Article

Factors Affecting Flowering of Coffee

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Abstract

Two distinct processes should be considered when studying the relation between environmental factors and the flowering of coffee: flower-bud initiation and flower opening or anthesis. These two processes are controlled by different environmental factors. With most coffee varieties, it has been experimentally demonstrated that flower-bud initiation is a typical response to short days (10,19), one exception being the variety semperflorens which produces flower buds under any photoperiodic condition (22). Anthesis, on the other hand, depends primarily on rainfall distribution and appears to be a response to rain following a period of moisture stress (3). This chapter will review the present knowledge concerning the external and internal factors controlling flower opening, or the transition from dormancy to bud break.

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... Literatura sobre fenologia de coqueiro foi encontrada em esparsas pesquisas abordando dados genéricos de algumas de suas fenofases sendo, estes trabalhos, direcionados à biologia floral (Alvim, 1966), à ecofisiologia (Murray, 1942), à fitotecnia (Queiroz et al., 1990), à taxonomia (Reitz, 1974) e à botânica econômica (Siqueira et al., 1992). ...
... Constatou-se caducifloria tanto na estação seca quanto na chuvosa. Evidenciou-se, ainda, que após o primeiro pico de caducifloria houve aumento na floração, resultado, este, semelhante ao de estudo de Alvim (1966). Além disso, a interação entre fatores abióticos e bióticos podem, também, influenciar na floração (Alvim, 1966) e na relação planta-polinizadores-dispersores. ...
... Evidenciou-se, ainda, que após o primeiro pico de caducifloria houve aumento na floração, resultado, este, semelhante ao de estudo de Alvim (1966). Além disso, a interação entre fatores abióticos e bióticos podem, também, influenciar na floração (Alvim, 1966) e na relação planta-polinizadores-dispersores. ...
Article
The objective of the present work was to study the phenology of two coconut palm cultivars (yellow dwarf, green dwarf) and a hybrid (PB 121). The study was conducted at the Itapirema Research Unit, Goiana, PE, Brazil. Weekly observations were taken from the vegetative and reproductive phases of five plants of each one of the cultivars studied, during the period of January/96 through January/97. Data on the water balance were used to associate phenology and local water availability. The amount of degrees-day varied between 266 degrees-day, during the rainy season, and 350 degrees-day, during the dry season. The predominant quadrant for the emission of the inflorescence as well as for the wind direction was determined. Also the indexes of flower fecundity and fruit production were established. The species studied is perennial. All three cultivars produced around 11 leaves yearly. Dead leaves were verified during the whole experiment period. Flowering occurred during the whole year. The plants produced one inflorescence/month, occasionally two (yellow dwarf, hybrid), during the dry period. The cultivars produced the same number of inflorescences, but not the same in development. The flowering is cornucopia type. Fruits under different development stages were observed in a same specimen and cluster. The wind direction, as well as the quadrant of inflorescence position established were predominantly Southeastern. There were significant differences among the treatments.
... Flower buds have been studied in detail by Moens (1963, 1965). Flower primordia are thought to originate in the node of the branch tip at the time when newly formed leaves separate from the terminal bud (Alvim 1973). ...
... Trees that never experience drying conditions have flower buds that do not open or develop abnormal flowers (Piringer and Borthwick 1955, Pagacz 1959, van der Veen 1968, Alvim 1973, Humphrey and Ballantine 1974). Alvim (1960) suggested the term "hydroperiodism" to describe plants that require water stress to break dormancy under tropical conditions. ...
... Plants growing in a nutrient solution in Brazil (Franco 1940), and regularly watered plants in the field in Nigeria (Rees 1964) and in the greenhouse in Costa Rica (Alvim 1973) flowered following rains at the same time as coffee in surrounding fields. Alvim (1960), however, suggested that high transpiration rates can cause moisture stress even in irrigated trees or plants growing in nutrient solution. ...
Article
Typescript (photocopy). Thesis (Ph. D.)--Oregon State University, 1991. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 118-126).
... In coffee, seed production is typically characterized by asynchronous flowering and fruit development. Anthesis in arabica coffee can occur on a single day or during a few days, with one or more flowerings within a single reproductive period (Wormer, 1964; Alvim, 1973). Each flowering period lasts only 2 or 3 days and is followed by intense vegetative development. ...
... Imbibed coffee embryo isolated after 7 days of imbibition in water, showing the cotyledons, the embryonic axis and remnants of the suspensor at the radicle tip. tropics, such as in Peru, Brazil, Kenya and India (Wormer, 1964; Ramaiah and Vasudeva, 1969; Alvim, 1973; Maestri and Barros, 1977; Estanislau, 2002; De Castro et al., 2004). The initial expansion of the fruit is due to the growth of the transient perisperm that is originated from the maternal nucellus tissue (Wormer, 1964; Ramaiah and Vasudeva, 1969). ...
Article
Full-text available
Coffee is a member of the Rubiaceae family and the genus Coffea. There are more than 70 species of coffee but only two are economically important: Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre; 70 % of the coffee traded in the world is arabica and 30 % is robusta (C. canephora). Other species such as C. congensis, C. dewevrei and C. racemosa have some interesting genetic characteristics, including resistance to pests and diseases and are used in breeding programs. To satisfy the demand for coffee within Brazil and around the world, intensive breeding programs have been undertaken to create new cultivars which are resistant to diseases and insects, and to incorporate new traits of value. In addition, new production and processing technologies are introduced every year, which have led to an enormous improvement in coffee production. Although progress has been made, not many studies have been devoted to the improvement of coffee seed quality for propagation. The purpose of this paper is to review our understanding of coffee seed physiology. Most of the work published in the literature and reported in this paper is on C. arabica seeds, although some aspects of C. canephora seed physiology are also included. Knowledge of seed physiology of other Coffea species is poor, with the exception of storage physiology, which is mostly related to germplasm conservation. Although this review will discuss some aspects of seed development and morphology, germination and storage physiology, the focus will be on germinability, and desiccation tolerance, with emphasis on the conservation of genetic resources
... Studies on the influence of season on flowering pattern of cocoa (T. cacao) in various cocoa growing countries showed that flower production is primarily controlled, either directly or indirectly by climatic factors (Alvim, 1984;Mohr and Schopfer, 1994). It has, however, been observed that excessively dry or relatively cold periods may completely inhibit flowering in regions where seasonal variability in rainfall and temperature persist (Alvim 1966;Asomaning et al., 1971). ...
