targets against each of the eight transcripts.
Nevertheless, critics of the first study
claimed that a “control judging” should
have been attempted in which pictures that
were not in the target pool were matched
against the dream transcripts.
For the second study, a thorough check
of this allegation was made. A fourth judge
(Judge D) was given copies of the eight tran-
scripts for the second study as well as the
eight targets used for that study, the seven
targets used for the first study, and a target
used for a screening session. The 16 targets
were paired with all eight protocols, produc-
ing 128 target-protocol combinations. These
were judged by means of the 100-unit rating
scale described previously.
Before Judge D attempted the 128 ratings,
eight target-protocol combinations were
randomly assigned by a consulting statisti-
cian using the eight “control” targets. “The
Yellow Rabbi” became the control target
for night one, “Persistence of Memory”
for night two, “Apples and Oranges” for
night three, “Bedtime” for night four,
“Boats on the Beach” for night five, “The
Sacrament of the Last Supper” for night
six, “School of the Dance” for night seven,
and “Paris From a Window” for night eight.
Upon completion of this judging process,
ratings for the “correct” and the control
target-protocol combinations were placed
in separate analysis of variance matrices
and were evaluated using the Scheff#{233}tech-
nique(2).
The “correct” target-protocol combina-
tions received higher ratings from Judge D
than did all other combinations in the
matrix. These data were statistically signifi-
cant (F =8.11, p<O.Ol, 8 and 64 dl). The
control combinations did not yield signifi-
cant data (F =0.71). Therefore, the allega-
tion that significant data can be obtained
from chance target-protocol combinations
was not demonstrated.
In addition to the supplementary analysis,
a number of special precautions were taken
in this study to ensure that no sensory clues
relating to the target could reach the subject:
1. The two rooms used to house the sub-
ject and agent were at opposite ends of the
building and were 96 feet apart, separated
by two bends in a corridor and three doors.
2. The agent remained in his suite for the
entire night. The subject remained in his
room for the entire night, with the exception
of occasional visits to the nearby washroom.
Thus, communication from the agent to the
subject was impossible due to their physical
location.
3. The range of target material was un-
known to any of the individuals present at
the experiments. The targets and the multi-
sensory material had been prepared by staff
members who were never present on any
of the experimental nights.
Third Study
Method
For this eight-night series, the procedure.
outlined for the second study was followed
with certain modifications. The subject, a
psychologist on the staff of an out-of-state
university, was selected on the basis of suc-
cessful performances in a telepathy experi-
ment at another dream laboratory. He was
allowed to select his own agent from the
Maimonides staff, having been introduced
to several staff members during a day’s visit.
Over the course of the eight-night study,
two female agents and one male agent were
utilized.
A total of several dozen target pictures
was prepared. Eight were randomly chosen
on each experimental night by the agent,
who then selected at random one of the
eight as his target picture. The target pictures
actually utilized included “The Discovery of
America by Christopher Columbus” by
Dali, “The Wine Taster” by Vermeer, “The
Repast of the Lion” by Rousseau, “Kathak
Dancing Girls” by an unknown Indian
artist, “The Enigma of Fate” by Dc Chirico,
“Trees and Houses” by Cezanne, “Gangster
Funeral” by Levine (figure 4), and “Man
with Arrows and Companions” by Bichitr.
The introduction into the experimental
design of a different target poo1 for each
session enabled the subject, a psychologist,
to do his own judging each morning. He
followed the ranking procedure previous-
ly described.
It was decided in advance to consider as
“hits” all correct target pictures that had
been ranked as #1, #2, #3, or #4, and to
regard as “misses” all pictures that had been
ranked as #5, #6, #7, or #8. Additional
judging, utilizing the ranking technique, was
FIGURE 4
Gangster Funeral
I
level.
MONTAGUE ULLMAN AND STANLEY KRIPPNER 1287
A,ner. J. Psychiat. /26: 9. March /970 [121]
accomplished by Judge D.
Following the subject’s judging. he was
told the correct target by the agent. The
subject was then interviewed by a staff psy-
chiatrist. This interview centered around the
dreams and associational material of the
subject as well as around the agent’s written
associations to the target picture.
Results
The results of the subject’s rankings were
assessed by the binomial method. When
the ranks were inspected, there were eight
“hits” and no “misses.” This distribution is
significant at the 0.004 level.
The rankings of Judge D were assessed
by the binomial method. Five direct cor-
respondences (i.e., ranks of #1) were
obtained; this is significant at the 0.001
An analysis of the motivational factors
that came into focus during the psychiatric
interview suggested that the telepathic effect
was linked to sexual and aggressive content.
