Article

The Measurement of Psychological Androgyny

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Abstract

Describes the development of a new sex-role inventory that treats masculinity and femininity as 2 independent dimensions, thereby making it possible to characterize a person as masculine, feminine, or "androgynous" as a function of the difference between his or her endorsement of masculine and feminine personality characteristics. Normative data, provided by 561 male and 356 female college and junior college students, are presented, as well as the results of various psychometric analyses. Findings indicate that: (a) The dimensions of masculinity and femininity are empirically and logically independent. (b) The concept of psychological androgyny is a reliable one. (c) Highly sex-typed scores do not reflect a general tendency to respond in a socially desirable direction, but rather a specific tendency to describe oneself in accordance with sex-typed standards of desirable behavior for men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... In general, communities based on the biological differences between men and women create a set of social expectations that define the behavior that is "appropriate" for men and women (15). Many cultures have different requirements and norms based on gender differences and there is no established universal standard for a male or female role (16,17) is a cognitive theory that attempts to explain how individuals define their gender in society and how the associated characteristics are maintained and transmitted to other members of the culture (17). The greatest Contribution To The Field of certain social behavior was the attempt to quantify it through the Bem Sex-Role scale. ...
... In general, communities based on the biological differences between men and women create a set of social expectations that define the behavior that is "appropriate" for men and women (15). Many cultures have different requirements and norms based on gender differences and there is no established universal standard for a male or female role (16,17) is a cognitive theory that attempts to explain how individuals define their gender in society and how the associated characteristics are maintained and transmitted to other members of the culture (17). The greatest Contribution To The Field of certain social behavior was the attempt to quantify it through the Bem Sex-Role scale. ...
... Sandra Bem's scale (BSRI) was used to assess the perceived gender role (17). ...
Article
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Schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness observed with equal prevalence in different cultures and ethnic groups. The clinical picture relates to behavior and social adaptation. A significant percentage of patients, despite the implementation of various therapeutic interventions, remain resistant to the ongoing treatment. Occupying a certain gender role depends both on biological belonging and on the way of self-perception characteristic of the given person. Self-perception reflects gender identification, which in social aspect is determined by the choice of social activities performed. Changes in behavior and social adaptation in patients with schizophrenia led us to conduct a study to analyze the perceived gender role in patients with schizophrenia, looking for differences between patients with treatment resistance and those in clinical remission. Materials and methods A total of 105 patients with schizophrenia were analyzed. Of them, 45 were with resistant symptoms and 60 in clinical remission. The clinical analysis of the patients was carried out using the PANSS and BPRS scales. The evaluation of the choice of social activity related to a particular gender was done with the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI). Results Out of all 105 patients with schizophrenia, in 80/76.19%/we found a higher identification with the female role, 17/16.19%/made an association with the male role and in 8/7.61%/patients we found the same results, i.e., with both the male and female roles. Among the patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS)–45, 34/75.56%/identified more with the female gender role, 6/13.33/perceived the male gender role as active, and in 5/11.11%/the identification was equal both with the male and with the female roles. Among the patients in clinical remission (CR)–60, 46/76.67%/accepted the female role as active, 11/18.33/identified with the male one, and three/5%/accepted both roles equally. When assessing the relationship between biological sex and perceived gender role, it was found that among men/a total of 39/half identified with the female gender role and half with the male gender role. Among women/a total of 66/, 90% perceived the female gender role, 7%–the male and 3% equally the male and the female gender role. No relationship was found between the choice of a certain gender role and the onset of psychosis and its duration in the observed patients. Conclusion We found a higher percentage of schizophrenic patients who showed higher identification with the female gender role. Approximately half of the males identified with the female gender role. Resistance had no influence on the choice of sex-associated social activity. Factors related to the course of the schizophrenia process such as age of onset of psychosis and duration of psychosis was not associated with an influence on identification with sex-associated social activity. Our research suggests that identification with a particular sex associative social activity is most likely established earlier in the prodromal period.
... Which of the social actors' qualities are valued in the discourse? We used as a reference the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), a scale of 60 adjectives that represents social perceptions about gender stereotypes and allows to evaluate and label social actors as masculine, feminine or neutral (Bem, 1974). Contribution What have the social actors done? ...
... In the Sex Role Inventory elaborated by Bem (1974) the author identifies two different patterns used in attributing qualities to social actors (Table 6). In general, the masculine attributes that are attributed to males and the female attributes associated with females tend to align with traditional social perceptions regarding gender stereotypes. ...
... Furthermore, they are present in a greater range of sexual roles than women. There are also certain neutral or socially desirable attributes ("happy", "jealous", "sincere"), feminine attributes ("cheerful"), and masculine attributes ("athletic") that are assigned indistinctly to men and women (Bem, 1974). ...
Article
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This investigation examines the unequal representation of men and women in elementary textbooks used in Spain since the establishment of the country's democratic regime. We conduct a multiple-perspective Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) by combining different analytical models developed by various authors. The results indicate that said textbooks are biased in terms of gender, perpetuating discursive strategies that devalue and exclude women as social actors while maintaining male dominance. The research points to the consequences that this gender discrimination can have for students' construction of gender identity and urges teachers to adopt an egalitarian perspective in the selection of didactic materials.
... The Bem Sex Role Inventory (Bem, 1974) measures masculinity and femininity independently as a two-dimensional construct, consisting of a masculinity and a femininity scale. Each scale contains personality characteristics or traits that were selected as masculine or feminine based on sex-typed social desirability (Bem, 1974). ...
... The Bem Sex Role Inventory (Bem, 1974) measures masculinity and femininity independently as a two-dimensional construct, consisting of a masculinity and a femininity scale. Each scale contains personality characteristics or traits that were selected as masculine or feminine based on sex-typed social desirability (Bem, 1974). For the present study, a validated German version of the 30-item short version by Bem was used (Troche & Rammsayer, 2011). ...
... As shown in Figure 4B higher self-identified masculine gender role orientation increased the positive association between experienced loss of social status due to the COVID-19 pandemic and past-month suicide attempt. This relationship is not readily interpretable due to Bem's conceptualization of masculinity via the BSRI-M (Bem, 1974). In contrast to the gender role strain paradigm reflected by the MRNI-SF (Levant & Richmond, 2015), studies using the BSRI have mostly reported higher masculine gender orientation to be positively associated with self-esteem and self-confidence and negative with depression and anxiety symptoms (Johnson & McCoy, 2000;Long, 1986;O'Heron & Orlofsky, 1990). ...