... It has, however, been observed that excessively dry or relatively cold periods may completely inhibit flowering in regions where seasonal variability in rainfall and temperature persist (Alvim 1966;Asomaning et al., 1971). An adult cocoa plant can produce several thousand flowers per year, sometimes more than 50,000 of which only a small proportion (usually less than 5 per cent) are pollinated and an even smaller proportion (0.5 -2.0 per cent) (Alvim, 1984) produce fruit set. Alvim (1966) reported that environmental factors such as rainfall and temperature had significant effects on flowering and subsequent pod setting. ...
Article
Full-text available
Production of non-functional pollen by plant reduces effectiveness of pollination. A study was carried out at Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan to determine the influence of rainfall and temperature on flowering intensity of selected clones of Upper Amazon cocoa ( Theobroma cacao ), as well as its pollen fertility. Eight clones of T. cacao used were T17/11, T7/12, T12/5, T86/45, C23, C64, C77 and Pa 24. The number of flowers at varying locations was recorded. The anthers were squashed in acetocarmine, and examined under the microscope to determine pollen fertility of each clone. The result showed that flowering intensity was regulated by rainfall and temperature and varied among the eight clones studied. The number of flowers produced by the various clones ranged from 128 for clone C23, to 415 for clone T86/45 in both January and May. The number of flowers produced on the ventral surface (V) of the clones was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that from the dorsal region. More pods per cushion would be produced if more of the flowers produced at the dorsal (lower or abaxial) region were pollinated by pollinators in the seed garden. Clone T86/45 had the highest pollen viability (92.11%), while clone T12/5 recorded the lowest pollen viability ( 81.06%).
... In the present study, number of flowers produced per plant was maximum during monsoon in CCRP 1, CCRP 4, CCRP 7, CCRP 8, CCRP 9 and CCRP 10 and in rest of the varieties flower production was in peak during post monsoon season.These results are in accordance with Omolaja et al., (2009) half less than that of other seasons. According to Alvim (1966) and Asomaning et al., (1971) flowering in cocoa is mainly affected by temperature and rainfall, flower production may completely inhibit if the condition is extreme dry or cold. The unfavourable weather condition prevailing in summer season may be the reason for reduction in number of flowers produced.Yield was maximum during summer irrespective of variety. ...
... Cocoa produces flowers that are pale-yellow in colour with five petals and sepals each. Branches have short petioles and slightly asymmetrical, these petioles have swellings at their ends which makes them orient for light availability (Alvim, 1984). The pods of the cocoa plant can be in varying colours; greenish white, yellow, purple or reddish depending on the particular variety (Thompson et al., 2007). ...
... (Mendes, 1941) En el café, la producción de semilla se caracteriza típicamente por una floración y desarrollo de frutos asincrónicos. En café Arábica, la antesis puede ocurrir en un solo día o durante varios días, con una o más floraciones en un solo periodo reproductivo (Wormer 1964, Alvim 1973. Cada período de floración dura sólo 2 o 3 días y es seguido por un intenso desarrollo vegetativo. ...
... In coffee, seed production is typically characterized by growth /phonological/ stage from flowering up to fruit development. Anthesis in Arabica coffee can occur on a single day or during a few days, with one or more flowerings within a single reproductive period (Wormer, 1964;Alvim, 1973). Each flowering period lasts only 2 or 3 days and is followed by intense vegetative development. ...
Article
Full-text available
Coffee pea berry is a unique feature of coffee seed as the result of the berry producing a single bean instead of the normal two during fertilization at the field. This might happen due to three major factors i.e. failure in one of the two ovules in the ovary to be fertilized and set seed, failure in the further development of the endosperm and incompatibility of the two parents during pollination. Different coffee seed sources, types and stages were evaluated and compared with pea berries for germination and seedling growth and field performance of seedlings produced from pea berries. For most Ethiopian known coffee varieties, the potential occurrence of pea berry was also recorded for two consecutive seasons at the Jimma National Coffee Research Center with the objectives to evaluate coffee pea berry as a potential seed source and see variability among Arabica coffee varieties in terms of producing pea berries. The relevant data were statistically analyzed and treatments means were compared using SAS software. The results depicted that there was no significant variations between pea berries and normal bean with regard to germination, emergence and subsequent growth of the seedlings and yield potential yield performance under field conditions. Significant variations were observed among pre-sowing seed treatments for the parameters considered at early stage. Likewise, the coffee varieties were found to significantly differ in producing pea berry proportion with a mean value of 7% for pure lines and 16% for hybrid variety. In general, the hybrid coffee variety showed two fold higher than the pure line coffee varieties. Pea berry may not be predominantly a heritable character, because seeds produced from coffee trees raised from pea berries will not develop all in to pea berries.
... No direct relationship was recorded between B. thalassina numbers and temperature. However, temperature may have an indirect effect on the bug population since flowering and pod development on cocoa is influenced by temperature (Alvim, 1966, Sale, 1968, Daymond and Hadley, 2008. As B. thalassina are strict pod feeders, factors that influence the availability of pods would be expected to then impact on their numbers (Owusu-Manu, 1981). ...
Conference Paper
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In Ghana, insecticides are mainly used to control mirids the most important insect pest on cocoa. However, recent field observations show that Bathycoelia thalassina has also become a key pest. The present study was conducted to assess the current distribution and damage levels of B. thalassina with a view to developing an appropriate strategy for their control. Pest assessment involved visually inspecting B. thalassina inhabiting sites on cocoa trees to hand-height and recording their numbers between the hours of 6:30am and 9:00am. Immature but ripened pods, occasionally deformed were characterized as B. thalassina damaged pods. Ten farmers' farms were selected in each of Ashanti and Eastern regions of Ghana between January 2012 and April 2013. Three experimental plots at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) were also observed from September 2014 to September 2016. B. thalassina was present throughout the year in both the farmers' and CRIG plots. Peak population and damage occurred in April to June and again in September. Incidence of B. thalassina on hybrid cocoa was significantly higher than on the traditional Amelonado variety on some farmers' farms (p<0.01). The occurrence of the pest all year round might partly be explained by the presence of pods on hybrid varieties throughout the year given that B. thalassina are pod feeders. A significant positive relationship was observed between rainfall and number of B. thalassina per tree (r 2 =0.35, p=0.001). High B. thalassina numbers and symptoms of their damage on pods between April and June suggest that the current recommendations for the spraying of insecticides on cocoa need revision and should include treatments in the first half of the year. Regular monitoring of pest numbers would also enable a more targeted pest control.
