Article

Identification of anthocyanins and distribution of flavonoids in tamarillo fruit (Cyphomandra betaceae (Cav.) Sendt.)

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Abstract

The major tamarillo (Cyphomandra betaceae) anthocyanin pigments were isolated and identified as pelargonidin-3-rutinoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-rutinoside and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The intense purple-coloured jelly surrounding the seeds contained the greatest concentration of anthocyanins, delphinidin-3-rutinoside being the major pigment. Flavones, flavonols and leucoanthocyanins were also present in this material. The yellow-coloured flesh contained flavones and low concentration of anthocyanins. The major anthocyanin of the skins is cyanidin-3-rutinoside; flavones and leucoanthocyanins are also present. It is suggested that the presence of leucoanthocyanins in pigment extracts induced degradation of anthocyanins during isolation and purification.

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... R-Carotene, -carotene, and -cryptoxanthin were quantified in tamarillo collected in Australia (16), whereas R-carotene was not detected in these fruits from the United States (17). It is worth highlighting that the identity of anthocyanins and carotenoids from tamarillo was only based on chromatographic profiles, UV-vis spectra, and chemical tests; high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used only in one study (17), and mass spectrometry (MS) techniques were not employed in all those reports (13)(14)(15)(16)(17). ...
... Delphinidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside were also detected in this fruit (13), whereas the other anthocyanins previously reported in tamarillo (13,14) were not found in the present study. This fact can be attributed to different sample anthocyanin rearrangements since a faster method was used for separation in the present study (HPLC) as compared to paper chromatography (13,14), and also to mis-identification. ...
... Delphinidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside were also detected in this fruit (13), whereas the other anthocyanins previously reported in tamarillo (13,14) were not found in the present study. This fact can be attributed to different sample anthocyanin rearrangements since a faster method was used for separation in the present study (HPLC) as compared to paper chromatography (13,14), and also to mis-identification. ...
Article
Anthocyanins and carotenoids are natural pigments responsible for the color of vegetables and fruits, and they are also bioactive compounds, both demonstrating important biological, therapeutic, and preventative properties. Considering the biodiversity of edible fruits, high performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-PDA-MS) was used to establish the composition of carotenoids and anthocyanins from dovyalis and tamarillo fruits. Ten anthocyanins and 26 carotenoids were found in dovyalis, whereas tamarillo showed 3 anthocyanins and 17 carotenoids. Higher contents of anthocyanins and carotenoids were found in dovyalis, 42.0 and 6.6 mg/100 g, respectively, as compared to tamarillo fruits with 8.5 and 4.4 mg/100 g, respectively. Although these fruits belong to different families, delphinidin 3-rutinoside and beta-cryptoxanthin were found to be, respectively, the major anthocyanin and carotenoid in both fruits.
... Often, these are dependent on where they are produced, even for the same cultivar. Scarce information on anthocyanin and phenolic compositions of tamarillo, especially for those from New Zealand, are currently available, or data are several decades old [1,14]. To our best knowledge, anthocyanin and phenolic profiles of tamarillo separated by tissue types, into peel and pulp, have never been systematically investigated. ...
... A total of 12 polyphenols were found and quantified in peel and pulp of three New Zealand grown tamarillo cultivars. Among these phenolics, six compounds had been previously reported in tamarillo [4,5,14]. Six other compounds were determined in tamarillo for the first time, and these include ellagic acid, rutin, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol-3-rutinoside and isorhamnetin-3rutinoside. ...
... Peels had more than three times of the chlorogenic acid concentration compared to the pulps. The presence of chlorogenic acid in tamarillo has been reported by Wrolstad and Heatherbell [14] and then later by Espin et al. [4] and Loizzo, Lucci, Núñez, Tundis, Balzano, Frega, Conte, Moret, Filatova and Moyano [19]. Espin et al. [4] also reported chlorogenic acid as the major phenolic compound in yellow and purple tamarillos from Ecuador and New Zealand, which agrees with the findings of the current study for Amber and Mulligan. ...
Article
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This study examined phenolics and anthocyanins present in Amber, Laird’s Large and Mulligan cultivars of tamarillo that were cultivated in -Whangarei, Northland of New Zealand. Samples were further separated by their tissue types, peel and pulp. Using LC-MS/MS, twelve polyphenols were quantified and six (ellagic acid, rutin, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol-3-rutinoside and isorhamnetin-3-rutinoside) were detected for the first time in tamarillo. Mulligan cultivar showed the highest amounts of phenolic and anthocyanin compounds and the highest antioxidant activity. Phenolic compounds were mostly synthesized from shikimic acid route, and chlorogenic acid dominated the profile regardless of cultivar and tissue types. Anthocyanin profile was dominated by delphinidin-3-rutinoside in pulp. Higher amounts of anthocyanins were detected in this study, which may be explained by favourable growth conditions (high light intensity and low temperature) for anthocyanin biosynthesis in New Zealand. Higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in peels than in pulps were found when assessed by Cupric Ion-Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (CUPRAC), Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) and Folin–Ciocalteu assays, and a positive correlation (-r > 0.9, p ≤ 0.01) between the three assays was observed. Current findings endorse that tamarillo has a great bioactive potential to be developed further as a functional ingredient with considerable levels of antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity.
... The dotted line indicates the mean. Studies have found that total polyphenols (TP) are higher in the peel than in the pulp of tree tomato [30,33]. In New Zealand's varieties (red, purple red, and yellow pulp), TP ranged between 8.75 and 7.07 mg GAE g −1 , values that are included in the range (5.11 and 16.59 mg GAE g −1 ) found in the evaluated breeding population; these compounds were the most related to the antioxidant capacity in this fruit crop [22]. ...
... Anthocyanins in tree tomato could act as a natural food additive to extend shelf life by preventing or delaying lipid oxidation and also to improve food quality and its nutritive value [40,41]. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) is high in the red and purple tree tomato types [19]; however, it has been reported that the tree tomato pulp contains a small number of anthocyanins and they are mainly in the peel [33], even if [31] found the opposite. In this study, a TAC from 0 (no detected value) to 240.49 mg cy-3 glu 100 g −1 was found, which is higher than that reported by [34] with 0 (yellow cultivar) to 82.00 (red cultivar) mg cy-3 glu 100 g −1 . ...
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Tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.) is an Andean fruit crop that is grown in Ecuador. It is an exceptional source of minerals and vitamins, thus has nutraceutical properties. The objective of this research was to carry out a phytochemical characterization of a breeding population composed of 90 segregants. Pulp (including mesocarp, mucilage, seeds and placenta) was ground and sieved in order to obtain the liquid pulp to be lyophilized for the chemical analyzes. Antioxidants compounds were determined by spectrophotometry and vitamin C by reflectometry. Data were analyzed by principal components, grouping, and variance analyses; in addition, Z Score estimation was carried out to select elite individuals. There was a broad variability in the data obtained for the breeding population, polyphenol content varied from 5.11 to 16.59 mg GAE g −1 , flavonoids from 1.24 to 6.70 mg cat g −1 , carotenoids from 50.39 to 460.72 µg β-carotene g −1 , anthocyanins from 1.06 to 240.49 mg cy-3-glu 100 g −1 , antioxidant capacity from 49.51 to 312.30 µm Trolox g −1 , and vitamin C from 78.29 to 420.16 mg 100 g −1. It can be concluded that tree tomato is a good source of beneficial biocompounds and has a high antioxidant capacity.