Article
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is causing extensive job loss leading to a loss of social status in many men. Endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology may render some men particularly sensitive to status loss, and thereby to an increased risk for suicidality. Methods: In this anonymous online survey conducted in German-speaking European countries, 490 men completed questionnaires regarding loss of social status due to the COVID-19 pandemic, past-month and lifetime suicide attempt and suicidal ideation. Furthermore, endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology and prototypical and male- typical externalizing depression symptoms were measured. Results: Out of a total of 490 men, 14.7% of men reported experiencing status loss due to the pandemic. These men were more than four times as likely to have attempted suicide in the past month (OR = 4.48, 95% CI [1.72 - 11.67]) and more than twice as likely to report suicidal ideation during the past two weeks (OR = 2.47, 95% CI [1.42 - 4.28]), than men not reporting status loss. Status loss, but not endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology was associated with suicide outcomes. However, when male-typical externalizing depression symptoms and prototypical depression symptoms were included in the models, they exhibited the only direct associations with suicide outcomes (e.g., for past-month suicide attempt: male- typical externalizing depression symptoms OR = 2.18, 95% CI [1.31 - 3.62], prototypical depression symptoms OR = 2.41, 95% CI [1.13 - 5.12]). A significant interaction between status loss and endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology further suggests an enhancing moderating effect of traditional masculinity on the relationship between status loss and past- month suicide attempts (OR = 3.27, 95% CI [1.16 - 9.27]). Conclusion: Status loss due to the COVID-19 pandemic emerges as risk factor for suicide in men. Men who experience status loss due to the COVID-19 pandemic while concomitantly exhibiting strong endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology have an additional increased risk of suicide.
... Communal traits, such as caring and compassionate, stereotypically read as feminine attributes (Bem, 1974;, are core concepts in current nursing philosophy, culture, and practice (Cara, 2003;Davison & Williams, 2009;Henderson, 2001;Morse et al., 1990). Caring, here, is positioned as the very "essence" of nursing, underlying "the behaviors, actions, and attributes of nurses" required for ethical practice (see Boykin & Schoenhofer, 2013;Morse, et al., 1990;Watson, 2013). ...
... The most frequently mentioned characteristics for male nurses were in the high-warmth category (50.6%)-both non-nursing 51.4% (195/379 mentions) and nursing students 48.5% (69/142 mentions) endorsed characteristics high in warmth. Themes in the high-warmth category included traits such as "caring," "parental," "calm," "courteous," and "physically attractive"-the very characteristics stereotypically associated with women and femininity (Bem, 1974;. "Compassionate" and "kind" were also common mentions across students, suggesting that although male nurses are perceived as non-normative in general, male nurses in Canada are still primarily attributed with stereotypically feminine characteristics (Holroyd et al., 2002;Loughrey, 2008). ...
... High-competence. Agentic characteristics-dominant and active traits that are commonly associated with men's social roles (Bem, 1974;)-were also mentioned when participants described male nurses, but far less frequently than high-warmth characteristics. Two sub-categories namely "brave," and "skilled" emerged within the category of high competence. ...
Article
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Driven by overwhelming numerical dominance of women in the role of nurses, nursing profession over the last two centuries has been largely scripted with gendered characterizations. However, nuances that shape the language and wording choices that are evoked when describing the stereotypes targeting male nurses remain relatively unexplored. Our current research examined the way 117 female non-nursing and nursing students in Canada characterized male nurses using open-ended self-report measures and thematic qualitative analyses. We contribute to the literature on nursing, gender, and stereotypes by analyzing the personal attitudes and stereotypes held by young female students toward male nurses. Social role theory and the stereotype content model provided the theoretical underpinnings to explore and explain emergent stereotypes and stereotype content. Our findings suggest that students generate more communal, high-warmth characteristics for male nurses than agentic characteristics, suggesting possible paternalistic prejudice toward men in nursing.
... We aim to examine whether gender role contributes to explaining violations. We distributed a web-based survey containing self-reports of traffic violations (DBQ; Reason et al., 1990), the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI; Bem, 1974), and demographics. In total we collected 1039 questionnaires, 485 females and 554 males. ...
... According to Bem (1974), there are other ways of distinguishing between males and females than their biological sex. Femininity and masculinity refer to the degree to which people see themselves as masculine or feminine given what it means to be a man or woman in society. ...
... A self-completion web-based questionnaire was administered. It consisted of the Hebrew versions of the following: 60 items of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI, Bem, 1974), 12 violation items of the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ, Reason et al., 1990) and demographic items -driving exposure, age, and sex. ...
Conference Paper
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Traffic violations are deliberate deviations from safe driving rules associated with enhanced risks for crash involvement, impacted by traits and demographics. Violations tend to decrease with age, males and young drivers tend to make more violations. But some studies reported the opposite or no sex differences. We argue that part of this ambiguity can be attributed to gender role (Undifferentiated, Feminine, Masculine, and Androgynous). Previously, we showed that for a group of 527 adult drivers (mean age 29), gender role was a better predictor of violation tendency than sex. Now we extend this study by using a larger sample in three age categories (≤20, 21-54, and 55-65). We aim to examine whether gender role contributes to explaining violations. We distributed a web-based survey containing self-reports of traffic violations (DBQ; Reason et al., 1990), the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI; Bem, 1974), and demographics. In total we collected 1039 questionnaires, 485 females and 554 males. We used a K-Means cluster analysis to define the gender role groups and came up with 5 meaningful clusters (Undifferentiated, Feminine, Masculine, Androgynous, and Mid). The mid group is new, and indicative of possible preconception in gender roles of the Bem inventory. We then conducted a three-way interaction model on violations. Gender role, age and sex predicted respondents' violation tendency, and their three-way interaction was statistically significant. The masculine young males had the highest predicted DBQ violation scores. Scores decreased with age except for the older masculine males. Furthermore, androgynous elderly males had the lowest scores. Our results show that there is value to include gender role in analysis of violations, and that this factor contributes over age and sex alone. Including gender role yielded better predictors of driver behavior than sex alone. The effect of gender role on drivers' self-reported violation tendency is an exciting and intriguing finding which indicates the need to further examine gender role effects in driving.
... Gender roles guide and constrain what qualities and behaviors are considered feminine and masculine (Bem, 1974(Bem, , 1981Eagly & Wood, 1991). From early childhood, people are socialized to display qualities and behaviors consistent with gender roles (Bem, 1983;Bussey & Bandura, 1992;Egan & Perry, 2001;Raag & Rackliff, 1998), and learn the social consequences of not adhering to these roles (Bosson et al., 2009;Bussey & Bandura, 1992;Rudman, 1998;Rudman & Fairchild, 2004;Rudman & Glick, 2001;Rudman et al., 2012;Vandello et al., 2008). ...
... Traditional masculine gender roles comprise the possession and demonstration of qualities related to power and status, such as agency, assertiveness, toughness, independence, and dominance (Bem, 1974(Bem, , 1981Eagly & Wood, 1991;Eagly et al., 2020;Mahalik et al., 2003;Thompson et al., 1992). Masculine gender role discrepancy strain occurs when men fail to live up to expectations of traditional masculinity, such as admitting feelings (failing to be tough), letting someone else take control (failing to be assertive and dominant), and having to ask for help (failing to be agentic and independent; Eisler & Skidmore, 1987). ...