... The rainfall pattern must include a few months of low or no rain for coffee flowering induction (Alvim 1973;Alvim 1977;Barros et al. 1978;Wrigley 1988). The optimal range for annual rainfall is between 1400 to 2000 mm. ...
... The rainfall pattern must include a few months of low or no rain for coffee flowering induction (Alvim 1973;Alvim 1977;Barros et al. 1978;Wrigley 1988). The optimal range for annual rainfall is between 1400 to 2000 mm. ...
Thesis
Under suboptimal site condition for arabica coffee cultivation the shade trees increase the coffee production due to an enhancement of the microclimate and the soil fertility. Under optimal site conditions, the use of shade are more controversial, nevertheless the agroforestry systems (AFS) provide others services as the reduction of erosion and the diversification of production. The present study compare in optimal site conditions in Costa Rica a coffee monoculture (MC) and AFS with Inga densiflora Benth in terms of microclimate, productivity and water balance. In reference to MC, the shade trees reduced the global radiation between 40% to 50%, the maximal coffee leaf temperature to 6°C, the leaf to air VPD during the day and increased the leaf temperature in 0.5°C during night. According to the year of measurement, the trees increased the rainfall interception (12% to 85%) and the total system transpiration (29% to 33%), at the same time trees reduced the runoff (50%) and the drainage (1% to 14%). The trees reduced the throughfall, increased the stemflow and contributed 40% to 50% to the total transpiration of the AFS reducing the coffee transpiration in the AFS. Furthermore, higher reductions in the AFS compared to MC in soil water in deeper soil layers indicate a complementarity interaction in the use of water between coffee and trees. Despite the absence of water competition under these site conditions, the coffee yield was reduced by 29% in the AFS in comparison to the MC, due to a reduction in the radiation and flowering intensity. In other hand, the total aerial biomass was 3 times in the AFS compared to MC, contributing to carbon sequestration and renewable energy.
... Cocoa trees flush more vigorously under high radiation (Asomaning et al., 1971;Gerritsma, 1995) and produce more flowers (Asomaning et al., 1971). According to Alvim (1966, in Asomaning et al., 1971, flowering is reduced by a period of low radiation. Cherelle wilt is reduced under full sun, which leads to a larger number of pods reaching maturity. ...
Chapter
Cocoa is an important global commodity. It is mostly grown on small farms by millions of cocoa farmers who depend on the crop for their livelihood. Although potential yields exceed 6000 kg/ha, average farm yields are often around 400 kg/ha. Among the production constraints met by farmers is nutrient limitation. In this review, we compile current knowledge on nutrient cycling in cocoa production systems, nutrient requirements of cocoa, and yield response to fertilizer application in relation to factors such as management, climatic, and soil conditions. Large amounts of nutrients are cycled within cocoa systems, mostly through 5–10 t/ha/yr litter fall. Still, harvesting and small nutrient losses such as leaching lead to nutrient exports causing gradual soil nutrient depletion. Exact nutrient requirements of cocoa are unknown. Leaf and soil test interpretation to identify additional nutrient needs remain ambiguous. Recommended nutrient application rates vary more than 10-fold. In several trials fertilizer application more than doubled cocoa productivity; in other cases response is minimal. Differences in response between regions, fields and even trees have yet to be explained. Interactions with agroecology and management (especially shade) are poorly understood. Without this fundamental knowledge, farm level recommendations have a weak scientific base. Different types of research are recommended to complement current knowledge. Existing data and trials can be exploited through additional analysis and more detailed measurements. Cocoa farms are highly diverse and on-farm trials offer opportunities for understanding variability in production and fertilizer response. Finally, multifactorial shade–fertilizer response trials will be essential to address some of the fundamental knowledge gaps.
... La planta de café se comporta como una planta de día neutro. De acuerdo con la ubicación geográfica de la plantación, donde la duración de las horas de luz son menores a 13,7 horas, los efectos reguladores de la insolación sobre la inducción floral carecería de importancia, ello coincide con Cannell (1971) y Alvim (1973), quienes consideran que en regiones cercanas al Ecuador la inducción floral y la floración están reguladas únicamente por la distribución de las lluvias, y mientras más alejado del Ecuador, el cafeto se comporta como una planta de día corto y más importancia tienen las horas de luz en combinación con la distribución de las precipitaciones. La escasa influencia de la insolación en la inducción floral y el efecto de otros factores climáticos aquí evaluados es manifestado por Barros et al. (1997), cuando exponen que el proceso de inducción floral se inicia debido a una reducción de la temperatura ambiental y la lluvia. ...
Article
Full-text available
With the objective to describe the phenological stages of flowering of the coffee using the extended scale BBCH, used plants of Coffea arabica L. , var. Catuai Rojo 10 years of age, planted at 1.0 x 1.5 m., to free growth under conditions of bleak, provided by Bucare trees (Eryhrina glauca Willd) to a distance of 14 x 14 m. Randomly in the experimental area was 30 plants were selected and coffee and in its middle third is marked plagiotropicas four branches, two directed in this direction and two in a westerly direction, for a total of 120 branches. Observations were made at intervals of three days during the period February to May of 2008. In accordance with the results obtained were identified six phenological stages of flowering; 51-buds swollen, 53-buds floral buttons visible or undifferentiated, 57-buds pinched or buttons in floral development, 58-buttons differentiated or floral in latency, 59-buttons in floral anthesis and > 60-buttons in floral anthesis or opening. The period from the appearance of swelling of the axilla floral to flowering had duration of 88.2 days. Is attributed to water stress the responsibility on the occurrence of the phenological stage of floral induction. The breakdown of the latency is due to the rains that occurred at the end of the month of April with a cumulative record of 57.20 mm.