... Blackberries are currently promoted as being a rich source of polyphenols, with ellagitannins and anthocyanins being the major ones (Hä kkinen et al., 1999;Siriwoharn and Wrolstad, 2004). Anthocyanins were detected in the tree tomato ( Bobbio et al., 1983;Wrolstad and Heatherbell, 1974) and no data was found in literature about the phenolic composition of naranjilla. ...
... Thus, A 4 , A 5 , A 6 and A 7 were expected as being delphinidin glucosyl rutinoside, delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin rutinoside, respectively. Major anthocyanins A 5 , A 6 and A 7 have been previously identified in tree tomato fruit from New Zealand ( Wrolstad and Heatherbell, 1974). ...
Article
Major compounds (i.e. phenolic compounds and carotenoids) were analysed in the extracts of the edible part of three tropical fruits: the Andean blackberry, the naranjilla and the tree tomato. Ellagitannins and anthocyanins were predominant in blackberries and phenolic composition can be used to differentiate the two species studied. Similar phenolic composition occurred in red and yellow tree tomato except for anthocyanins which were absent in the yellow tree tomato. Phenolic acids were detected in the naranjilla pulp. Carotenoids were analysed in the fruits. The composition in carotenoids was similar in the two varieties of tree tomato and their vitamin A activity was calculated. Carotenol fatty acid esters were predominant. β-Cryptoxanthin esters and β-carotene were the major carotenoids. The carotenoid content was high compared to literature data, providing an important high vitamin A activity. In blackberries and naranjilla, this class of compounds was found only at trace level. Finally, ORAC values were estimated in different solvent extracts and results were compared with published data in common fruits.
... Peonidin-3-O-glucoside was the most abundant anthocyanin in fresh tamarillo (Portugal) (Gomes, Ghica, Rodrigues, de Souza Gil, & Oliveira-Brett, 2016). Cyanidin-3-rutinoside and delphinidin-3-rutinoside were the most abundant anthocyanins in the peel and flesh surrounding the seeds, respectively (Wrolstad & Heatherbell, 1974). Pelargonidin 3-O-rutinoside (77.0 ̶ 78.0 mg/100 g dry weight), delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside (21.8 ̶ 87.42 mg/100 g dry weight) and cyanidin 3-Orutinoside (2.5 ̶ 4.5 mg/100 g dry weight) were major anthocyanin pigments in tamarillo fruit pulp (Espin et al., 2016). ...
... Overall, the variations in anthocyanin composition depended on several factors, including cultivation locations (e.g., New Zealand vs. Ecuador), fruit colors (e.g., yellow vs. purple), fruit parts (e.g., flesh vs. peels), extraction and identification methods used, as well as storage conditions (Bobbio et al., 1983;De Rosso & Mercadante, 2007;Espin et al., 2016;Hurtado et al., 2009;Mertz et al., 2010;Wrolstad & Heatherbell, 1974). ...
Article
Background Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) is native to South America and is cultivated in several other parts of the world for its valued fruit. The fruit has therapeutic and nutritional properties that can satisfy the demands from health-conscious consumers. There has been increasing interest in using tamarillo for consumption and food and non-food product formulations. Overall, tamarillo is an underutilized, sustainable fruit crop with great potential for value-added products. Scope and approach This review summarizes the composition of nutritional components and biological properties of tamarillo. The chemical and biological properties of tamarillo are compared to those of common fruits and vegetables. Food and other uses of tamarillo are described. Innovative methods for the development of tamarillo-based products are suggested to maximize the potential of this fruit. Key findings and conclusions Tamarillo has a range of nutrients including dietary fibers, polyphenols, vitamins C, A, B, and E, carotenoids, potassium and iron. Health effects of tamarillo included antioxidative, antiproliferative, antinociceptive, antiinflammatory, allergenicity, and anti-obese properties. These health effects have been tentatively correlated to certain phytochemicals (e.g., non-starch polysaccharides, carotenoids, and anthocyanins). The properties of tamarillo-derived ingredients mainly depended on the cultivar and origin, plant parts, extraction conditions and analytical procedures. Research is needed to explore the composition-activity relationships and mechanisms underlying a biological activity. An array of tamarillo based products have been developed. Overall, tamarillo is a promising “new” fruit crop with potential to be exploited as a source of “healthy” products.
... The yellow fruit varieties tend to have negligeable amounts of anthocyanins, as shown in Vasco et al. (2009), Mertz et al. (2009 and Espin et al. (2016). The major anthocyanins found in tamarillo fruit are delphinidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and pelargonidin-3rutinoside (Wrolstad & Heatherbell, 1974;Mertz et al., 2009;Hassan & Bakar, 2013). ...
... Delphinidin-3-rutinoside is the main anthocyanin in the fruit pulp and cyanidin-3-rutinoside is the main anthocyanin in the fruit peel, in most of the worldwide studied varieties. Pelargonidin-3-rutinoside is the main anthocyanin present in studied Ecuadorian cultivars (Wrolstad & Heatherbell, 1974). The total flavonoid content was higher in the fruit peel (3.36 mg RE/g) than in the fruit pulp (2.41 mg RE/g) (Hassan & Bakar, 2013). ...
Thesis
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Pesticides are chemical substances, or a biological agents intentionally released into the environment, capable of deterring, preventing or controlling populations of harmful pests such as animals, weeds, fungi, bacteria or viruses. These pests are defined as organisms that can be hazardous to our food and health, and are liable for yearly expenses of billions of dollars through the production of costly synthetic chemicals. The urge for new environmentally friendly solutions to the pesticides has led to a recent increasing interest in the research and production of plant-based biopesticides and the compounds they produce. In the present study, leaves of the species Solanum betaceum Cav. and Corema album (L.) D. Don were used to create crude ethanol extracts which were subsequently fractioned using organic solvents. The species leaf fractions were tested in vitro for their anti-oomycete activity on the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands. The initial extract of the leaf material was prepared with ethanol and the fractionation was carried out with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol, in that order, through a biphasic separation system. P. cinnamomi shows sensitivity to the butanolic fraction of S. betaceum and to all fractions of C. album, particularly to the initial C. album ethanolic extract. The butanolic fraction of S. betaceum proves to be rich in polyphenols, polysaccharides and esters. The various fractions of C. album contain pectins, esters, triterpenoids and aromatic compounds such as phenols.
... Sendt.] (Wrolstad and Heatherbell, 1974) and tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill.] (Jones et al., 2003). Sharma and Seshardi (cited in Mazza and Miniati, 1993) reported the presence of an unusual anthocyanin (petunidin diglucoside) in four cultivars of chilli peppers grown in India. ...
Research
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Anthocyanins, Colour and Antioxidant Properties of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and Violet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Peel Extracts
... 32 The flavonoid and anthocyanin distribution in C betacea fruits has been reported. 33 The influence of domestic processing and storage on the flavonol content in berries, 30,34 as well as on the radical scavenging activity and phenolic content, 30,35 has been recently reported. The flavonol content of red raspberry slightly decreased with processing and more markedly during jams storage. ...
