SCL-90: An Outpatients Psychiatric Rating Scale—Preliminary Report
Available from: Andria Spyridou
- "The score is calculated by summing across the 12 items, possible scores can range from 0 to 60. Several studies have demonstrated the reliability and validity of the SCL-90-R[68,69]. Cronbach's alpha calculated for the sample of our study was α = .75. "
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Prenatal stress and other prenatal risk factors (e.g. intimate partner violence) have a negative impact on mother's health, fetal development as well as enduring adverse effects on the neuro-cognitive, behavioral and physical health of the child. Mothers of low socio-economic status and especially those living in crime-ridden areas are even more exposed to a host of risk factors. Societies of extreme violence, poverty and inequalities, often present difficulties to provide adequate mental health care to the most needed populations. The KINDEX, a brief standardized instrument that assesses 11 different risk factors was used by midwives to identify pregnant women at-risk, in a suburban area with one of the highest levels of domestic violence in Lima. The instrument was designed to be used by medical staff to identify high-risk child-bearing women and, based on the results, to refer them to the adequate psychological or social support providers. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of psychosocial screening using the KINDEX in a Latin American Country for the first time, and to explore the relationship of the KINDEX with thee major risk areas, maternal psychopathology, perceived stress and traumatic experiences.
The study was conducted in cooperation with the gynecological department of a general hospital in a suburban area of Lima. Nine midwives conducted interviews using the KINDEX of ninety-five pregnant women attending the gynecological unit of the hospital. From these, forty pregnant women were re-interviewed by a clinical psychologist using established instruments in order to assess the feasibility of the prenatal assessment in public health settings and the relationship of the KINDEX with maternal perceived stress, psychopathology symptoms and trauma load during pregnancy.
We found high rates of risk factors in the examined pregnant women comparable with those found in the general population. Significant correlations were found between the KINDEX sum score and the three risks areas, stress, psychopathology and trauma load as assessed in the Clinical Expert interviews. The different risks assessed by the KINDEX are related to higher levels of stress, psychopathology and trauma load, depending on the risk.
The relationship between past adverse experience and current stressors with perceived maternal stress, psychopathology symptoms and traumatic experiences confirm the importance of prenatal assessment for psychosocial risks. The use of KINDEX by midwives providing obstetrical care to pregnant women in urban Peru is feasible and can be used to identify high-risk women and refer them to the adequate mental health or social services for necessary attention and support. Early interventions are essential to mitigating the adverse effects of maternal stress, trauma and psychopathology on the fetus and child.
- "As already observed in AN, even in BED patients it can be hypothesized by a relevant role of BMI modification in determining the sexual dysfunction. Obesity has been demonstrated to affect several aspects of sexual function- ing[11,183184185186, and the weight loss following bariatric surgery has been reported to be correlated with a significant improvement in hormonal profiles as well as sexual functioning in both men[187,188]and women[65,189]. The impaired sexuality in obese subjects can be due to the psychological consequences of obesity as well as to the organic conditions associated with metabolic syndrome. "
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ABSTRACT: The scientific community appears to be less interested in sexuality of eating disorders (EDs) as compared to other psychiatric or medical comorbidities. However, a clear association between sexual problems and ED psychopathology was reported from different perspectives. The overarching goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the general approach of the scientific literature toward the topic of sexuality and EDs. In particular, four different categories of research have been individuated, encompassing the role of puberty, and sexual abuse in the pathogenesis of the disorders, sexual dysfunctions, and the association between sexual orientation and EDs psychopathology. Timing of puberty with its hormonal consequences and the changes in the way persons perceive their own body represent a crucial period of life for the onset of the disorder. Sexual abuse, and especially childhood sexual abuse are well-recognized risk factors for the development of ED, determining a worse long-term outcome. Recent research overcome the approach that considers sexual activity of EDs patients, in terms of hypersexuality and dangerous sexual behaviors, considering the sexuality of EDs persons in terms of sexual desire, satisfaction, orgasm and pain. Results from this line of research are promising, and describe a clear relationship between sexual dysfunction and the core psychopathological features of EDs, such as body image disturbances. Finally, the analysis of the literature showed an association between sexual orientation and gender dysphoria with EDs psychopathology and pathological eating behaviors, confirming the validity of research developing new models of maintaining factors of EDs related to the topic of self-identity.
Available from: Piergiuseppe Vinai
- "All of the participants underwent an initial baseline assessment that included collection of clinical, dietary, and psychological parameters. The Symptoms Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), a self-report checklist inquiring about symptoms during the preceding week, was used as a measure of general psychopathology (Derogatis et al. 1973). Depressive symptoms and eating behaviors were determined using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) (Beck et al. 1961) and the Binge Eating Scale (BES) (Gormally et al. 1982), respectively . "
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The aim of this nested case-control study was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for treatment-resistant obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) women compared with standard dietary treatment. The main outcome measures were attrition and weight loss success.
We designed a 6-month case-control study, nested within a cohort of adult (age ≥18 years) treatment-resistant (history of at least two previous diet attempts) obese women. Cases were 20 women who were offered CBT sessions. Controls (n=39) were randomly selected from the source population and matched to cases in terms of baseline age, BMI, and number of previous diet attempts.
Compared with controls, cases were significantly more likely to complete the 6-month program in both age-adjusted (odds ratio [OR]=2.94, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.05-8.97) and multivariate-adjusted (OR=2.77, 95% CI=1.02-8.34) analyses. In contrast, cases were not more likely to achieve weight loss success in age-adjusted (OR=1.32, 95% CI=0.86-1.67) and multivariate-adjusted (OR=1.21, 95% CI=0.91-1.44) analyses.
Compared with a standard dietary treatment, CBT was significantly more effective in reducing attrition in treatment-resistant obese women, without differences in terms of weight loss success.
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