... richardii J.-F. Leroy) après la pluie déclencheuse et dure de 24h à 48h selon les espèces, l'intensité de la pluie et la température (Alvim, 1973;Charrier, 1976). ...
Article
Coffea arabica var Laurina (Bourbon pointu, BP), is a natural mutant of C. arabica ‘Bourbon’ (B). The laurina mutation is recessive, monolocus and Mendelian, with pleiotropic effects. This work highlighted new effects of this mutation, with histological, morphological and biochemical approaches on seeds development and on seedlings. Simultaneous fitting of growth curves of B and BP and their standardization allow comparisons of these varieties and fine study of polysaccharide cell wall (PCW) composition over time. Thus, anatomic specificities, development stages (st) and fruit age were linked (growth: st 1-2 to 4; maturation: st 5 to 7). When taking in account the CWP evolution in time-course, three phases occurred: φ 1 (st 1-2, 3), φ 2 (st 3, 4 and the beginning of 5), and φ 3 (the end of 5, st 6, 7). The two first were affected by the mutation probably through maternal effect (perisperm). In seedlings, the hypocotyls semi-dwarfism in light growth condition is an effect of the mutation and was due to a lower cell number than in B. The phytohormones content was also affected (ABA, auxine, cytokinins). But, neither CWP composition nor chlorogenics acids (CQA) content were affected by the mutation, or growth condition (expected for CQA content in roots). The composition in CWP and CQA was different depending on organs. Finally, caffeine (CAF) content was affected by the mutation in light or darkness conditions. These results represent an important step in 1/ the characterization of the pleiotropic effects of the laurina mutation, 2/ the understanding of the CWP evolution in seed time course, and 3/ new knowledge on seedlings (hormone, CAF, CQA and CWP composition).
... Flower buds are then released from dormancy, undergo a rapid expansion during 8-10 days, changing colour from pale-yellow to white. This last growth phase will end with the opening of the flowers (anthesis), resulting in massive flushes of blossoming (Alvim, 1973;Cannell, 1985). Depending on the prevailing dry season, two to five blossoming events will occur per flowering season, leading to sequential ripening events and differentiated pickings. ...
Research
Full-text available
Espresso Coffee (2005) Illy A and Viani R, eds. Chapter 2 THE PLANT by F. Anzueto, T.W. Baumann, G. Graziosi, C.R. Piccin, M.R. Söndahl and H.A.M. van der Vossen, p. 21–86, Elsevier; see also http://wiki.triestecoffeecluster.com/index.php?title=Main_Page
... Pada sejumlah spesies keberhasilan berbunga pada tahun tertentu berkaitan dengan waktu perkembangan tunas sebelum periode inisiasi bunga. Pada tanaman kakao, penelitian pengaruh musim terhadap pola pembungaan kakao yang dilakukan di sejumlah negara produsen menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan bunga dan buah dipengaruhi oleh faktor-faktor iklim (Alvim, 1984;Mohr & Schopfer, 1994). Kondisi kering berkepanjangan atau cuaca dingin, menghambat pertumbuhan bunga, sebaliknya curah hujan dan suhu yang hangat memacu pembungaan dan pembuahan kakao (Alvim 1966;Asomaning et al., 1971). ...
Article
Full-text available
Monthly observation of cocoa flushing, number of cherelle wilt (CW), number of small, medium and large pods of 6 clones was conducted for two years to study its dynamics for one year. A study was conducted in Kaliwining Experimental Station, 45 m asl. and D rainfall type (according to Schmidt & Ferguson), using ICS 13, ICS 60, TSH 858, Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2 and KW 165 clones of 8 years old. Each clone was planted intermittently in separate rows, replicated 6 rows. Correlation and regression analysis were done between variables and with rainfall data. The parallel research was conducted in the similar station to assess the accuracy of production estimation method by identify percentage of small pods (length 1—10 cm), medium (11—15 cm) and large pods (>15 cm) to grow until harvested. The study used 15th years old trees of Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2, KW 165, KKM 22, ICS 13 and DR 2 clones. Each clones was replicated 5 times. The result showed that intensive flushing (>50%) occured during January, March, September and November meanwhile no flushing during December and February. Correlation between rainfall and flushing was positive (r=0.27). Effect of clones on flushing frequency was similar but for flushing intensity was significant. KW 165 tended to be the lowest but TSH 858 tend to be the highest. CW occured for a year-round but the height level during May and June. Effect of clones was significant, KW 165 showed highest followed by Sulawesi 2. CW level showed positive correlation with number of medium (r=0.71) and big pods (r=0.55), except showed negative correlation with flushing intensity (r=-0.37) and rainfall (r=-0.51). High pod setting happened during May to November and low pod setting during December to March. In this aspect effect of clones were significant, the productive clones were Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2 and KW 165, but ICS 60 was the less. CW level during 1st semester was lower than at 2nd semester and clone effect was significant. The opportunity of small, medium and big pods to be harvested was similar among both semester. The opportunity of small, medium and big pods to be harvested were 8—56%; 57—83% and 77—96% respectively depend on the clones. In average, those opportunities were 27%, 72%, and 87% for small, medium and big pods respectively.Key words: flushing, cherelle wilt, pod setting, clones, yield prediction
... La planta de café se comporta como una planta de día neutro. De acuerdo con la ubicación geográfica de la plantación, donde la duración de las horas de luz son menores a 13,7 horas, los efectos reguladores de la insolación sobre la inducción floral carecería de importancia, ello coincide con Cannell (1971) y Alvim (1973), quienes consideran que en regiones cercanas al Ecuador la inducción floral y la floración están reguladas únicamente por la distribución de las lluvias, y mientras más alejado del Ecuador, el cafeto se comporta como una planta de día corto y más importancia tienen las horas de luz en combinación con la distribución de las precipitaciones. La escasa influencia de la insolación en la inducción floral y el efecto de otros factores climáticos aquí evaluados es manifestado por Barros et al. (1997), cuando exponen que el proceso de inducción floral se inicia debido a una reducción de la temperatura ambiental y la lluvia. ...