Article
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The proximate composition and free radical scavenging effect of native food plants gathered in the Argentinian Yungas have been assessed. Some 25 samples were collected for proximate analysis and free radical scavenging effect of their MeOH-soluble extracts. Total acidity, phenolics and solid content of 16 preserves prepared from native fruits have been determined. The samples belong to 13 different species corresponding to eight plant families, mainly Myrtaceae, Solanaceae and Ulmaceae. The highest organic acid contents (as citric acid) were found in the preserves of Psidium guineense and Cyphomandra betaceae with the lowest in Sideroxylon obtusifolium and Myrciantes pungens. Total phenolics in the preserves ranged from 0.34 g kg−1 DM in Rhipsalis flocosa to 7.30 g kg−1 DM in Celtis iguanae. The MeOH-solubles of the fruits/petioles as well as the preserves were assessed for inhibition of the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO), decoloration of the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and scavenging of the superoxide anion. The highest effect of the solubles towards the DPPH assay was observed for M pungens and Rubus imperialis before processing. None of the samples was effective as a XO inhibitor or superoxide anion scavenger. The best protein sources in our study were the fruits of Carica quercifolia, Celtis iguanae and Sambucus nigra. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry
... It is generally consumed fresh, or blended together with water and sugar to make juices and desserts. Early studies on phenolics constituents of tamarillo fruit from New Zealand, which were performed by paper chromatography and TLC (thin layer chromatography), reported the presence of 3-rutinosides and 3-glucosides of pelargonidin, cyanidin and delphinidin (Wrolstad & Heatherbell, 1974); whereas pelargonidin 3-glucosyl-glucose, peonidin 3-glucosyl-glucose, and malvidin 3-glucosyl-glucose were identified in tamarillo fruits from Brazil by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and TLC (Bobbio, Bobbio, & Rodriguez-Amaya, 1983). Recently, delphinidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, and pelargonidin 3-glucoside-5-rhamnoside (tentatively) were identified by LC/MS from fruits of Brazil (Vera de Rosso & Mercadante, 2007). ...
Article
The anthocyanin composition of tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav., red variety) and Andes berry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) was determined by HPLC–PDA and HPLC–ESIMS. From the anthocyanin-rich extracts (AREs), pure compounds (1–7) were obtained by MLCCC (multilayer countercurrent chromatography) and further preparative HPLC, and their unequivocal structures were obtained by 1D and 2D NMR analyses. The new anthocyanin delphinidin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranoside-3′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, as well as the known cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, pelargonidin-3-O-rutinoside, and delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside were identified as constituents of tamarillo fruit. Although the anthocyanin composition of Andes berry had been reported before in the literature, the unequivocal structure elucidation of the major compound, cyanidin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucopyranoside, was achieved for the first time.
... Tamarillo is known for its high content of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium [3], carotenoids [4], anthocyanins [5] and others phenolic compounds [6]. Different anthocyanins have been identified in fruits from Peru [7], Brazil [5,8], Ecuador [9] and Colombia [10], as well as, carotenoids in fruits from Brazil [4,8] and Australia [11]. These compounds are not only responsible for the fruit color, but also possess biological, therapeutic and preventive properties [12,13]. ...
Article
The possibility of using the tamarillo (Solanum betaceum (Cav.) Sendtn (syn. Cyphomandra betacea)) epicarp as source of compounds with antioxidant activity in cooked beef meat (CBM) was explored. Extracts from tamarillo by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and Soxhlet extraction (SE) were obtained. The SFE was performed using pure CO2 at different temperatures and pressures (40 and 50 °C; 10, 20 and 30 MPa) and CO2 added with ethanol (CO2/EtOH) as co-solvent (2, 5 and 8%, w/w). The SFE kinetics and mathematical modeling of the overall extraction curves (OEC) were also investigated. EtOH and hexane were used in the SE. The antioxidant activity (AA) of extracts was evaluated in CBM as well as the protection against lipid oxidation was determined by measuring lipid hydroperoxides (LHP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). The extract obtained by SFE with CO2/EtOH (50 °C/30 MPa and 2% of EtOH) showed the highest AA. In SFE, the co-solvent addition improved considerably the AA and the extraction yield. The extracts obtained by SFE with CO2/EtOH showed a better AA compared with the synthetic antioxidant TBHQ. The highest yield values were achieved by SE with ethanol (7.7 ± 0.4%) and by SFE with 5% EtOH (1.9 ± 0.1%). The results indicate that extracts of tamarillo epicarp are a potential source of antioxidant compounds.
... The study by Mertz et al. [14] reported that pelargonidin rutinoside and delphinidin rutinoside were the two major anthocyanins in the red variety of the tree tomato. Delphinidin rutinoside, cyanidin rutinoside, and pelargonidin rutinoside have been identified previously as major anthocyanins in the tree tomato fruit from New Zealand [17]. These anthocyanins compounds are also suspected to be the major contributor of the anthocyanins in C. betacea in this study. ...
Article
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Cyphomandra betacea is one of the underutilized fruits which can be found in tropical and subtropical countries. This study was conducted to determine the antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents in different parts (i.e., flesh and peel) of the fruits. Antioxidants were analyzed using DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assays as well as FRAP assay. Anticholinesterase activity was determined using enzymatic assay using acetyl cholinesterase enzyme. For 80% methanol extract, the peel of the fruit displayed higher antioxidant activity in both FRAP and ABTS free radical scavenging assays while the flesh displayed higher antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay. Total phenolic and total flavonoid content were higher in the peel with the values of 4.89 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 3.36 ± 0.01 mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Total anthocyanin and carotenoid content were higher in the flesh of the fruit with the values of 4.15 ± 0.04 mg/100 g and 25.13 ± 0.35 mg/100 g. The anticholinesterase was also higher in the peel of C. betacea. The same trends of phytochemicals, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase were also observed in the distilled water extracts. These findings suggested that C. betacea has a potential as natural antioxidant-rich nutraceutical products.
... As reported in Lachman et al. (2012), delphinidin, malvidin and petunidin are the dominant anthocyanin constituents of Vitelotte N., with their aromatic rings contributing to antioxidant activity of this potato cultivar (Prior & Wu 2006). Following the differential pH method (Fratianni et al. 2010;Wrolstad & Heatherbell 1974), we ascertained the presence and the quantity of anthocyanins in the extracts, before and after digestion, as described in the supplementary material. The digested extracts contained lower quantities of these compounds indicated as possible responsible for anti-proliferative activity. ...
Article
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Analyses of antioxidant and in vitro antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activities of anthocyanin-rich extracts from purple potatoes, Solanum tuberosum L. cv Vitelotte noire (Solanaceae), were performed by simulating both a domestic cooking process and human digestion. Extracts of crude and cooked purple potato did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against the tester strains: Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The behaviour changed after the simulated gastrointestinal transit, when an inhibition halo was observed against all tester strains used, ranging from 0.53 cm against B. cereus to 0.82 cm against E. coli. In addition antioxidant activity exhibited, before and after the simulated gastrointestinal digestion (5.96 mg/mL ± 0.92; 28 mg/mL ± 0 .13, respectively) and the persistence of anti-proliferative activity against the colon cancer cells Caco-2, SW48 and MCF7, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, after the simulated digestion, (EC50 = 0.21; 1.13 μg/mL), suggest that vitelotte consumption might bring tangible benefits for human health.
... Many of these reported properties are due to the presence of phenolic compounds (0.09-0.19%), such as derivatives of rosmarinic acid, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, or chlorogenic acid such as hydroxycinnamic acids identified in S. betaceum [16][17][18]23]. In the case of the red variety, the predominant polyphenolic compound in the pulp is anthocyanin, a hydrosoluble pigment (0.01-0.08%), principally delphinidin-3-rutinoside, while hexanoic acid methyl ester is the main volatile compound [24,25]. From S. betaceum pulp, numerous ingredients of interest in the food industry have been developed to prepare foods such as frozen functional pulps and energy drinks and also for the manufacture of ice creams [18,26,27]. ...