... Yet, women face many pressures and expectations to possess feminine qualities, and experience reprisals when these expectations are not met (Bem, 1983;Bussey & Bandura, 1992;Egan & Perry, 2001;Raag & Rackliff, 1998;Rudman, 1998;Rudman & Glick, 2001). Traditional feminine gender roles comprise the possession and demonstration of qualities related to nurturance and deference, such as passivity, communality, dependence, and attractiveness (Bem, 1974(Bem, , 1981Eagly & Wood, 1991;Eagly et al., 2020;Levant et al., 2007). As no person can always embody these qualities, the potential for women to encounter gender role discrepant situations, and associated gender role discrepancy strain, is likely common. ...
Article
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Social pressures to adhere to traditional feminine roles may place some women at risk of experiencing gender role discrepancy strain, when they behave, think, or feel in ways discrepant from feminine gender role expectations. The current research examines how person-level propensity to experience feminine gender-role discrepancy strain-feminine gender role stress (FGRS)-and contextual experiences of discrepancy strain-feeling less feminine in daily or weekly life-combine to undermine women's self-esteem. After completing measures of FGRS, undergraduate women reported their feelings of femininity and self-esteem each day for 10 days (Study 1, N = 207, 1,881 daily records) or each week for 7 weeks (Study 2, N = 165, 1,127 weekly records). This repeated assessments design provided the first tests of whether within-person decreases in felt-femininity were associated with lower self-esteem, particularly for women who were higher in FGRS. Both higher FGRS and within-person decreases in daily/weekly felt-femininity were associated with lower self-esteem, but higher FGRS combined with daily/weekly decreases in felt-femininity predicted the lowest self-esteem (a person x context interaction). These results illustrate the importance of considering how person-level predispositions and contextual experiences of gender-role discrepancy strain combine to influence self-relevant outcomes for women. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11199-022-01305-1.
... Gender Schema Theory and Multi-Factor Gender Identity Theory, which are effective in the psychology literature, contribute to the development of studies on consumer behavior [12]. The Gender Schema Theory, developed by Bem [13], opposes traditional approaches to biological gender differences in information processing. Individuals' gender identities are effective in information processing processes. ...
... According to this theory, individuals' gender identities are determined by measuring factors such as gender role behaviors, personal characteristics and gender attitudes. If a single variable is measured, the applicability of that variable is limited [13]. In other words, individuals' gender identity is multifactorial and each factor has a different developmental history that varies from individual to individual, because these factors are affected by many variables that are not gender-based [17]. ...
... The concept of androgynous gender identity differs from the expressions reflecting traditional gender roles in a particular culture. Individuals with androgynous gender identity show both the most distinctive features considered masculine and the most typical features considered feminine [13]. Individuals with the fourth gender identity, expressed as undifferentiated, reflect both masculine and feminine characteristics at the lowest level [19]. ...
Article
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It is necessary to determine the factors that affect consumers’ preferences in the ready-made clothing sector, where competition is intense. Gender is accepted as one of the most fundamental factors affecting purchas¬ing decisions not only in the ready-made clothing industry, but also in many other sectors. However, rapidly changing environmental conditions require going beyond traditional patterns in explaining consumption be¬haviors. Accordingly, the concept of gender, which is socially constructed, has also been conceptualized from a psychological point of view. In this study, the concept of gender was based on psychological foundations and it was investigated whether female consumers’ clothing-related attribute expectations differ according to their gender identities. Questionnaires created in line with the purpose of the study were applied to 393 people who were selected by convenience sampling. The data were collected through a face-to-face survey. Research hypotheses were tested with ANOVA analysis. As a result of the research, it was found that female consumers’ clothing-related attribute expectations differ according to gender identities. In the literature, no study has been found that examines the changes in the clothing-related expectations of female consumers according to their gender identity roles. In this context, it is expected that the study will make significant contributions to both the managers in the clothing sector and academics.
... One of the elements of the 'gender index' is the BSRI [20], which is a questionnaire developed in 1974 that is still widely used in health-related research today [1,27,28]. The BSRI measures participants' match with a defined set of personality traits to assess their degree of femininity, masculinity and androgyny [29]. ...
... The majority of the identified instruments were developed in the USA. The development process often entailed asking a group of psychology students to rate social desirability to define categories of femininity and masculinity [29,41,42]. Given the homogeneity of the enrolled participants and their lack of representation of the general population, the developed instruments can exemplify a specific understanding of sex/gender [43]. ...
Article
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Current trends in quantitative health research have highlighted the inadequacy of the usual operationalisation of sex and gender, resulting in a growing demand for more nuanced options. This scoping review provides an overview of recent instruments for the operationalisation of sex and gender in health-related research beyond a concept of mutually exclusive binary categories as male or masculine vs. female or feminine. Our search in three databases (Medline, Scopus and Web of Science) returned 9935 matches, of which 170 were included. From these, we identified 77 different instruments. The number and variety of instruments measuring sex and/or gender in quantitative health-related research increased over time. Most of these instruments were developed with a US-American student population. The majority of instruments focused on the assessment of gender based on a binary understanding, while sex or combinations of sex and gender were less frequently measured. Different populations may require the application of different instruments, and various research questions may ask for different dimensions of sex and gender to be studied. Despite the clear interest in the development of novel sex and/or gender instruments, future research needs to focus on new ways of operationalisation that account for their variability and multiple dimensions.
... Additionally, our choice was motivated by the existence of a variety of measuring instruments that capture different aspects of gender Journal. Media 2022, 3 363 that are sometimes overlooked in research (Bem 1974;Berger and Krahé 2013;Reich 2021). Simple categories, such as male, female, non-binary, or transsexual, often fail to capture full gender diversity (Whyte et al. 2018). ...
... As mentioned before, gender identity is a multifaceted construct (Berger and Krahé 2013;Whyte et al. 2018;Wood and Eagly 2009). Berger and Krahé (2013) updated an earlier take by Bem (1974) on in-depth measurements of masculinity and femininity. They argued that identity includes both desirable and undesirable characteristics. ...
Article
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The extant research focused on gender understood as a single item to explain wishful identification and parasocial relationships with TV characters. This study focused on gendered personality traits and how they contribute to wishful identification, parasocial relationships with (non-)stereotypical male and female characters of the TV series Modern Family, and the series enjoyment in general. Participants (N = 508) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions with questions about either stereotypical male or female or non-stereotypical male or female characters. Respondents also answered questions about their own gender traits (positive/negative feminine/masculine), wishful identification, parasocial friendship and love for the assigned character, and enjoyment of the series. Different gendered personality traits were associated with wishful identification, parasocial friendship, and love with different types of characters, as well as series enjoyment. Thus, we conclude that media characters should exhibit both stereotypical and non-stereotypical traits to reach a broad and diverse audience.