Article
Full-text available
With the objective to describe the phenological stages offlowering of the coffee using the extended scale BBCH, used plants of Coffea arabica L., var. Catuai Rojo 10 years of age, planted at 1.0 x 1.5 m., to free growth under conditions of bleak, provided by Bucare trees (Eryhrina glauca Willd) to a distance of 14 x 14 m. Randomly in the experimental area was 30 plants were selected and coffee and in its middle third is marked plagiotropicas four branches, two directed in this direction and two in a westerly direction,for a total of 120 branches. Observations were made at intervals of three days during the period February to May of2008. In accordance with the results obtained were identified six phenological stages offlowering; 51-buds swollen, 53-buds floral buttons visible or undifferentiated, 57-buds pinched or buttons in floral development, 58-buttons differentiated orfloral in latency, 59-buttons in floral anthesis and > 60-buttons in floral anthesis or opening. The period from the appearance of swelling of the axilla floral to flowering had duration of 88.2 days. Is attributed to water stress the responsibility on the occurrence of the phenological stage offloral induction. The breakdown of the latency is due to the rains that occurred at the end of the month of April with a cumulative record of 57.20 mm.
... Considerando que el café es una planta del tipo C3 y que sus hojas se saturan a bajas intensidades de radiación (32, 53), el régimen de radiación solar presente en la zona se estima que es suficiente para el proceso fotosintético y no es limitante para la producción. La longitud del día (fotoperíodo) próxima a las 12 horas y su poca variación a lo largo del año se puede calificar de corta y favorable para mantener condiciones continuas de diferenciación floral (2). Esta última característica permite que el café pueda florecer a esta latitud a través de todo el año, pero las máximas concentraciones de las floraciones (antesis) están regidas por la distribución de la lluvia, de manera que los períodos secos bien definidos son los más apropiados para promoverlas en buena magnitud. ...
Article
J.V. El clima en la Sede Principal del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones de Café, Chinchiná, Caldas. Cenicafé 54(2):110-133. 2003 Se estudiaron los diferentes elementos del clima en la Sede Principal del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones de Café, Cenicafé, ubicada en Chinchiná, Caldas, Colombia a 05° 00' N, 76° 36' W y una altitud de 1.310m. La lluvia media anual es de 2.510mm repartidos en dos temporadas (abril-mayo; octubre-noviembre). El régimen es predominantemente nocturno y en este período cae cerca del 70% del total de lluvia. Se registraron 240 días con lluvia ≥0,1mm y 118 días con cantidades ≥5,0 mm. La temperatura media anual es de 21,0°C con una variación estacional inferior a 2,0°C, pero importantes fluctuaciones diarias, alrededor de 17,0°C. Las temperaturas extremas medias anuales alcanzan 16,7 y 27,5°C. El brillo solar totaliza 1.842 horas al año y la radiación solar 4.582 Wh/m2/día y en ambos casos, ocurren por debajo de la mitad del máximo posible indicando alta nubosidad en el área. El fotoperíodo fluctúa alrededor de las 12 horas y la diferencia entre el día más largo (22 de junio) y el más corto (22 de diciembre) es de solo 35 minutos, lo cual facilita condiciones de diferenciación floral permanentes y hace que la concentración de las floraciones esté regida por la distribución de la lluvia. La humedad relativa media anual es de 77%. En la noche se alcanzan invariablemente condiciones de saturación (superior a 95%), mientras que en días soleados puede bajar hasta un 35%. ABSTRACT The different climate elements at the headquarter of the National Center of Coffee Research, Cenicafé, located in Chinchiná, Caldas, Colombia at 05° 00' N, 76° 36' W and an altitude of 1,310m were studied. The yearly average rainfall is 2,510mm distributed into two seasons (April-May; October-November). The regime is predominantly at night and about 70% of the totality of rain falls during this period. 240 rainy days with ≥ 0,1mm and 118 days with ≥5.0 mm were registered. The average yearly temperature is 21.0°C with a season variation under 2.0°C but with important daily fluctuations around 17.0°C. The extreme average yearly temperatures reach 16,7 and 27,5°C. The sunshine totalizes 1,842 hours a day and the solar radiation 4,582 Wh/m2/day and in both cases they occur under half the possible maximum indicating high cloudiness in the area. The photoperiod fluctuates around the 12 hours and the difference between the longest day (june 22nd) and the shortest one (december 22nd) is only 35 minutes, which facilitates the permanent floral differentiation conditions and makes the blooming concentrations be controlled by the rain distribution. The yearly average relative humidity is 77%. At night the saturation conditions (over 95%) are invariably reached whereas during sunny days they can descend to 35%.
... Flower production is primarily controlled, either directly or indirectly by climatic factors (Alvim 1966;Mohr and Schopfer 1994). Omolaja et al. (2009) showed that flowering intensity was regulated by temperature and rainfall and varied across different T. cacao clones. ...
Article
Perennial horticultural crop production is sensitive to temperature, water availability, solar radiation, air pollution, and CO2. The value of perennial horticultural crops is derived from not only the quantity but also the quality of the harvested product. Perennial crop production is not easily moved as the climatic nature of a region changes due to many socio-economic factors including long reestablishment periods, nearness to processing plants, availability of labor, and accessible markets. Two deciduous temperate fruit crops (apple and grape), two evergreen subtropical crops (citrus and coffee), and two tropical crops (bananaplantain and cacao) were selected as representative case studies. We evaluated the literature affecting the production of these crops to provide an overview of the potential impacts of climate change. The literature survey identified limiting factors and provide information in assessing future climate change impacts. Although lack of data precludes a comprehensive assessment of CO2 responses and interactions with other abiotic (and biotic) factors for most of the crops analyzed, the response of these crops to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 is evaluated. The CO2 fertilization effect may be amplified and sustained longer for perennial horticultural crops if other resources (e.g., nutrients and water availability) are amply supplied, and if proper management options (e.g., spacing, pruning, thinning) are practiced to facilitate the prolonged CO2 effects. This will likely require maintaining intensive and environmentally sustainable cropping systems. In addition, the positive CO2 effect may be negated by the detrimental effects of extreme temperatures on phenology, carbon sinks, reproductive physiology, and changes in the diseasepest complex in the agroecosystem. There is a lack of information on the yield and quality responses of perennial horticultural crops to elevated CO2 and the interaction with warming temperatures. Innovative research, modeling, and field trials for low-input cropping systems that integrate existing knowledge to capitalize on the benefits of elevated CO2, while minimizing the input and costs, and temperature stresses is required to improve understanding in these crop species’ responses to climate change and will better address adaptation and mitigation needs in these highly important and complex cropping systems. Keywords: apple; banana; cacao; carbon dioxide; coffee; citrus; disease; grape; insect; ozone; solar radiation; water use
... Ing., Prof., Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Granma, Prov. Granma, Cuba, E-: gaskin@udg.co.cu 2 Dr., Prof. e. Inv. Titular, Universidad Agraria de La Habana-CEMA, La Habana, CP: 32700. ...