Article
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The fruit supply chain generates large amounts of waste that are often used as animal feed and in the production of both composts and fertilizers and biogas (anaerobic digestion). Since these types of procedures imply high economic costs related to drying, storage, and transport processes, more efficient and environmentally friendly utilization and recycling of this kind of waste are becoming significant for governments and industries. However, improper waste disposal increases the burden on the environment. Many of these fruit wastes, such as Solanum betaceum fruit waste, viz., peels, seeds, and pomace, could be considered potent bio-resource materials for several applications in the food and non-food industries due to their richness in valuable compounds. The basic composition of Solanum betaceum fruits seed has a high content of protein (20%), fiber (around 25%), sugar (11–20%) and low lipid content (0.4%), while S. betaceum peel has a low content of sugar (2–9%), protein (8–10%) and lipid (0.2–0.8%) and high fiber content (23%). Regarding the phytochemicals, the wastes have a high level of phenolics (0.2–0.6%) and pigments such as anthocyanins (0.06%). The inherent bioactive compounds of waste can be used as natural ingredients for foods, cosmetics, medicines, and the production of packaging materials production. Along this line, the present review covers all possible approaches for the valorization of S. betaceum waste in the food and non-food sectors.
... Early chromatographic separation of anthocyanin starts with simple paper chromatography and thin layer chromatography (Barnes, 2010). (Wrolstad and Heatherbell, 1974) ...
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Angeri (Melastoma normale) (plate 1 and 2) is the plant belonging to melastomaceae family which has got a very high potentiality in the extraction of the color. Anthocyanins, the powerful phytochemical which act as an antioxidant are present in this fruit which is responsible for its deep blue color and the nutritional value. The study is primarily focused on extraction of pigment and effect of time-temperature-pH on the pigment. The anthocyanin pigment was extracted by using ethanol as a solvent system which is suggested by most of the research papers, and later concentrated using rotary vacuum evaporator followed by drying by using P2O5. Monomeric anthocyanin content of angeri was calculated by using spectrophotometer and expressed as mg/g of the fresh fruit basis. The anthocyanin content of fruit portion of angeri was found out to be 2.08 ± 0.27 mg/g on fresh weight basis. Similarly the moisture content, acidity as citric acid and total soluble solid was found out to be 79.4 ± 0.36%, 0.0704% and 6.5 ± 0.42°Brix respectively. The anthocyanin pigment present in angeri is found to be most stable at pH 1 and the stability went on decreasing with the increasing pH. The temperature has negative correlation with the concentration of anthocyanin beyond 40°C. This limits the application of anthocyanin pigment as coloring agent in food designed for high temperature treatment. Additionally, higher temperature combined with higher pH was found to have synergistic effect on the degradation of anthocyanin pigment.
... No se obtuvieron diferencias significativas en los valores de ATT en frutos sobremaduros. Heatherbell, 1974), representando el 62% del total del contenido de antocianinas. Entre los estados inmaduro y sobremaduro se halló un incremento del contenido de AT del 33% para Pelileo y 30% para Chiquicha. ...
Article
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(Recibido: 2013/03/07 - Aceptado: 2013/06/17)El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar el contenido de compuestos antioxidantes entomate de árbol morado cultivado a diferentes alturas (m.s.n.m.). Se emplearon frutosprovenientes de Pelileo (2660 m.s.n.m.) y Chiquicha (2440 m.s.n.m.) en tres estados demaduración (inmaduros, maduros y sobremaduros). Se realizaron análisis fisicoquímicos (colorsuperficial e interno, pH, acidez total titulable -ATT- y sólidos solubles totales -SST-) ybioquímicos por espectrofotometría UV-Vis (fenoles totales -FT-, antocianinas totales -AT-,carotenos totales -CT-, ácido L-ascórbico -AA- y capacidad antioxidante -CA-) en el endocarpioy mesocarpio de los frutos. En el color se obtuvieron mayores valores de L* (epicarpio) y h*(epicarpio y mesocarpio) en frutos inmaduros, maduros y sobremaduros de Chiquicha; mientrasque el valor de C* del mesocarpio y endocarpio fue mayor en aquellos de Pelileo. Lasdiferencias de color fueron evidentes con la maduración, pero no se encontró una relacióndirecta entre la altura de cultivo y los cambios en los parámetros de color analizados. Se obtuvouna diferencia significativamente mayor en el pH de tomates (inmaduros y maduros) deChiquicha. Asimismo, estos frutos presentaron mayor ATT (maduros y sobremaduros) y SST(sobremaduros) que los de Pelileo. El mesocarpio presentó mayor contenido de FT y CT en losfrutos (tres estados de maduración) de Chiquicha, mientras que mayor concentración de estoscompuestos presentó el endocarpio de frutos sobremaduros de Pelileo. El contenido de AT yAA fue mayor en frutos maduros de Chiquicha. En general, los frutos de Chiquicha mostraronmayor concentración de compuestos antioxidantes; posiblemente porque dicha plantación,constituida por al menos dos genotipos, se sitúa en una zona montañosa con buenascaracterísticas para el cultivo de este frutal.
... Contrastingly, only delphinidin-3rutinoside and negligible delphinidin-3-rutinoside-5-glucoside were reported in Bulgarian eggplant [33] devoid of acylglycosides. Albeit, mutual anthocyanins-carotenoids cooccurrence in Solanaceae fruits has been reported from Tamarillo (Cyphomandra betaceace) [34] and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) by Jones et al. [35] . Two anthocyanins were separated and identified from purple cultivar egg plants (Zi Chang) by Yanjie et al. [36] using highperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. ...
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Pigmented ingredients of Kampala cookery recipes: beet root (Beta vulgaris), red onions (Allium cepa), red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra), eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and red dodo (Amaranthaceae) were screened for anthocyanins. Sliced 5.0±0.1g of leaves, soft parts and/or peelings of the samples were extracted with acidified methanol for 24 hours. Filtered extracts were concentrated to dryness and aqueous diluted 1ml of the extracts were analyzed by UV spectrophotometry. A scan from 200-600nm generated characteristic absorption spectra of each extract. Results showed that all the samples had anthocyanins except beetroot extract that had balantins with absorption peaks at 210, 220, 235, 255, 290, 480, 535 and 550nm. Red cabbage had maxima at 225, 240, 255, 290 and 555nm. The maximum absorbances of eggplant were observed at 210, 220, 245, 265 and 290nm while red dodo had maximum absorbances at 205, 215. 240, 250, 290 and 540nm. Red onions had absorbances at 220, 250, 270 and 290nm. Beet root is a rich nutritious source of balantins. Further research to identify and characterize the anthocyanins should be done
... Tamarillo anthocyanin types have been identified, but the number and type of anthocyanin found variety, due to differences in habitat origin and methods. However, the most of the major anthocyanin types are found cyanidin-3rutinoside, delphinidin-3-rutinoside, pelargonidin-3rutinoside and three anthocyanidin types (cyanidin, delphinidin and pelargonidin) 20,21,22,23 . The carotenoids type of Tamarillo is also different, but still the same on major carotenoids types (β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene, zeaxanthin and lutein)19'24. ...