In the example that follows the subject
revealed guilt about sexual fantasies concern-
ing the agent-an attractive female social
worker. The guilt involved the psychiatric
interviewer (Dr. Ullman) as a superego
figure who appeared in the dream’s reference
to “security police.”
Exanzple #3. Levine’s “Gangster Funeral”
was used on a night when the following
material was collected:
FROM SUBJECT’S DREAM REPORTS:
There was a conversation going on at a table be-
tween myself and two other male characters. .
One of them was Fred. . . .1 was sort of joshing
1288 EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH TO DREAMS AND TELEPATHY
[122] Amer. J. Psvchiat. /26.9, March 1970
or kidding him about the clothing that he was
wearing. He had on a rather garish suit. . . . It
seems as if he had on a vest which was not exactly
matching the suit. . . And it seems as if I had
to talk to the police, the security police. ...It
seemed like there were maybe six people there. .
and this one guy who seemed to be lying down
on the bed was saying something about, “this
means he has a dirty mouth.”
FROM SUBJECT’S ASSOCIATIONAL
MATERIAL: ...He had on this loud, garish,
woolen suit with a vest that didn’t quite match
It seems I had to report into the security
police or something . . but for some reason I
had to check in with the security police. I think
the association very clearly is Monte’ as
security police . . . Lying over on the couch
fairly close to me there was some guy who said,
“Let’s play the dirty record. . . Something
about inpatient service. . . and that they were
running it much more like a jail or a prison.
but he was pleased about it. Almost seemed to
be boasting about it-the tough methods that
they were using in the prison. .
SUBJECT’S GUESS AS TO THE TAR-
GET: My guess would be that. . . the target
picture had a great deal of rich textual quality to
it. . . I would say people have to be in it because
this was a very people-dominated night from
beginning to end. There was never any episode
that did not involve people. . . Also, it seemed
as if there was a lot of emphasis on sitting pos-
tures.
Discussion
If our findings are interpreted as support-
ing the idea that extrasensory effects can be
made to appear in dreams on a greater than
chance basis-and we see no other inter-
pretation at the present time-they raise
many questions and provide few answers.
The demonstration either that information
transfer can occur through as yet unidenti-
fied sensory channels or that a resonance
effect can be induced linking, in remarkably
congruent ways, the brain activity of two
individuals in sensory isolation from each
other would give some credence to at least
a proportion of the many spontaneous and
anecdotal accounts of such happenings. More
important, however, would be the open ques-
tion ofjust how much communication of this
kind does gain access to dream conscious-
ness under normal conditions.
It is obvious that the phenomenon we are
‘Dr. UlIman.
tracking remains very elusive. Our studies
suggest that it is a focused effect, i.e.,
that it occurs between a designated agent
and percipient rather than capriciously.
This is by no means exclusively so, and the
full range of adventitious or capricious
effects is an unknown quantity. Two other
leads have emerged. One is that not every-
one has the same power acting as agent;
the other that not everyone has the same
power acting as subject. The idea of a field
effect in which the key variables are linked
to the subject-agent interaction suggests it-
self. We have taken a few beginning steps
in the direction of exploring this possibility.
In the last series completed the subject-agent
relationship was structured on the basis of
personal selection and rapport, while the
emotional climate in which the experiment
took place was explored between subject and
agent in a dynamically oriented interview
situation on the morning following the ex-
perimental night. Approaching it in this
fashion, we highlight certain immediate here-
and-now emotional linkages. We are also
interested in the possible influence of con-
stitutional and developmental linkages as
these might occur if the pairing of subject
and agent were to take place on the basis of
kinship. In this connection, working with
identical twins might be helpful.
Can further psychological manipulation
of either subject or agent or both further
enhance the effect? Our present design is
limited to generating a spontaneous altered
state of consciousness in the subject. What
would happen if we also generated an altered
state in the agent through hypnosis or by
somehow linking the target to the dreaming
consciousness of the agent? We are begin-
ning to test out some of these ideas in a
pilot fashion.
In an effort to further define subject-
agent interaction it might be fruitful to ex-
plore the possible relevance of differing or
congruent perceptual styles. Along the di-
mension of field dependency, for example,
what might be the best combination of sub-
ject and agent?
The importance of the target material it-
self and the degree of involvement of the
agent in the target has received emphasis in
the successful results obtained by Moss and
Gengerelli(l) when target material was
selected with a view to eliciting sharp and
MONTAGUE ULLMAN AND STANLEY KRIPPNER 1289
Amer. J. Psvchiai. /26. 9, March /970 [123]
dramatic affective responses in the agent.