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Coffee harvesting with the aid of mechanical means becomes impracticable for the immense majority of coffee producers in the world, due fundamentally to that, in general, in the moment of the crop, the plants contain fruits in all their maturation status and have not been able to be developed machines that guarantee a selective detachment of the cherries during harvest operation. In a first study (Symposio do Café do Brasil. EMBRAPA), a modal analysis of coffee fruit-stem system was made. Starting from this analysis, the possibility of achieving the selective detachment of the fruits (removing of a high percent of mature fruits and low percent of immature ones) can be expected if the vibrating frequencies of the machines that use this work principle, are selected in the surrounding of a vibration mode “in contrafase” of the fruitpedicelo- peduncle system. In this first study, an analysis of the first twelve vibration modes of different configurations of the fruit-pedicelopeduncle system of coffee, was carried out. This study resulted enough for the analysis of configurations with one fruit for peduncle, but it was insufficient for an analysis of the behavior of configurations with two or three fruits for peduncle. In this paper an study of 25 vibration modes of fruit-pedicelo-peduncle system of coffee (coffea arabica) varieties “Red Caturra” and “Yellow Caturra” is presented. As a result of the study four variants of counter-phase vibrating mode of the fruit-pedicelo-peduncle system were founded, being able to recommend the more promissory mode for selective harvest of coffee.
... In the optimal ecological conditions for coffee growing of the present study (the central valley of Costa Rica is one of the world's coffee-producing regions with the highest commercial productivity, with up to 3000 kg coffee beans ha −1 year −1 ), a rather dense shade level of 45% reduced by only 18% the productivity of trees over three consecutive production cycles. These results confirm previous studies showing that artificial shade 12,15,16 or shade trees 9 reduce coffee fruit load through their effects on coffee physiology, such as longer internodes, fewer fruiting nodes and lower flower induction. In sun conditions, biannual variation in productivity was much higher than under shade owing to the fact that sun-grown trees had higher fruit loads and that coffee trees prioritized the allocation of carbohydrates to berries at the detriment of young vegetative branch parts, thus conditioning the production level of the following year. ...
Article
Under two contrasting light regimes (full sun and 45% shade) and the optimal coffee-growing conditions of the central valley of Costa Rica, production pattern, bean characteristics and beverage quality were assessed over two production cycles on dwarf coffee (Coffea arabica L. cv. Costa Rica 95) trees with varying fruit loads (quarter, half and full loads) imposed by manual fruit thinning. Shade decreased coffee tree productivity by 18% but reduced alternate bearing. Shade positively affected bean size and composition as well as beverage quality by delaying berry flesh ripening by up to 1 month. Higher sucrose, chlorogenic acid and trigonelline contents in sun-grown beans pointed towards incomplete bean maturation and explained the higher bitterness and astringency of the coffee beverage. Higher fruit loads reduced bean size owing to carbohydrate competition among berries during bean filling. These results have important implications in terms of agricultural management (shade, fruit thinning, tree pruning) to help farmers increase coffee plantation sustainability, produce coffee beans of larger size and higher quality and ultimately improve their revenues, especially during times of world overproduction. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry
... tensive literature search, Langhans and Weiler (1967) concluded that vernalization temperatures of 35°to 40°F were optimum for West Coast cultivars and 45"to 50 0 F for southern cultivars. Lind and Wilkins (1973) reported that if bulbs were not cooled at temperatures below 70 "F after maturation but prior to greenhouse forcing, they did not flower. Langhans and Weiler (1967) found that there was no flower initiation during cold storage; flower initiation occurs after the shoot has emerged in the greenhouse forcing phase. ...
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Includes mounted photographs. Typescript (photocopy). Thesis (M.S.)--Oregon State University, 1991. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 75-89).
... Coffee beverage quality also depends on various environmental factors, including shade [4,9]. Artificial shade [1] or shade trees [5] reduce coffee fruit load through their effects on coffee physiology, such as longer internodes, fewer fruiting nodes and lower flower induction. In contrast, shade results in beans of larger size [27]. ...
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Coffee fruits grown in shade are characterized by larger bean size than those grown under full-sun conditions. The present study assessed the effects of shade on bean characteristics and sugar metabolism by analyzing tissue development, sugar contents, activities of sucrose metabolizing enzymes and expression of sucrose synthase-encoding genes in fruits of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plants submitted to full-sun (FS) and shade (SH) conditions. Evolution of tissue fresh weights measured in fruits collected regularly from flowering to maturation indicated that this increase is due to greater development of the perisperm tissue in the shade. The effects of light regime on sucrose and reducing sugar (glucose and fructose) contents were studied in fresh and dry coffee beans. Shade led to a significant reduction in sucrose content and to an increase in reducing sugars. In pericarp and perisperm tissues, higher activities of sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13) and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS: EC 2.4.1.14) were detected at maturation in the shade compared with full sun. These two enzymes also had higher peaks of activities in developing endosperm under shade than in full sun. It was also noted that shade modified the expression of SUS-encoding genes in coffee beans; CaSUS2 gene transcripts levels were higher in SH than in FS. As no sucrose increase accompanied these changes, this suggests that sucrose metabolism was redirected to other metabolic pathways that need to be identified.