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The aims of the research were to determine the inhibitory potency of the Indonesian Tamarillo crude extracts against the α-glucosidase activity and identify their major anthocyanin and carotenoid content using LC-MS. In vitro assay was used to treat Tamarillo crude extracts which consisted of four levels: (1) Acarbose, positive control; (2) Tamarillo anthocyanin crude extract; (3) Tamarillo carotenoid crude extract; and (4) combination of Tamarillo anthocyanin crude extract and Tamarillo carotenoid crude extract. The results showed that the three crude extracts:the Tamarillo anthocyanin crude extract, the Tamarillo carotenoid crude extract and combination of Tamarillo anthocyanin and carotenoid crude extract could inhibit α-glucosidase activity in 30.59%, 42.14% and 48.08% respectively. All of the Tamarillo crude extract inhibited mixed inhibition (noncompetitive and competitive inhibitor). Identification of the Tamarillo anthocyanin crude extracts showed six major compounds of anthocyanin type and four major compounds of carotenoid type. Three major anthocyanins type (pelargonidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and delphinidin-3-rutinoside) and three major carotenoids type (β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin) were a tentative component of Tamarillo which is thought to play a role in inhibiting α-glucosidase enzyme activity. Tamarillo extract can be alternative to prevent the development of postprandial hyperglycemic in type 2 diabetes.
... These have a noteworthy role in the food habits of certain regions with the wellspring of micronutrients [337]. Perilla, African eggplant, moringa, water dropwort, watercress contain high beta-carotene [338], Basella rubra contain betalains and anthocyanins [339,340], tree tomato is rich in flavonoids such as anthocyanins [341,342] and Chenopodium contains anthocyanidins, carotenoids, and flavonoids [343]. The possible reasons for the low utilization of underutilized vegetables, despite their recognized importance, is due to a lack of awareness on the nutritional and medicinal importance of these crops. ...
Article
Vegetables are essential protective diet ingredients that supply ample amounts of minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fiber, and various nutraceutical compounds for protection against various disease conditions. Color is the most important quality parameter for the farmers to access the harvest maturity while for the consumer's reliable indices to define acceptability or rejection. The colored vegetables contain functional compounds like chlorophylls, carotenoids, betalains, anthocyanins, etc. well recognized for their anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, anti-aging, diuretic, and anti-diabetic properties. Recently, there has been a shift in food consumption patterns from processed to semi-processed or fresh fruits and vegetables to ensure a healthy disease-free life. This shifted the focus of agriculture scientists and food processors from food security to nutrition security. This has resulted in recent improvements to existing crops like blue tomato, orange cauliflower, colored/black carrots, with improved color, and thus enriched bioactive compounds. Exhaustive laboratory trials though are required to document and establish their minimum effective concentrations, bioavailability, and specific health benefits. Efforts should also be directed to breed color-rich cultivars or to improve the existing varieties through conventional and molecular breeding approaches. The present review has been devoted to a better understanding of vegetable colors with specific health benefits and to provide in-hand information about the effect of specific pigment on body organs, the effect of processing on their bioavailability, and recent improvements in colors to ensure a healthy lifestyle.
... Tamarillo is a fruit well known as a good source of hydro-and liposoluble bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and carotenoids, that act as natural colorants and natural antioxidants. Tamarillo is reported to contain three types of anthocyanins and seventeen types of carotenoids [1]. The levels of anthocyanins and carotenoids that were found in tamarillo fruits were 8.5 and 4.4 mg/100 g of fresh weight, respectively. ...
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Hydro- and lipo-soluble bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and carotenoids, in tamarillo juice were microencapsulated using different wall materials, such as maltodextrin (MD), n-octenyl succinic anhydride modified starch, from waxy maize for high load encapsulation (OSA 1), low viscosity gum Arabic alternative (OSA 2), resistant maltodextrin (RMD) and gum Arabic (GA). The wall materials were characterized according to their physicochemical and functional properties, molecular weight distribution and encapsulation efficiency using X-ray diffractometry. The tamarillo powders obtained after spray drying were evaluated for their physicochemical and thermal properties, phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant capacity and storage stability. Although there were significant differences in terms of the encapsulation efficiencies of the wall materials, yield, physical properties and storage stability of the spray dried powders, all of the wall materials successfully encapsulated the hydro- and lipo-soluble bioactive compounds. The viscosity, amorphous region and molecular weight of the wall material had positive influences on the encapsulation efficiency, powder properties and storage stability of the encapsulated tamarillo juice. The storage stability of the powders depended on their water activity, hygroscopicity and glass transition temperature (Tg). The tamarillo powders showed greater anthocyanin and carotenoid degradation in the presence of light at 25 °C compared to the powders stored in the dark at 4 °C. GA and OSA 1 resulted in the highest encapsulation efficiency for both the hydro- and lipo-soluble bioactive compounds, while OSA 1 and MSB showed the greatest storage stability. Reductions in the antioxidant activity, phenolic content and flavonoid content during storage will contribute to the degradation of anthocyanins and carotenoids.
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When avocado fruits are cut and exposed to air, the rate of browning of cv. Fuerte is much higher than that of cv. Lerman. A positive correlation was found between the tendency of the fruit to turn brown, total phenols content and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, but not with o-dihydroxyphenols (ODHP) content. Reasonable separation of the extracted phenols was achieved by TLC chromatography. Of the large number of spots revealed, leucoanthocyanidine, catechin, and simple phenols (specifically caffeic acid) were identified. Other spots were only partially characterized. Similar phenols were identified in the mesocarp extract of both avocado cultivars. Approximation was made of the endogenous level of ODHP that can potentially be oxidized by avocado PPO. Attempts to identify, in the avocado phenol extract, ODHP which can be specifically oxidized by avocado PPO were unsuccessful, although the sensitivity of the technique was within the estimated range of detection.
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Extracts of Marion blackberry, strawberry, and plum fruit were tested for their ability to form a stable foam, induce hemolysis of erythrocytes, and produce colors characteristic of triterpenes or sterols with Liebermann-Buchard reagent. There is strong evidence for the presence of saponins in blackberries as positive reactions were obtained for all tests. Thin-layer chromatography indicates the presence of four saponins in blackberry juice. While strawberries contain compounds that will produce a stable foam, the presence of saponins is not substantiated by other tests. There is no evidence for presence of saponins in plum fruit.
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A systematic procedure for separation and characterization of anthocyanins is described. Separation of pigments was achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a polymer reversed-phase column. Methods for preparation of an anthocyanin isolate free of other interfering phenolics were developed. Photodiode array detection was employed to determine the UV-visible spectral characteristics of the pigments. Derivatives of delphinidin (delphinidin, petunidin, malvidin) can be distinguished from derivatives of cyanidin (cyanidin, peonidin), which in turn can be distinguished from pelargonidin derivatives on the basis of their different UV-visible spectra. Acylation with cinnamic acids and differentiation between 3- and 3,5-glycosidation can also be determined from the UV-visible spectrum. Auxiliary sample preparation techniques useful for pigment characterization included alkaline hydrolysis of the anthocyanins for determination of acylation. Anthocyanins not containing an o-diphenolic system can be enriched on a C18 reversed-phase cartridge by elution with alkaline borate buffer. With a combination of these techniques, peak assignments for the anthocyanins from sources whose anthocyanin composition is known can be readily made.
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The volatile constituents of the tamarillo fruit (Cyphomandra betacea Sendtn.) pulp were obtained by liquid-liquid extraction using pentane–dichloromethane mixture (2:1, v/v). In total, 46 components were identified by HRGC and HRGC-MS analysis. Among them, methyl hexanoate, (E)-hex-2-enal, (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol, eugenol and 4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol were found to be the major constituents. Chirospecific MDGC analysis revealed the presence of racemic mixtures both of butan-2-01 and methyl 3-hydroxybutanoate. For ethyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, methyl 3-hydroxyhexanoate and ethyl 3-hydroxyhexanoate enantiomeric distributions of 68:32%, 73:27%, and 63:37%, each of (S):(R), respectively, were determined. For α-terpineol and 4-terpineol enantiomeric excesses of 76% (S) and 48% (R), respectively, were found.