... The assessment of gender identity is a complex task and, as argued, should include individual characteristics and personality traits (Kneer et al., 2019;Ogletree & Drake, 2007). While a precise definition of masculinity and femininity is still missing, scholars in gender studies developed different approaches to assess these socially constructed notions (Bem, 1974;Berger & Krahé, 2013;Deaux & Major, 1987). The framework of how masculinity and femininity are categorized and measured closely connects to the impact of gender identity on media consumption and motivation. ...
... The framework of how masculinity and femininity are categorized and measured closely connects to the impact of gender identity on media consumption and motivation. Already 50 years ago, Bem's (1974) Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) model proposed a continuum measurement of gender identity, expressed as particular personality traits, rather than the bipolar distribution of masculinity-femininity. Since then, many other approaches were proposed. ...
Article
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Introduction Existing research has focused on sex and gender to explain video games playing motivations and enjoyment. This study investigated gender traits and sexual orientation to further explain why people play games and what leads to gaming enjoyment. Methods Participants ( N = 198) answered questions on gender traits (positive/negative feminity/masculinity), gaming motivations, enjoyment, sexual orientation (32.0% of the sample belonged to the lesbian, gay, and bisexual community, later LGB community), and demographics. Results Only certain gender traits are linked to specific gaming motivations. Negative masculinity increased competence and relatedness while negative femininity decreased autonomy. Similar results were found for sexual orientation. LGB people showed less competence and intuitive control motivations. Additionally, LGB people spent more time playing video games than non-LGB people. They reported playing puzzles more as well. No other differences were found for game genre selection. Discussion The lack of differences based on sexual orientation and gender traits shows that video games offer an environment for everybody and thus have the potential to bring people together.
... Other studies explain COVID-19 pandemic response policies through gender diff erences in leadership and risk perception. Thus, women are perceived as less willing to take risks than men (Bem, 1974). During the COVID-19 crisis, female decision-makers were more inclined to take large-scale lockdown action than male decision-makers, as the former put human life and human protection at the forefront, rather than the economic consequences. ...
... The following hypothesis was formulated: Hypothesis 2 (H2): For employees with education level k, there was a statistically signifi cant diff erentiation of the gender occupational discrepancy in the year of the pandemic manifestation compared to the normal period. (where k = low education level (0-2 ISCED level); average education level (3-4 ISCED level); high education level (5)(6)(7)(8) Following the application of the t test for the educational groups less than primary, primary and lower secondary education (levels 0-2) and upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education (levels 3 and 4) it turns out that for the low level educated labour force, as well as for the educated one, we cannot claim the existence of a signifi cant diff erence between the gender discrepancy of employment before and after the pandemic. It seems that the pandemic did not generate a signifi cant change (neither in the sense of attenuation nor in the sense of signifi cant amplifi cation) of the occupational gender gap in these education groups. ...
Article
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Women are facing deep and lasting inequalities on the labor market. The effect of the pandemic on women's employment is evident after two years of pandemic, it has significantly affected the level of employment and increased the risk of women at work, inequalities have deepened and the recovery period will be longer than for men. In this paper we present an econometric analysis of occupational gender disparities at European level, considering as predictors the educational level and the countries' development level. We inspected the influence of pandemic on employment gender gap focusing on the gender occupational gap, gender disparities in education and whether the gender disparities in employment significantly differs depending on the countries' development level. Main findings refer to the statistically proved influence of the pandemic factors on employment gender gap, more significant for employees with tertiary education and in the countries with a higher level of development. The data used in the analysis is provided by EU official statistics.
... For example, childcare and housework have long been considered "women's work," and are therefore essential to women's "doing gender" (Berk, 1985;Bianchi et al., 2012;Hochschild & Machung, 1989). Relatedly, the Bem-Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) (Bem, 1974) which classifies behaviors as either masculine, feminine or androgenous, considers attention and warmth toward children as key dimensions of femininity. More recent empirical evidence demonstrates that, in post-industrial societies (such as Australia), the social construction of femininity comprises emotional warmth, caring behavior, other-centered behavior, and child-rearing (Adapa et al., 2016). ...
... In addition, fathers who display warmth with their children and are involved in childcare or housework are likely to engage in both feminine-typed and masculine-typed behaviors. Men who put into practice both masculine-and feminine-typed behaviors have been shown to hold higher self-esteem and a higher internal locus of control (Bem, 1974), which ultimately renders them more nurturing fathers than those adopting only masculine-typed behaviors (Baumrind, 1982). Therefore, fathers who are warm and highly involved with their children enact both feminine and masculine gender-typed behaviors, which would be either directly communicated or modeled at home. ...
Article
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This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of the influence of paternal involvement in family life—across childhood and adolescence—on the gender‐role attitudes of children by the age of 14 or 15. Recent research suggests that, in post‐industrial societies, paternal involvement in family life is increasing. Although previous studies of paternal involvement have considered paternal influences on children's cognitive or socio‐emotional development, such studies have not yet addressed paternal influences on children's attitudes toward gender. Relatedly, previous studies on the intergenerational transmission of gender attitudes have analyzed maternal influences, but have neglected the significance of paternal influences. This study engages both strands of the research by analyzing the effects of paternal behaviors on children's attitudes toward gender roles. Multivariate linear regressions models were estimated on data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC); a survey with biannual observations over 10 years for 2796 children born between 1999 and 2000. Fathers' time spent on childcare during childhood was associated with gender‐egalitarian attitudes in children by the age of 14 or 15. The most powerful predictor of children's gender‐role attitudes, however, was the amount of time fathers spent on housework during children's adolescence, both absolute and relative to the amount of time mothers spent on housework. Fathers' unpaid labor at home was as relevant for children's gender‐role attitudes as mothers' paid labor in the workforce. These results held after controlling for maternal domestic behaviors and for the gender‐role attitudes of both parents. Father involvement in childcare and housework during childhood and adolescence play an important role in shaping children's gender‐egalitarian attitudes.
... The 60-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to assess people's perceptions of their psychological gender role orientation. [21] The BSRI measures stereotypical masculine and feminine personality traits as independent dimensions, thereby making it possible to characterize a person as masculine, feminine, androgynous or undifferentiated as a function of the difference between their endorsement of masculine and feminine characteristics. The instrument uses a 7-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (never or almost never true) to 7 (always or almost always true) for stereotypically masculine (n = 20; e.g., ambitious, dominant) and feminine (n = 20; e.g., affectionate, gentle) descriptors, plus neutral filler items (n = 20; e.g., sincere, conscientious). ...