... During the first 7-8 days after this stimulus, the water content in the flower buds increases rapidly and they grow in length three-to fourfold, developing to blossoming. A period of water stress therefore seems to be mandatory for normal flower bud development Table 5 Harvest results per irrigation treatment for productive C. canephora a Irrigation application depth (mm) ( Alvim, 1960Alvim, , 1973). Pollination and fertilization is completed 24-48 h after flower opening. ...
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An irrigation study was carried out to evaluate farmers’ irrigation practices on Rhodic Ferralsols which dominate the Dak Lak basalt plateau of Central Vietnam, where Robusta coffee has dramatically expanded over the last years. The experiment aimed at testing crop response on three irrigation application depths; 100 mm (advised dose), 80 and 60 mm. Initially the one-dimensional WAVE 2.1 model was evaluated for its prediction capabilities of soil water dynamics under tropical conditions. The model was calibrated with an experimental dataset of 2001, validated with an independent dataset of 2002, and verified with statistical indicators such as average error, root mean square error, model efficiency and coefficient of residual mass. The results validated the simulation with an overall model efficiency that increased towards the deeper soil layers. Subsequently the model was used to evaluate the issue of over-irrigation and to verify the water requirement for Coffea canephora. Therefore soil water stress was related to the physiology of coffee blossoming. Seven to eight days of optimal root water extraction after an irrigation event is an absolute minimum for optimal flower set. The lowest simulated irrigation depth of 60 mm indicated no water stress for 13 days after irrigation. Data collected in situ confirmed this. No significant differences in blossom set, yield and harvest quality were observed between the three treatments. A reduction of the actually advised application depth to 60 mm whenever soil water content drops below 30 vol.% (on average every 20–25 days) can hence be advised. This goes hand in hand with a reduction in deep percolation losses of 40%.
Article
Simultaneous measurements of water potential of dormant flower buds and the subtending pair of leaves of coffee plants (Coffee arabica L., cv Mundo Novo) were carried out under various soil moisture levels. Breaking of bud dormancy, a process associated with rapid changes in water balance (between flower buds with subtending leaves) varied according to the regime of soil-water availability imposed upon the plants. There was a threshold of leaf water potential, around −12 bars, below which flowering occurred in response to watering the roots. On the other hand, no plants opened flowers under conditions of moisture availability that induced leaf water potentials higher than −11 bars prior to irrigation. It is concluded that irrigation releases flower buds from dormancy in response to a sudden reversal of the negative water potential gradient established between flower buds and subtending leaves, causing an influx of water into the buds due to a rapid increase in leaf water potential.
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Seasonal variation of cocoa price and production in Bahia from 2003 to 2014. Seasonality is a typical characteristic of the agricultural sector and it concerns the variation in production over the months of the year. Cocoa production is very unstable behavior during the year. This means that the production and supply are concentrated in certain months of the year, with consequences on the prices received by producers, transportation costs, storage and processing. The aim of this study is to describe and discuss how they have behaved, the price received by producers of cocoa from Bahia, as well as the evolution of cocoa marketed production in Bahia between 2003 and 2014, by studying the seasonality of the same. The seasonality of prices stems from the fact that cocoa production in Bahia is seasonal, ie concentrated in a few months (June, July, October and November). Due to a greater supply in this period, it is observed that prices have lower values than during the off season (January to March). Correlation was observed between the average annual price and cocoa production in the period analyzed clearly reflecting a moderate negative linear association between the variables (r =- 0.49846), confirming the opposite variation between them.
Chapter
The purpose of this review is to summarise existing information on the physiology of the coffee crop, with emphasis on whole-plant physiology and on those characteristics that influence the yield of beans. Information has been drawn from work in Kenya, which is well known to the author, from published reviews on coffee crop physiology (Huxley, 1970; Cannell, 1975), water relations (Nunes, 1976), eco-physiology (Maestri and Barros, 1977) and flowering (Alvim, 1973; Browning, 1975b; Barros, Maestri and Coons, 1978), and from the more recent literature. Most of the statements made here refer specifically to arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.) but many will also be true for robusta coffee.
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Coffee (genus Coffea L.) is one of the most critical global agricultural crops. Many studies have focused on coffee plants and their associated insects. This review will summarize work specifically relating to coffee plant – pollinator interactions. We review the current status of coffee as a worldwide commodity, botanical aspects of coffee, and insects associated with coffee pollination, and we assess the current understanding of the role of different pollinator taxa in increasing fruit set and yield.
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Coffee culture is a very important activity for Brazilian economy, contributing significantly for the country budget. The irrigated coffee agriculture occupies a significant area in this scenario, which gives importance to any research whose results may increase quality and yield. This experiment was carried out at Laje farm, located in Viçosa, State of Minas Gerais, from September 1999 to May 2001, in a drip irrigated coffee field of 8 years, with 3.330 plants per hectare, as a part of the Coffee Development and Research National Program. Water deficit influence was also evaluated. Plant blooming was not affected by the water deficit, even for day-before leaf water potentials of -0.8, -1.2 and -1.9 MPa, after 30, 63 and 90 days without irrigation, respectively. At the local soil and climate conditions, plant blooming occurred due to temperature drop after rain, independently of the leaf water potential.
Article
Eighteen arabica coffee introductions from the USDA germplasm collection were planted at 23° S latitude in Brazil from 1977 to 1982 to assess their yield potential and frost hardiness, compared with the cultivar Catuai Amarelo which is extensively planted in Brazil. Nine of the introductions had similar yields to Catuai Amarelo. Erecta T966 and Harrar yielded as well as Catuai Amarelo and were also more frost hardy. Tall, early maturing coffee varieties showed the least frost injury.
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Damage by radiative frosts is a major limiting factor for coffee cultivation in southern Brazil (south of 20° S latitude). The use of Mimosa scabrella (bracatinga) as a shade tree, to modify the local energy balance and thus prevent damage to the coffee plants, has been evaluated from 1986 to 1994. The study was carried out near Londrina, Parana State (23°23' S, 51°11′ W). During the experimental period, several radiative frosts with intensity ranging from moderate to very severe occurred at the site. Minimum coffee leaf temperatures during these events were 2 to 4 °C higher in the shaded plots. Due to frost protection, coffee bean yields on the average of 7 harvests were higher on the shaded plots. The potential of this system for frost protection in southern Brazil is discussed.