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Changes in the concentrations and quantities of macro- and micronutrients in fruit from 25 mature tamarillo trees (Cyphomandra betacea cultivar ‘Oratia Red’) were recorded over 2 growing seasons in a commercial orchard.Nutrient concentrations in the fruit (skin, flesh and seeds inclusive) declined throughout the season. For B, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, S and Zn, concentrations declined sharply within the first 8 weeks of growth, then more gradually in the subsequent 12 weeks until harvest. The concentrations of Ca, N and P, on the other hand, tended to decline regularly throughout the growth period. Small differences were noted between concentrations when fruit at equivalent stages of development were compared over both seasons. However the trends in the concentration changes were similar, the only exception being K, where in one season they fluctuated in an irregular manner, whereas in the other there was a regular decline.The quantities of all nutrients in fruit increased throughout the season, the magnitude of the increase diminishing with time. The greatest rate of accumulation of each element occurred during the first 8 weeks of growth. There was no apparent difference in the pattern of B, Mg, K, S or Zn accumulation in either season. For Cu, Fe, Mn, N, P and especially Ca, the patterns were influenced to some extent by season. Lesser amounts of these nutrients accumulated during early growth (first 8 weeks after pollination) in the drier season than in the wetter year. The results are compared with the nutrient accumulation characteristics of fruit of other crops.
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Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) is a sub-tropical fruit with unique flavour and colour, known to be highly nutritious. Tamarillo has nutritional adequacy score of 7.4 (red type) to 7.9 (gold type) and it is a rich source of vitamins A, B6, C, dietary fibre and potassium. Phenolics, carotenoids and anthocyanins are considered as the main bioactive components, with 70 volatile compounds and organic acids that contribute to flavour. Potential health benefits include antioxidant, anti-obesity, anti-cancer and prebiotic properties. Anti-microbial and antifungal activities and proteolytic activity have also been demonstrated. This review summarizes chemical composition and bioactive properties of tamarillo from eight different countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, New Zealand, Malaysia, Panama and Taiwan). Information on carbohydrates, dietary fibre, vitamins, minerals, volatiles, phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of tamarillo are compared based on cultivars and geographical sources. Tamarillo possesses higher antioxidant activity than apples and kiwifruit. Applications of tamarillo as a functional ingredient for health, food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products are also highlighted. Recently reported antimicrobial and antifungal properties make it even more attractive as a functional ingredient to enhance safety and shelf life of foods.
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Anthocyanins are the red, blue and purple pigments responsible for the coloration of many plants. These pigments have been the subject of many studies due to their importance as a quality indicator in foods and as an important chemotaxonomic indicator for plants. Early work with anthocyanins employed paper chromatographic methods. More recently, high-performance liquid chromatography has been widely applied to the study of these pigments. The objective of this paper is to review the chromatographic methods that have been employed in the analysis of anthocyanins with emphasis on the more recent developments in high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of anthocyanins as applied to food quality measurement.
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Cyphomandra betacea ripe fruits can be a source of value-added byproducts and products such as antioxidant supplements, ingredients for food processing or alternative medical products. The aims of the present study were to obtain different preparations of C. betacea fruits, such as juice, decoction, and maceration and to characterize them in terms of microbiological stability, sensorial and chemical parameters, antioxidant potential (DPPH and ABTS*+ radical scavenging, beta-carotene bleaching, nitrite scavenging activities), capacity to prevent oxidative stress-induced cell death, and genotoxicity. The best antioxidant activity was found in C. betacea fruit maceration, probably as a consequence of the high flavonoid and anthocyanin content. Nevertheless, all preparations analyzed proved to be good as free radical scavengers (SC50 values between 1.88 and 44 microg/mL) and exerted protection against beta-carotene oxidation. Total phenolic compounds and flavonoids showed a better correlation than anthocyanins with the free radical scavenging effect of the assayed foods. The insoluble matters (pomace) obtained after juice preparation showed antioxidant activity by quenching free radicals. Furthermore, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) reduction assay showed that C. betacea preparations prevent oxidative stress-induced cell death in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Salmonella microsome assays show no mutagenic effect. The data presented in this study demonstrate that C. betacea ripe fruits, aqueous and ethanolic preparations, and pomace may be a good source of antioxidant compounds in nutraceutical or functional-food products.
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Golden-yellow and purple-red tamarillos (Solanum betaceum Cav.) cultivated in Ecuador were studied for their physical properties, proximate composition, pH, degrees Brix, acidity, sugars, organic acids, minerals, vitamin C and beta-carotene content in the edible part. Results were compared with those for Spanish fruits. The golden-yellow and purple-red Ecuadorian fruits were larger (107 and 188 g) than the respective Spanish fruits (43 and 63 g), softer but generally similar in chemical composition except for fat (0.72 and 0.6%) and malic acid (0.32 and 0.53%) contents in the golden-yellow and purple-red Ecuadorian fruits. Tamarillo fruits are a good source of potassium (approximately 400 mg/100 g fresh weight). Total phenolics in the golden-yellow and purple-red varieties were 125 and 187 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh weight, respectively. The golden-yellow variety had weaker anti-DPPH radical activity than the purple-red variety. Flavonols were only found in the peel of both varieties, while hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were found in peel and pulp.
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Saponins occur widely in plant species and exhibit a range of biological properties, both beneficial and deleterious. This review, which covers the literature to mid 1986, is concerned with their occurrence in plants and their effects when consumed by animals and man. After a short discussion on the nature, occurrence, and biosynthesis of saponins, during which the distinction between steroidal and triterpenoid saponins is made, the structures of saponins which have been identified in a variety of plants used as human foods, animal feedingstuffs, herbs, and flavorings are described. Many of these compounds have been characterized only during the last 2 decades, and modern techniques of isolation, purification, and structural elucidation are discussed. Particular consideration is given to mild chemical and enzymatic methods of hydrolysis and to recent developments in the application of NMR and soft ionization MS techniques to structural elucidation. Methods currently used for the quantitative analysis of saponins, sapogenols, and glycoalkaloids are critically considered; advances in the use of newer methods being emphasized. The levels of saponins in a variety of foods and food plants are discussed in the context of the methods used and factors affecting these levels, including genetic origin, agronomic, and processing variables, are indicated. Critical consideration is given to the biological effects of saponins in food which are very varied and dependent upon both the amount and chemical structure of the individual compounds. The properties considered include membranolytic effects, toxic and fungitoxic effects, adverse effects on animal growth and performance, and the important hypocholesterolemic effect. A final section deals briefly with the pharmacological effects of saponins from ginseng, since use of this plant is increasing in certain sections of western society as well as being traditional in the Orient.
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Acetone extracts from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and violet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) peels both belonging to the Solanaceae plant family were characterized with respect to their anthocyanin profiles, colour qualities and antioxidant capacities. According to HPLC-DAD-MS3 analyses the major anthocyanin in eggplant was delphinidin-3-rutinoside, while the predominant pigment in violet pepper was assigned to delphinidin-3-trans-coumaroylrutinoside-5-glucoside. Since virtually all anthocyanins were delphinidin-based, the effect of acylation and glycosylation patterns on colour stability and antioxidant capacity could be assessed. Application of two in vitro-assays for antioxidant capacity assessment revealed that eggplant generally exhibited higher values compared to violet pepper which was ascribed to 3,5-diglycosylated structures predominating in the latter. The higher extent of acylation in violet pepper was reflected by a more purplish colour shade of the extracts, but did not translate into a higher stability against fading which again was attributed to additional glycosyl substitution at C5. These findings support the relevance of structure-related activities of anthocyanins both for understanding food colour and their particular nutritional value.