... Gender assessments can contain sensitive questions and health researchers need to be mindful of the risk of social desirability bias. For this study, we strived to reduce socially desirable responses and non-responses using a validated questionnaire when available [21] and by systematically pre-testing survey items for which no validated or translated measure was available. In addition, we studied the effect of private gender relations through involvement in household tasks and relative income using independent samples of men and women, without collecting data from participant spouses/partners. ...
Article
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Background There is a growing recognition that sex characteristics and gender-related aspects can have a substantial impact on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of persons with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Gender is a multidimensional construct, including dynamic social norms and relations that influence health and impact quality of life. Even when gender is investigated in the field of PD, it is frequently conceptualized as gender identity while other dimensions, such as roles or relations, are generally ignored. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of several gender dimensions on HRQoL among people with PD. Methods We performed a survey-based, cross-sectional study in the Netherlands to explore the impact of several gender dimensions, namely; gender identity, gender roles and gender relations on HRQoL (PDQ-39) of people with PD. Results In our study population ( N = 307), including 127 (41%) women, we did not observe an association between gender identity and overall HRQoL. In contrast, an androgynous gender role and higher engagement in household tasks were associated with better overall HRQoL among people with PD. Conclusions This study offers the first detailed description of the impact of different gender dimensions on the HRQoL of people with PD and highlights the need for more precise gender-measures to inform actionable gender-sensitive health interventions for people with PD.
... Con el fin de identificar la autoeficacia STEM se han utilizado dos instrumentos para la recogida de información: para el análisis de los roles de género se ha utilizado Bem Sexual Role Inventary (BSRI) de Sandra Bem (1974), concretamente se utilizó el BSRI traducido al castellano por Jayme y Sau (2004). Este instrumento es el más utilizado en España para evaluar los estilos de rol de género (Barra 2004;Díaz-Loving, et al., 2004;Fernández y Coello, 2010;García-Mina, 2004;Hoffman y Borders, 2001;Vergara y Páez, 1993) dado que recoge los roles de género tradicionalmente atribuidos a mujeres y hombres. ...
... Con el fin de identificar la autoeficacia STEM se han utilizado dos instrumentos para la recogida de información: para el análisis de los roles de género se ha utilizado Bem Sexual Role Inventary (BSRI) de Sandra Bem (1974), concretamente se utilizó el BSRI traducido al castellano por Jayme y Sau (2004). Este instrumento es el más utilizado en España para evaluar los estilos de rol de género (Barra 2004;Díaz-Loving, et al., 2004;Fernández y Coello, 2010;García-Mina, 2004;Hoffman y Borders, 2001;Vergara y Páez, 1993) dado que recoge los roles de género tradicionalmente atribuidos a mujeres y hombres. ...
Article
Resumen Las distintas investigaciones sobre la escasa presencia de las mujeres en las disciplinas STEM señalan que los sesgos de género son un elemento clave. En esta línea, este estudio busca analizar la autoeficacia percibida y las expectativas profesionales del ámbito de las STEM en relación con los roles de género. Para ello, se ha distribuido un cuestionario a estudiantes de 1º y 2º de la ESO, que contiene 26 ítems sobre la preferencia por las materias STEM además del Inventario de Roles de género de Sandra Bem. Entre los resultados cabe señalar que las mujeres se ven con capacidades en las profesiones sanitarias y ciencias naturales, mientras que los hombres se inclinan por las profesiones relacionadas con la tecnología y las ingenierías. Palabras clave: género, roles de género, estereotipos de género, STEM. Abstract The different investigations on the scarce presence of women in STEM disciplines point out that gender bias is a key element. In this line, this study seeks to analyze the perceived self-efficiency and professional expectations in the field of STEM in relation to gender roles. To do this, a questionnaire has been distributed to 1st and 2nd ESO students, which contains 26 items on the preference for STEM subjects in addition to Sandra Bem's Gender Role Inventory. Among the results, it should be noted that women see themselves as qualified in health professions and natural sciences, while men are inclined towards professions related to technology and engineering.
... However, more recently, positive and health promoting aspects of traditional masculinity are being recognized [24]. The conceptualization and operationalization of masculinity has evolved over time, beginning in the gender role identity paradigm attributing gender-typical traits to men and women [25,26], followed by the gender role strain paradigm focusing on the adherence and conformity to traditional masculine role norms [27][28][29]. Based on the social constructionist understanding of masculinity, Levant and Wimer [30], for example, revealed that conforming to certain masculine norms acts as a protective buffer for some health behaviors, while others are consistently identified as risk factors. ...
Article
In the light of the COVID-19 pandemic and claims that traditional masculinity may put some men at increased risk for infection, research reporting men's health behaviors is critically important. Traditional masculine norms such as self-reliance and toughness are associated with a lower likelihood to vaccinate or follow safety restrictions. Furthermore, infection risk and traditional masculinity should be investigated in a differentiated manner including gender role orientation, underlying traditional masculine ideologies and male gender role conflict. In this pre-registered online survey conducted during March/April 2021 in German-speaking countries in Europe, 490 men completed questionnaires regarding contracting COVID-19 as confirmed by a validated test, fear of COVID-19 (FCV-19S), and experience of psychological burden due to COVID-19. In addition, depression symptomatology was assessed by using prototypical internalizing and male-typical externalizing depression symptoms. Furthermore, self-identified masculine gender orientation, endorsement of traditional masculinity ideologies, and gender role conflict were measured. A total of 6.9% of men (n = 34) reported having contracted COVID-19 since the beginning of the pandemic. Group comparisons revealed that men who had contracted COVID-19 exhibited higher overall traditional masculine ideology and gender role conflict. Logistic regression controlling for confounders (age, income, education, and sexual orientation) indicated that only depression symptoms are independently associated with the risk of having contracted COVID-19. While prototypical depression symptoms were negatively associated with the risk of having contracted COVID-19, male-typical externalizing depression symptoms were positively associated with the risk of contracting COVID-19. For traditional masculinity, no robust association for an increased risk of contracting COVID-19 could be established, while higher male-typical externalizing depression symptoms were associated with an increased risk of contracting COVID-19.
... These findings are in accordance with existing literature, which shows men are more achievement-oriented and always trying to maximize their utilitarian shopping value without exerting maximum effort and waiting time; thus, ease and speed of transaction is a key indicator of quality for males (Otnes and McGrath 2001;Sharma et al. 2012). Women, based on gender-schema theory, are social-relationship oriented and more disposed toward maximizing their communal goals and activities; thus, they evaluate a service outcome based on their interaction with the sales staff while formulating a purchase decision (Sharma et al. 2012;Bem 1974Bem , 1981. ...