We have begun to make more use of multi-
sensory stimuli. The visual impact of the
target picture is reinforced by presenting
the agent with an array of objects and tasks,
all of which are related to the theme of the
picture but which invoke the use of other
sensory modalities.
Further studies are needed to assess the
relative facilitating influence of dream con-
sciousness compared with the kind of
cognitive recall that can be obtained from
other stages of sleep. We have some data to
suggest that hypnagogic and hypnopompic
states are as favorable to the occurrence of
paranormal effects as the dream state itself.
At this point in time we find ourselves
in a kind of parapsychological “Catch 22.”
In order to test out some of the above ideas
we must continue to get an identifiable yield
of paranormal data. In order to get a con-
tinuing yield of paranormal data we must
be able to identify and control the signifi-
cant variables. This dilemma is not new to
parapsychology. What makes for some
optimism in connection with our own ap-
proach is the hope that, with the vast
amount of dream research being carried out
currently, replication of our results may
be forthcoming from other laboratories.
REFERENCES
I. Moss, T., and Gengerelli, J. A.: Telepathy and
Emotional Stimuli: A Controlled Experiment, J.
Abnorm. Psychol. 72:341-348, 1967.
2. Scheff#{233}, H.: The Analysis of Variance. New York:
John Wiley& Sons. l955.chap. 10.
3. UlIman, M.: An Experimental Approach to
Dreams and Telepathy, Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 14:605-
613, 1966.
In 1821 Chief Justice John Jay said to his nephew William Heathcote DeLancey:
“Let me tell you, William: the true history of the American Revolution can never be
written.” Jay declined to give his reasons, saying, “You must be content to know that
the fact is as I have said, and that a great many people in those days were not at all
what they seemed nor what they are generally believed to have been.”
-EDWARD FLOYD DELANCEY’S introduction to
Thomas Jones’ History of New York
During the Revolutionary War, 1879
... At times such dreaming may also be responsive to subtle non-local and nontemporal influences, as demonstrated in the many studies carried out by Ullman and Krippner at their laboratory at Brooklyn's Maimonides Medical Center and reported in peer-reviewed journals (e.g. Krippner et al., 1971;Sherwood and Roe, 2003;Ullman and Krippner, 1970). ...
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Telepathy is considered a unique supernatural phenomenon that falls under the classification of Extra Sensory Potentials. The western world has developed several concepts and theories based on the assumptions and experiences of several learned individuals. Here, the present study was based on eastern philosophies written and practiced by Pandit Shriram Sharma Acharya Ji, who is the most recent legend with a perfect balance of scientific perspective towards spirituality. His establishments and achievements are unique as they all despite his physical absence consistently thrive to blend both the extreme ends. This research aims to present a concept of telepathy from the viewpoint of Pandit Shriram Sharma Acharya Ji. Telepathy is renowned fashionably for its misconceptions as well as scientific inexplicability. The potential classified as extrasensory exists and is experienced substantially but when it comes to controlled experimentation, it is very difficult to carry out as they are dependent on individuals’ spiritual life and journey. Pandit Shriram Sharmaji was a spiritual scientist who has throughout his life experimented with spirituality on his life. His concepts are not only mere assumptions but filled with deep understanding, scientific references, and research. After the in-depth study of the literature of Pandit Shriram Sharmaji, which includes his huge volumes of complete works (Vangmays) and other spiritual and scientific texts, it was found that the telepathic capacities, through the proper practice of various spiritual techniques and personality refinements, can also be acquired and enhanced too. This opens up several new areas of research in the field of Extrasensory potential, especially Telepathy.
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Please read the openly available published version at https://journalofscientificexploration.org/index.php/jse/article/view/1747 This article presents an interview study of telepathic experiences induced by psychedelic drugs, with the aim of broadening our understanding of the nature and characteristics of such experiences. Of 40 psychedelics users interviewed about their experiences, 16 reported some form of psychedelic telepathy. Respondents were recruited at various online fora for individual interviews via private messaging. They reported three main types of telepathic communication, ranging from an information-exchange type of telepathy that often enabled people to communicate in images as well as words, via a type often referred to as telempathy that allowed for the direct exchange of feeling-states, to a state of self-dissolution and telepathic unity where one could not differentiate one's own thoughts and feelings from those of the friend or partner. Some participants complained about the lack of privacy especially in the more intense forms of telepathic states, and were hesitant to repeat the experience, while others claimed they had become accustomed to such states and experienced them regularly. The article concludes that further studies are warranted, and suggests a research design for an experimental study of psychedelic telepathy.
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An Experimental Approach to Dreams and Telepathy, Arch
  • M Uliman
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