Article

Selfish and Spiteful Behavior in an Evolutionary Model

Nature (Impact Factor: 41.46). 01/1971; 228(5277):1218-20. DOI: 10.1038/2281218a0
Source: PubMed
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    • "Thus, r can be thought of as the fraction of the total weighting of selection that happens at the group level, and 1 − r can be thought of as the fraction of the total weighting of selection that happens within groups. Here, r may often be interpreted as a form of the regression coefficient of relatedness from kin selection theory (Hamilton, 1970). Thus, we may think of this balance between levels of selection in terms of either kin or group selection (Hamilton, 1975; Frank, 1986). "
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    ABSTRACT: The theory of natural selection has two forms. Deductive theory describes how populations change over time. One starts with an initial population and some rules for change. From those assumptions, one calculates the future state of the population. Deductive theory predicts how populations adapt to environmental challenge. Inductive theory describes the causes of change in populations. One starts with a given amount of change. One then assigns different parts of the total change to particular causes. Inductive theory analyzes alternative causal models for how populations have adapted to environmental challenge. This chapter emphasizes the inductive analysis of cause.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014
    • "Inclusive fitness theory can be encapsulated in a pleasingly simple way by Hamilton's (1964) rule, which states that altruism will be favored by selection when rb − c > 0, where c is the fitness cost to the actor, b is the fitness benefit to the recipient, and r is the genetic relatedness between the actor and the recipient. The relatedness term, r, is a statistical coefficient, which measures the genetic similarity between the actor and recipient, relative to the rest of the population (Hamilton 1970). There are three general points to make here. "
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    ABSTRACT: Humans are an intensely social species, frequently performing costly behaviors that benefit others. Efforts to solve the evolutionary puzzle of altruism have a lengthy history, and recent years have seen many important advances across a range of disciplines. Here we bring together this interdisciplinary body of research and review the main theories that have been proposed to explain human prosociality, with an emphasis on kinship, reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, punishment, and morality. We highlight recent methodological advances that are stimulating research and point to some areas that either remain controversial or merit more attention. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 66 is November 30, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Annual Review of Psychology
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    • "Consequently, relatedness can be understood as the chance of gene sharing among kin, above and beyond average probability [52]. Inclusive fitness partitions natural selection into direct and indirect effects; direct effects describe the impact of an individual's own genes on reproductive success, and indirect effects describe the impact of the focal individual's genes on the fitness of its social partners, weighted by genetic relatedness [24,26,48]. Cooperation may be mutually beneficial if it directly benefits the actor as well as the recipients, for example, by increasing the success of an individual's own group (table 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: One of the most striking facts about parasites and microbial pathogens that has emerged in the fields of social evolution and disease ecology in the past few decades is that these simple organisms have complex social lives, indulging in a variety of cooperative, communicative and coordinated behaviours. These organisms have provided elegant experimental tests of the importance of relatedness, kin discrimination, cooperation and competition, in driving the evolution of social strategies. Here, we briefly review the social behaviours of parasites and microbial pathogens, including their contributions to virulence, and outline how inclusive fitness theory has helped to explain their evolution. We then take a mechanistically inspired 'bottom-up' approach, discussing how key aspects of the ways in which parasites and pathogens exploit hosts, namely public goods, mobile elements, phenotypic plasticity, spatial structure and multi-species interactions, contribute to the emergent properties of virulence and transmission. We argue that unravelling the complexities of within-host ecology is interesting in its own right, and also needs to be better incorporated into theoretical evolution studies if social behaviours are to be understood and used to control the spread and severity of infectious diseases.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences
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