Article
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Due to the rise of online retailing, traditional brick-and-mortar retailers need to understand what customers find convenient when shopping at physical locations and focus their efforts on those convenience dimensions to remain competitive. We test a service convenience model in the auto-parts retailing industry and examine how various dimensions of service convenience affect customers’ perceptions of the retailer (i.e., service quality, product quality, and perceived value), and subsequently their behavior (i.e., customer loyalty and share of wallet). The results suggest that in traditional retailing, the most important convenience dimensions are decision convenience and benefit convenience. We find that service convenience exerts its effect on customer loyalty and share of wallet through perceived service quality and perceived value, and product quality has an indirect effect through perceived value. Service convenience is an important driver of customer loyalty and share of wallet, and this study demonstrates the mechanism through which it happens. Keywords Convenience · Quality · Value · Share of Wallet · Customer loyalty · Retail
... En el discurso escolar predomina una segregación horizontal y vertical del mercado laboral que puede relacionarse con los roles sexuales que se atribuyen a los actores sociales masculinos (autoridad, liderazgo, ambición…) y femeninos (comprensión, compasión, ternura, gusto por los/as niños/ as…) en los libros de texto (Bem, 1974). Esta estereotipación de género responde a los modelos tradicionales jerárquicos de masculinidad -"ser para sí" o "ocuparse de"-y feminidad -"ser para los demás" o "preocuparse de"-, e implica una dicotomía respecto a las funciones sociales que ambos desempeñan (Moore y Gillette, 1993;Valcárcel, 2008). ...
Book
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El presente volumen recoge las aportaciones que, con motivo de la celebración del XXI Coloquio de Historia de la Educación de la Sociedad Española de Historia de la Educación (SEDHE) en la Universitat de València del 6 al 8 de julio de 2022, se debatieron en el mismo. Los trabajos académicos analizan en perspectiva histórico-educativa las llamadas Pedagogías alternativas y la educación en los márgenes a lo largo de todo el siglo XX, atendiendo a la llamada al estudio de teorías, políticas y prácticas, pensamiento pedagógico y experiencias educativas, que fueron diseñadas, realizadas o que emergieron en los márgenes o como alternativas a los sistemas educativos o a los estándares pedagógicos de los diferentes status quo de cada momento histórico. Las iniciativas educativas al margen o en la frontera de los sistemas educativos, culturales, sociales y políticos establecidos pueden haber supuesto cambios y puntos de inflexión en la historia, rupturas, discontinuidades o bien haber fracasado, quedado en el olvido o simplemente no haber tenido pretensiones universalistas ni de cambio sistémico. Todas estas experiencias pedagógicas son interesantes para el estudio, la reflexión, el debate y el análisis sobre las transformaciones o conservaciones sociales y políticas y su impacto o indiferencia en el curso de la historia de la educación.
... Another questionnaire was sometimes used to determine which stereotypical gendered traits users applied to the agents (Kulms et al., 2011). This scale, the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) developed by Bem (1974), measures the construction of the gender schema of individuals, aims to highlight androgyny, and questions the usual dichotomy of female/male gendered traits stereotypically attributed to people. The BSRI consists of 20 positive items stereotypically associated with men (e.g., independent, analytical), 20 other positive items stereotypically associated with women (e.g., compassionate, loves children), and 20 other positive neutral items (e.g., tactful, reliable). ...
Article
Full-text available
Virtual learning environments often use virtual characters to facilitate and improve the learning process. These characters, known as pedagogical agents, can take on different roles, such as tutors or companions. Research has highlighted the importance of various characteristics of virtual agents, including their voice or non-verbal behaviors. Little attention has been paid to the gender-specific design of pedagogical agents, although gender has an important influence on the educational process. In this article, we perform an extensive review of the literature regarding the impact of the gender of pedagogical agents on academic outcomes. Based on a detailed review of 59 articles, we analyze the influence of pedagogical agents' gender on students' academic self-evaluations and achievements to answer the following questions: (1) Do students perceive virtual agents differently depending on their own gender and the gender of the agent? (2) Does the gender of pedagogical agents influence students' academic performance and self-evaluations? (3) Are there tasks or academic situations to which a male virtual agent is better suited than a female virtual agent, and vice versa, according to empirical evidence? (4) How do a virtual agent's pedagogical roles impact these results? (5) How do a virtual agent's appearance and interactive capacities impact these results? (6) Are androgynous virtual agents a potential solution to combatting gender stereotypes? This review provides important insight to researchers on how to approach gender when designing pedagogical agents in virtual learning environments.
... Because the analysis concerned representation, some categories were included from the beginning, such as gender, intersectionality, and stereotypes. For the latter, we relied on Bem's (1974) Sex-Role Inventory, a questionnaire that lists stereotypical masculine and feminine traits. This article does not aim to reinforce binary interpretations of gender, but in analysing gender norms it is diff icult to avoid this frame of reference. ...
Article
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Women's magazines and the gender representations in them have been subject to much investigation. Less attention has been paid to alternative media aimed at women, while these have the potential to create and distribute new, empowered approaches to gender representations and business models. This contribution to mapping the alternative feminist media landscape in Belgium focuses on the case of Charlie Magazine, an independent print and online medium in Belgium that existed from 2014 to 2019. Inspired by feminist theory and cultural studies, we discuss norms and conventions in women's magazines and investigate how dominant gender and gendered norms are subverted in an alternative women's magazine. Through a discourse analysis of five bookzines of Charlie and four interviews with its editors, we explore different strategies to subvert these norms and conventions. The findings indicate that Charlie challenged these norms in traditional women's magazines using irony, humour, and intertextuality [1], subversive gender representations [2], and framing the personal as political [3]. Furthermore, interviews with editors and employees of Charlie provide insights into their business model that contributed to the subversion of dominant magazine norms. By investigating the combination of text and production, this article provides unique insights into the production of alternative media targeted at women.
... Furthermore, men with strong GRC due to the restriction of their emotions were found to be less likely to address the topic of sexual health during patientphysician conversations (Komlenac et al., 2019). Lastly, men who strongly identified themselves with traits traditionally seen as masculine (measured with the Bem Sex Role Inventory; Bem, 1974) were found to be less likely to use psychotherapy when experiencing psychological distress . ...