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The tamarillo (tree tomato, Cyphomandra betacea Sendt.) flowers and sets fruit over an extended period. Many blossoms and young fruits abscise; survival of tagged fruitlets ranged from 0 to 32%. Tagged fruits were harvested at known ages for measurement of size and shape, respiration rate, ethylene production, and response to ethylene treatment. Fruit growth followed a single sigmoid pattern, and fruits were commercially mature at 21–24 weeks after anthesis. The amount of red skin pigment increased with age from 15 weeks, but harvesting of immature fruits appeared to stop red pigment development. Fruits harvested at 12–19 weeks or younger shrivelled in storage. Respiration studies showed tamarillo fruits to be non-climacteric, and only traces of ethylene were produced until final senescence. Ethylene treatment increased the respiration rate and hastened senescence of harvested fruits of all ages. The yellow strain behaved similarly to the red and had a somewhat longer storage life.
Article
The anthocyanin pigments present in the dark red seeds and reddish-brown peel of the fruit of the tree tomato (Cyphomandra betaceae) were identified. Pelargonidin-3-glucosyl-glucose was detected in both peel and seeds. Two other pigments were present in the seeds, identified as peonidin-3-glucosyl-glucose and malvinidin-3-glucosyl-glucose. All pigments had an identical sugar moiety tentatively identified as maltose. Besides the fact that seeds are not a very common source of anthocyanins, maltose has never been reported in the literature as the disaccharide of these compounds.
Article
The anthocyanin pigments present in the dark red seeds and reddish-brown peel of the fruit of the tree tomato (Cyphomandra betaceae) were identified. Pelargonidin-3-glucosyl-glucose was detected in both peel and seeds. Two other pigments were present in the seeds, identified as peonidin-3-glucosyl-glucose and malvinidin-3-glucosyl-glucose. All pigments had an identical sugar moiety tentatively identified as maltose. Besides the fact that seeds are not a very common source of anthocyanins, maltose has never been reported in the literature as the disaccharide of these compounds.
Article
Adsorption of anthocyanins from red wine distillation wastes was carried out using an insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone resin (Polyclar AT) and a nylon formulation. Comparison of adsorption data which were plotted according to the Freundlich isotherm show that Polyclar is a stronger adsorbent than nylon and that adsorption capacity is higher at lower temperature and concentration. Study of the kinetics shows that adsorption on Polyclar is almost immediate, while adsorption on nylon requires more than 24 hr to reach completion. This is probably due to the slow penetration of the solution into the finely porous structure of nylon. Different operating modes for desorption show that higher yields were obtained with multiple extraction from Polyclar and with batch countercurrent extraction from nylon. In any case desorption from nylon gives higher yields than from Polyclar. Qualitative and quantitative analyses show that both extracts contain, together with monomeric anthocyanins, considerable amounts of simple phenolics and, in the case of nylon, tannins and anthocyanin-tannin copolymers.
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La uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.) es un arbusto tropical de climas medios y fríos, perteneciente a la familia Solanaceae y nativo de Suramérica (se cultiva desde Chile hasta Colombia entre 2000-3500 msnml, su fruta madura es amari lla, dulce y pequeña, similar a un tomate. En Colombia, los cultivos de la fruta se ubican en Cundinamarca, Antioquia, Boyacá y Tolima principalmente y es aprovechada en dulces, mermeladas y como confite de consumo directo. La uchuva es rica en vitamina C y posee propiedades terapéuticas y antidepresivas. En Colombia, la uchuva se empezó a conocer como cultivo comercial desde la década de los ochenta cuando comenzó a tener acogida en los mercados internacionales. Actualmente, Colombia es el mayor productor de uchuva en el mundo, seguido por Sudáfrica (Ministerio de Agricultura, 2002). Dentro de los seis Frutales de Exportación, la uchuva ocupa el primer lugar con el 48% de las exportaciones en términos de valor. Así, éstas alcanzaron en el año 2001 un volumen de 2.361 Tm y un valor de 8.7 millones de dólares FOB, creciendo a una tasa de 25 % en volumen y de 21 % en valor entre 1994 y 2001. En el 2001 dichas exportaciones se dirigieron en su orden a Alemania, Holanda, Reino Unido y Francia, y se han caracterizado por presentar altas tasas de crecimiento, dejando ver que en estos mercados se está expandiendo el consumo de esta fruta. Con base en la importancia comercial de la uchuva y en sus exquisitas características organolépticas, nuestro grupo abordó el estudio del aroma de esta fruta. En este capítulo presentamos la identificación de los compuestos volátiles libres y enlazados del aroma en el fruto de la uchuva, ecotipo Colombia, y además la purificación e identificación de cinco nuevos precursores glicosídicos de volátiles y la evaluación de los mismos como generadores de compuestos caracterizados por su contribución al aroma de la uchuva.
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The volatile constituents of the fruit of Cyphomandra betacea Sendtn. were isolated by vacuum distillation with subsequent extraction of the distillate with dichloromethane. The concentrated extract was analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. Forty-nine components were identified, non-terpenoid alcohols and esters were dominant, accounting for 44.7% and 37.4% of the total volatiles, respectively. The major components were (Z)-3-hexenol (26.6%), ethyl butyrate (14.8%), methyl butyrate (12.0%) and methyl hexanoate (8.6%).
Article
Tree tomato fruits from the yellow giant, giant purple and New Zealand purple cultivars, cultivated in Ecuador were analysed for their phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Twelve hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives and four anthocyanins (in the purple cultivars) were detected and identified. The hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives mostly derived from caffeic acid, being 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid and rosmarinic acid the majority compounds. Furthermore, various rosmarinic acid glucosides, caffeoyl glucoside, feruloyl glucoside and two ferulic acid dehydrodimers were tentatively identified. The presence of rosmarinic acid is particularly relevant as it constituted a majority phenolic compound in the four studied tree tomato cultivars and it had not been reported previously in this fruit. In the purple cultivars main anthocyanins were pelargonidin 3-O-rutinoside and delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside. The New Zealand purple cultivar was by far the richest sample in both hydroxycinnamates (421.6 mg/100 g dry pulp) and anthocyanins (168.9 mg/100 g dry pulp). Antioxidant capacity, as determined by FRAP, ABTS and ORAC assays, followed the same pattern as phenolic contents, with the New Zealand purple cultivar being the one with the highest and the yellow giant cultivar with the lowest values.