Article
Sap flows of coffee (Coffea arabica L. cv ‘Costa Rica 95’) and associated timber trees (Eucalyptusdeglupta or Terminalia ivorensis) or leguminous tree (Erythrina poeppigiana) were measured simultaneously during 12months in 4-year-old coffee agroforestry systems in sub-optimal ecological conditions of Costa Rica. In the wet period, coffee and shade tree transpiration followed the daily patterns of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and reference evapotranspiration (ETo) while their transpiration was restricted at higher air VPD values (>1.5kPa) registered during the dry period. Coffee transpired more per unit leaf area in full sun than under shade, an indication of higher environmental coffee stress in non shaded conditions. Nonetheless, coffee daily water consumption per hectare was generally higher under shade than in full sun due higher vegetative growth of shade-grown coffee plants. Minimum and maximum daily transpiration were 0.74 and 4.08mm for coffee, 0.35 and 1.06mm for E.deglupta, 0.70 and 2.10mm for T.ivorensis and 0.13 and 0.79mm for E.poeppigiana. Estimation of the annual combined water transpiration by coffee and shade trees was 20–250% higher than that of coffee grown in full sun. Nevertheless, there was no evidence that water use by associated trees decreased soil water availability for coffee and hence limited coffee transpiration in the dry season due to its relatively short length (3months) and the high annual rainfall (over 3100mm). In the sub-optimal, low altitude conditions of this experiment, E.deglupta was the optimum shade species as it maintained a more constant shade level throughout the year and ensured a better protection to coffee underneath than T.ivorensis and E.poeppigiana which underwent a complete defoliation during the adverse meteorological conditions of the dry period.
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O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a fenologia do coqueiro em duas cultivares (Anão-amarelo, Anão-verde) e um híbrido (PB 121), na Unidade de Execução de Pesquisa de Itapirema, Goiana, PE. Realizaram-se observações semanais das fases vegetativas e reprodutivas de cinco plantas de cada cultivar e do híbrido, durante o período janeiro/96 a janeiro/97. Dados do balanço hídrico foram utilizados para associar a fenologia às disponibilidades hídricas locais. A quantidade de graus-dia variou entre 266 graus-dia, na estação chuvosa, e 350 graus-dia, na estação seca. Determinou-se o quadrante predominante na emissão de inflorescência e a direção do vento. Estabeleceram-se os índices de fecundação das flores e produção dos frutos. A espécie em estudo é uma planta perenifólia. As cultivares e o híbrido produziram cerca de 11 folhas anualmente. Verificaram-se folhas mortas durante todo o período de observação. Houve floração durante todo o ano. As plantas emitem uma inflorescência/mês, ocasionalmente duas (Anão-amarelo e híbrido), no período seco. As cultivares têm o mesmo número de inflorescências emitidas, mas não o mesmo número de inflorescências desenvolvidas. A floração é do tipo cornucópia. Observaram-se frutos em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento num mesmo espécime e cacho. A direção do vento, assim como o quadrante na emissão de inflorescências estabelecidos foi predominantemente o Sudeste. Houve diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos.
Article
Coffee plants are short day plants; the developing buds go into dormancy after having reached a considerable length.This dormancy can be broken by: 1) rain after a dry spell, 2) application of GA. It can be maintained by the application of ABA.
Article
1. Studies on the flowering of Coffea rupestris over a period of 4 years are described. 2. Under natural conditions, flowering behaviour is predictable; flowers are produced from the beginning of January until mid-April. Anthesis occurs 3±1 days after rainfall above a certain minimum, and this can be simulated by watering around the base of the plant during the dry season, or by the removal of twigs and keeping them with their cut ends under water. 3. Watering a plant throughout the dry season to prevent water stress results in the appearance of some flowers early in January, but another type of dormancy is set up which is overcome by a very slight fall of rain. This may be due to the associated rapid temperature-drop. 4. These results are discussed in relation to work on C. arabica and other species reported by other workers.
Article
Extracts of flower buds of Coffea arabica (L.) collected before and after bud break contain abscisic acid. This was demonstrated using thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography combined with mass spectroscopy. Abscisic acid accounts for about 75% of the inhibitory activity in the acidic extract. The possible role of abscisic acid in the dormancy of coffee flower buds is discussed.
Article
1. Flowering of hemp, Cannabis sativa L., variety Kentucky, occurred in all plants at photoperiods of 8-14 hours, inclusive. At photoperiods of 16-20 hours flowering was incomplete and greatly delayed. 2. Seedling plants 3-5 weeks old flowered within about 2 weeks when shifted from 16-hour to 8-hour photoperiods. Five-week-old plants required fewer 8-hour photoperiods than did 3-week-old plants for equal promotion of flowering. 3. When one branch of a two-branched plant was subjected to short photoperiods, the production of flowers was restricted to that branch. Temperatures as low as 55⚬ F. applied during the dark periods did not inhibit flowering. 4. Intensities of light from an incandescent-filament lamp greater than 0.03 ft-c. inhibited flower-bud initiation of hemp when applied daily during the 16-hour periods between successive 8-hour periods of natural light outdoors. 5. Pollination of female plants with pollen from male flowers produced on female plants resulted in seed that produced only female p...
Article
When coffee plants are watered at relatively short intervals, so as to maintain the water content of the soil at close to field capacity, the flower buds remain dormant and no fruits are formed. Irrigation or rain induces flowering only when preceded by a period of water shortage. Water stress is apparently essential to break the dormancy of coffee flower buds.
Over den bouw en de periodieke ontwikkeling der bloemknoppen by Coffea-sooten Mededeeling No. 60
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The hormonal regulation of flowering and cropping in
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Periodicité de la floraison et de la fructification du caféier “Robusta” a l’Equateur
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Studies on the flowering of Coffea arabica L.: I. The influence of temperature on the initiation and growth of coffee flower bud
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