Article
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Background: Heterosexual-identified men, as compared to non-heterosexual-identified men, are less likely to seek out psychotherapy when experiencing psychological distress. Stronger endorsement of traditional masculinity ideologies (TMI) has been reported to be associated with reduced psychotherapy use among men. However, the relationship between psychotherapy use, TMI, and sexual orientation needs to be explored. Methods: A total of 728 psychologically distressed men (59.9% heterosexual-identified, 40.1% non-heterosexual-identified) from German-speaking parts of Europe completed an online questionnaire asking about current psychotherapy use, endorsement of TMI, experienced gender role conflict (GRC), prototypical depression symptoms, and externalizing depression symptoms. Results: In total 34.5% (n = 251) of the men were currently using psychotherapy, of which 47.4% (n = 119) identified as heterosexual and 52.6% (n = 132) as non-heterosexual. Heterosexual-identified men used psychotherapy less than non-heterosexual-identified men, while exhibiting lower prototypical depression symptoms but comparable externalizing depression symptoms. Additionally, heterosexual-identified men exhibited higher endorsement of TMI across all domains and experienced more masculine GRC, especially in the domains Success Concerns and Restricted Affection. Endorsement of TMI was associated with increased externalizing depression symptoms only among heterosexual-identified men. Logistic regression analyses showed stronger endorsement of TMI, increased externalizing depression symptoms, and identifying as heterosexual to be associated with reduced psychotherapy use. Conclusion: Men identifying as heterosexual with strong endorsement of TMI, and high externalizing depression symptoms have a reduced likelihood to use psychotherapy. Thus, challenging TMI and advocating for alternative masculinities that include health promoting behavior can especially help heterosexual-identified men with strong TMI.
... Davranış bağlamında önemli bir kavram olan cinsiyet, bireyleri toplum/topluluk içinde sınıflandırmayı kolaylaştırmaktadır. Bu sebeple cinsiyet kimliği ve ifadesi, kadınsı ve erkeksi özellikler ve davranışlarla ilişkili olarak sosyo-kültürel yapıyla güçlü bir şekilde bağlıdır (Bem, 1974;White ve White, 2006;Akkaş, 2019). Cinsiyet farklılıklarına yönelik değerlendirmelerin kültürel açıdan inceleme alanı bulduğu görülmektedir. ...
... Dans les études précédemment citées, nous avons soumis à l'évaluation de participant·es quatre femmes politiques : Marine Le Pen, Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet, Najat Vallaud-Belkacem et Cécile Duflot. Les attributs évalués via des échelles (Stereotype Content Model (SCM) (Fiske et al., 2002) et Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) (Bem, 1974)) étaient l'aspect chaleureux, la compétence, la féminité et la masculinité. À ces quatre femmes politiques sélectionnées s'est ensuite ajouté la femme politique idéale, qui devait nous permettre d'avoir un point de comparaison stable et désirable pour les participant·es. ...
Article
Full-text available
... The writings of Sandra Bem illustrate an evolution from an early focus on androgyny to her later call for a proliferation of genders. In Bem's early work on gender roles, she argued that masculinity and femininity were not polar opposites but instead were two separate dimensions that can operate independently (Bem, 1974). One can be high in masculinity and low in femininity (traditional masculinity), high in femininity and low in masculinity (traditional femininity), low in both (undifferentiated) or high in both (androgynous). ...
Chapter
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In this concluding chapter we discuss some of the insights gained from juxtaposing three eclectic fields of knowledge: queer studies, transgender theory, and psychological research. Because the queer and transgender projects are political projects, in this conclusion we focus on understanding the processes that may lead to fragmentation within the queer and transgender movement as well as processes that are associated with continued solidarity activism among an increasing number of queer and transgender identities. To examine processes of intragroup conflict and solidarity activism we juxtapose research in social psychology, Black psychology, and contributions by queer thinkers in promoting community norms that support activism, dialogue, and solidarity.
... In neueren genderorientierten Ansätzen (vgl. ausführlicher Hern andez-Bark et al. 2016) wird entsprechend der Differenztheorie, nach der Men schen in Organisationen unterschiedlich konnotierte Persönlichkeitseigenschaften besitzen und Erwartungen an das Leadership richten, und der Androgynitätstheo rie (Bem 1974), nach der Führungskräfte unabhängig von Geschlecht, Alter, Her kunft etc. "in ihrem Verhalten männlich-konnotierte und weiblich-konnotierte Persönlichkeitseigenschaften zu kombinieren" in der Lage sind, hervorgehoben (von Au 2016: 15;Kark et al. 2012). (von Rosenstiel 2014). ...
Chapter
Leadership is always being challenged, and the current challenges are always the most demanding. This textbook for students and practitioners in organisations working within the parameters of the social economy identifies the requirements in this regard and introduces the current approaches to and concepts of leadership. It examines aspects of leadership in depth, such as supporting teamwork and dealing with interculturality and new media, and addresses in detail the particular demands placed on managers. This volume provides a sound theoretical basis on this subject, but also gives valuable tips for practice. With contributions by Armin Wöhrle, Maik Arnold, Paul Brandl, Yvonne Knospe, Frank Unger and Birgitta Zierer.
... The writings of Sandra Bem illustrate an evolution from an early focus on androgyny to her later call for a proliferation of genders. In Bem's early work on gender roles, she argued that masculinity and femininity were not polar opposites but instead were two separate dimensions that can operate independently (Bem, 1974). One can be high in masculinity and low in femininity (traditional masculinity), high in femininity and low in masculinity (traditional femininity), low in both (undifferentiated) or high in both (androgynous). ...
Chapter
In this chapter on sexuality, we examine three foundational postulations from queer theory. The first postulation is that the historical construction of sexuality, and same-sex desire in particular, tends to be based on binary thinking that positions same-sex desire as either universal (a “universalizing” view of same-sex sexuality) or as a disposition common to a minority of the population (a “minoritizing” view of same-sex sexuality). In contrast, queer theory moves away from a binary view of sexuality to conceptualize it as fluid. The second postulation is that people’s sexuality is shaped by interlocking forms of oppression such as colonialism, racism, sexism, and class oppression. The intersections of interlocking forms of oppression configure sexual identities and desires in unique ways. The third postulation is the rejection of a hierarchy of sexual practices and a focus on the proliferation of sexual categories to disrupt that hierarchy. We juxtapose these three key ideas with a review of critical psychology research, showing how psychological studies moved from a universalizing to a minoritizing view of same-sex desire, with a recent turn back towards the universalizing approach. We describe psychological contributions on the manner in which LGBTQ identities are different among people of color compared to white people as well as research that examines the influence of neoliberal ideology on sexual agency. We explore recent psychological studies related to BDSM and kink, polyamory, and asexuality. Assessing the convergence and divergence between psychology and queer thought leads us to critique the notion that a proliferation of sexual identities is necessarily libratory; instead, we argue for a more intersectional approach to sexual identities.
... The writings of Sandra Bem illustrate an evolution from an early focus on androgyny to her later call for a proliferation of genders. In Bem's early work on gender roles, she argued that masculinity and femininity were not polar opposites but instead were two separate dimensions that can operate independently (Bem, 1974). One can be high in masculinity and low in femininity (traditional masculinity), high in femininity and low in masculinity (traditional femininity), low in both (undifferentiated) or high in both (androgynous). ...