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Se obtuvieron fracciones a partir del epicarpio de tomate de árbol (Solanum betaceum Sendtn) y se evaluó su efecto protector contra la oxidación lipídica en carne de res cocida (CRC). Un extracto obtenido a través de extracción supercrítica fue fraccionado empleando, a su vez, extracción en fase sólida; dichas fracciones fueron adicionadas a CRC (concentración 200 mg/kg). El efecto protector fue determinado a través de la comparación de algunos productos de oxidación y el antioxidante sintético terbutil-hidroxiquinona (TBHQ, concentración 200 mg/kg). Cuatro fracciones fueron obtenidas, la fracción de mayor polaridad mostró una alta eficiencia para inhibir la oxidación lipídica en CRC, reduciendo la formación de HPL y TBARS en 100 y 98,5%, respectivamente; mostró una eficiencia superior a la observada para el TBHQ. Esta fracción más activa fue sometida a análisis por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia-detector de arreglo de diodos (HPLC-DAD) y se identificaron algunos compuestos fenólicos: tres catequinas (epigalocatequina, epicatequina y galato de epigalocatequina) y un ácido fenólico (rosmarínico). Los resultados obtenidos permitieron evidenciar que el epicarpio de tomate de árbol es fuente de antioxidantes con efecto protector sobre CRC, alternativa de aprovechamiento y valorización para dicho residuo agroindustrial.
Chapter
Anthocyanins occur widely in plants, being responsible for their blue, purple, violet, magenta, red and orange coloration; while betalains, consisting of red-violet betacyanins and yellow-orange betaxanthins, occur exclusively in families of the order Caryophyllales. The occurrence of these two classes of pigments is mutually exclusive. Their stability is markedly influenced by environmental and processing factors such as pH, temperature, O2, enzymes and condensation reactions. Due to their inherent instability these pigments, and betalains in particular, have not been widely used as food colorants. However, structural variants of the anthocyanins, i.e. polyacylated and copigmented species, have demonstrated remarkable stability and have great potential for use as stable natural colorants. Anthocyanin and betalain preparations can be used to colour a variety of foods and pharmaceuticals with compatible physicochemical properties, yielding highly coloured and high quality products. Their application could be enhanced, however, with new sources and stable structural variants, modification of current processes and foods, and technological advances (e.g. industry-scale extractions/purifications, microbial purifications, biotechnology) that would make purer and more stable preparations available. In this chapter the chemistry and biochemistry of anthocyanins and betalains—their structure and distribution, functions, biosynthesis, factors influencing their stability, methods of extraction and analysis, and current and potential sources and uses—are reviewed.
Chapter
Anthocyanin pigmentation is almost universal in the flowering plants and provides scarlet to blue colours in flowers, fruits, leaves and storage organs. It continues to provide a challenge to plant biochemists because of the intricate chemical variation and the complexity of biosynthesis, metabolism and regulation. The two most important recent advances in the structural characterization of anthocyanin pigments have been the application of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) to their analyses. Both these procedures have proved of value in studying zwitterionic anthocyanins, a relatively new class of acylated anthocyanin recently recognized to be widespread in the plant kingdom (Harborne and Boardley, 1985). These anthocyanins, which are acylated through sugar by such acids as malonic, are labile in solution and when such pigments are isolated using solvents containing mineral acid, they are rapidly degraded to the corresponding unacylated glycoside.
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Product development is a sequential process of finding ideas for new goods and services, to create successful and safe commercial products that provide benefits to consumers and that could be profitably manufactured. This work followed all steps of an Exploratory Development to formulate a yogurt from goat (Capra hircus), flavored with a tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea Sendtn.) marmalade to increase the antioxidant capacity due to its polyphenols and other bioactive components. Starting from a product concept favorably evaluated by a group of consumers, several prototype formulas were developed based on the Venezuelan yogurt standard COVENIN 2393:2001. The selected final formulation was characterized by physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial assays. The results showed compliance with the COVENIN standard. Antioxidant capacity was quantified, by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity assay, before and after addition of the tree tomato marmalade. Results showed that the flavored goat‟ milk yogurt had a 71 % greater antioxidant capacity than the unflavored goat‟ milk yogurt. Therefore, incorporation of tree tomato marmalade to goat‟ milk yogurt increases its antioxidant capacity.
Chapter
Sodium methoxide (NaOMe). Freshly cut metallic sodium (2.5 g) was added cautiously in small portions to dry spectroscopic methanol (100 ml). The solution was stored in a glass container with a tightly fitting plastic stopper.
Article
A procedure is outlined for the isolation of pure anthocyanins and their identification without recourse to comparison with reference glycosides. The isolation involves cellulose and polyamide column chromatography and the identification depends on simple but selective oxidative and hydrolytic reactions, adapted to a microscale using paper chromatography. By this method the anthocyanin pigments present in extracts of black currant fruit have been unequivocally identified as cyanidin and delphinidin, their 3-glucosides and 3-rutinosides.
Article
Quercitrin, chlorogenic acid, and methyl gallate have no measurable effect on the color, spectra, or stability of cyanidin 3-glucoside in aq. solutions at pH 3–6·5. In acetate buffer solutions (pH 5·45) containing aluminum salts, however, quercitrin and chlorogenic acid form highly colored co-ordination complexes with the anthocyanin (anhydro base). The chlorogenic acid complex is blue and insoluble in water. In these properties it distinctly differs from the cerise aluminum chelate of cyanidin 3-glucoside which forms in the absence of chlorogenic acid or other co-pigments. The formation of these co-pigment-aluminum-anthocyanin complexes depends not only on pH but also on the type of organic acids which constitute the buffering system. Thus, complexes do not form in citrate buffers at pH 5·45, since citric acid itself preferentially complexes with the metal and thus makes it unavailable for reaction with the co-pigment and anthocyanin.
Article
The anthocyanin skin pigments of the American grape, Vitis cinerea Engelmann, are shown to be qualitatively identical with the pigments of most Vitis vinifera L. varieties previously investigated. A unique chromatographic solvent system is described which permits greatly improved resolution on a preparative scale of the complex mixture of acylated anthocyanin-3-monoglucosides present in the cinerea skins. Only about 50 per cent of the acylated pigments are esterified with cinnamic acid derivatives (p-coumaric and caffeic acids).
Article
The major pigment in red peel of some apple cultivars was confirmed as cyanidin 3-galactoside and minor pigments identified were cyanidin 3-glucoside, 3-arabinoside and 3-xyloside as well as acylated derivatives of all four glycosides. The minor fractions which were separated by paper chromatography varied in composition according to the methods of extraction and purification. The efficiency of their extraction was increased by the use of sulphur dioxide in the extracting medium (acetone). Possible loose association of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins was indicated, and the instability of the latter during gel filtration with an acid solvent was demonstrated. Minor pigments were negligible in the pears examined. Some further criteria of anthocyanin purity are suggested.
Article
Methods for the quantitative analysis of anthocyanins, leuco-anthocyanins, flavanols and total phenols in plant tissue extracts are critically examined and suitable modifications of existing methods are described.
Article
A rapid and simple procedure for the separation, identification and quantitative analysis of common fruit sugars and non-volatile organic acids has been developed. Acids were precipitated as their lead salts from fruit ethanolic extracts and the sugars in the remaining supernatant and washings were partitioned into aqueous methanol. These preparations with internal standards were dried and converted to their trimethylsilyl derivatives for analysis by gas-liquid chromatography. In model studies, conditions which permitted full recovery of sugars from the lead salts of acids, while minimising the loss of acids, were investigated. For fruit acids reported present in measurable amounts (10 mg/100 g of fruit), replicate analysis of aliquots from the same extract was within ±5% for malonic, phosphoric, succinic, malic, citric, ascorbic and galacturonic acids and within ±12% for quinic acid. The use of the method, its advantages and limitations, in determining individual and total sugars and acids is illustrated on some New Zealand grown fruit (New Zealand grapefruit, mountain pawpaw, tangelo, apricot). Total sugars and total acids determined by this procedure gave comparable results with those obtained by using standard A.O.A.C. procedures.
  • Harborne