... The writings of Sandra Bem illustrate an evolution from an early focus on androgyny to her later call for a proliferation of genders. In Bem's early work on gender roles, she argued that masculinity and femininity were not polar opposites but instead were two separate dimensions that can operate independently (Bem, 1974). One can be high in masculinity and low in femininity (traditional masculinity), high in femininity and low in masculinity (traditional femininity), low in both (undifferentiated) or high in both (androgynous). ...
... Our paper is also related to the organizational psychology and gender studies literature which has analyzed gender differences in leadership style, behavior, effectiveness and group members' recognition considering several theoretical perspectives ( Bem, 1974 ;Berger et al., 1985 ;Eagly, 1987 ;Ridgeway, 1992 ;Ayman and Korabik, 2010 ). 9 Compared to these studies, we base our analysis on a more objective measure of effectiveness (the grade obtained at the team part of an exam) and focus on the impact of leadership on team performance, which has been only marginally investigated. ...
Article
We ran a field experiment to investigate whether individual performance in teams was affected by the gender of the leader. About 430 students from an Italian University took an intermediate exam that was partly evaluated on the basis of teamwork. Students were randomly matched in teams of three and, in each team, we randomly chose a leader entrusted with the task of coordinating the work of the team. We find a positive and significant effect of female leadership on team performance. This effect is driven by the higher performance of team members in female-led teams rather than by an improvement in leader performance. In spite of the higher performance of female-led teams, male members tended to evaluate female leaders as less effective, whereas female members have provided more favorable judgments. Our results are consistent with stereotypically feminine personality traits influencing leadership style and the decision on the amount of effort to exert in a task where females are contravening stereotypical behavior and their traditional societal role.
... These gender differences may be related to the gender roles that individuals of both sexes construct through their specific sociocultural upbringing and learning (Carroll and Wolpe, 1996;Eagly and Wood, 1999). Traditionally, masculinity has been linked to personality characteristics such as defending beliefs and being assertive or willing to take risks, whereas femininity has been associated with personality characteristics such as being tender, sensitive, and sympathetic (Bem, 1974). Male gender-role identification mitigates individuals' perceptions of interpersonal needs, which may lead to underestimating the feelings about social anxiety (Moscovitch et al., 2005). ...
Article
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During the COVID-19 epidemic, quarantine and financial disadvantages might exacerbate social anxiety among impoverished college students. Based on the hardiness model and the social support buffering model, the present study proposed and verified a dual moderation model to investigate the effects of hardiness on social anxiety and the moderating roles of gender and perceived social support. The hardiness scale, the perceived social support scale, and the social anxiety subscale of the self-consciousness scale were administered to 673 Chinese college students aged 18 to 23 years who were recognized as impoverished by the Chinese authorities and provided with funding. The results revealed that (1) hardiness had a significant negative effect on social anxiety, (2) perceived social support moderated the effect of hardiness on social anxiety, and (3) gender moderated the effect of hardiness on social anxiety. The dual moderated model proposed in the study provides practical implications for helping impoverished college students cope with social anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Although no evidence is available in the extant literature to link TMI to identity exploration and commitment directly, the history of examining gender roles as a critical aspect of one's identity spans nearly 40 years, starting when Grotevant & Adams (1984) developed one of the first self-report measures to assess identity statuses. Still, researchers examining the possible gender role consequences of identity commitment and exploration have relied entirely on measures such as the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; Balistreri et al., 1995;Bem, 1974) or the Personality Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; Helmreich et al., 1981;Prager, 1983). These instruments may not capture true gender role beliefs but rather personality characteristics that have been labeled as "masculine" or "feminine" (Auster & Ohm, 2000;Fernández & Coello, 2010). ...
Article
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Over a half century of research has identified constellations of rigid, sexist, and hegemonic beliefs about how men should think, feel, and behave within Western societies (i.e., traditional masculine ideologies; TMI). However, there is a dearth of literature examining why people adhere to TMI. Within in this study, we examined TMI from an identity perspective. Specifically, we focused on the concepts of identity exploration and identity commitment to identify distinct identity statuses based on Marcia’s (1966) identity status theory. Our sample (N = 1136) was composed of college and community cisgender women (n = 890) and cisgender men (n = 244) in the United States. We conducted a Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) to allow identity status groups to naturally emerge based on levels of identity exploration and commitment. A three-class solution emerged as the best fit to the data. Individuals in the foreclosed status (i.e., high commitment but low exploration) scored higher on all seven TMI domains and lower on feminist attitudes compared to those who were high in exploration but low in identity commitment (i.e., identity moratorium). However, there was no difference between individuals high in both identity commitment and exploration (i.e., identity achievement) and the identity foreclosed individuals on feminist attitudes and three of seven dimensions of TMI. Implications and future directions are discussed.
... Socio-cultural expectations for temperamental expressions differ for boys and girls (Buss, 1989 (Simpson & Stevenson-Hinde, 1985). D^iny imale stereotypes emphasise power, confidence and competence whereas many female stereotypes involve passivity, helplessness and dependence (Bern, 1974). ...
Thesis
p>This thesis tested the first part of a new theoretical model, aiming to contribute to the understanding of sex differences in the prevalence of Disruptive Behaviour Disorders (DBDs) in boys and girls. Specifically, gendered perceptions of DBDs, as expressed by parents and prospective educators, were examined. An analogue methodology using written descriptions of child disruptive behaviour followed by rating scales assessing several perceptual dimensions like severity and untypicality was used, along with the SDQ (Goodman, 1997) and rating scales of adults’ emotional reactions and sense of self-efficacy. The first of four studies demonstrated that perspective educators consider DBDs as more untypical in girls rather than boys. This finding was replicated in all studies. The second study showed that prospective educators consider hyperactivity as more severe in boys, whereas the third study established that mothers rate DBDs as equally severe in both sexes. The fourth study showed that correlates of severity and untypicality are different in quality and strength for mothers and prospective educators. For mothers, ratings of severity are mostly related to the emotions evoked by the child’s behaviour, whereas, for prospective educators, they are mostly related to their sense of self-efficacy to handle the child’s behaviour, which is lower in the case of hyperactive boys. To summarise, this thesis has shown that parents and prospective educators have several gendered perceptions of child disruptive behaviour, with higher untypicality conferred to girls’ hyperactive behaviour. Moreover, the role of the adult toward the child and the specific DBD subtype examined seem to influence these differences. Implications of these findings for socialisation practices and referral attitudes that might relate to the reported sex difference in the prevalence of DBDs are discussed.</p
... This study in unable to comment on the contribution of gender identity on differences in word usage. In future studies the inclusion of measures such as the Bern Sex-Role Inventory (Bern, 1974) and ...
Thesis
p>Research studies suggest that important differences exist between the sexes in terms vulnerability to developing PTSD. Further, qualitative differences have been found in the symptom constellation of males and females with PTSD. However, few studies exist that focus specifically on explanations for the gender effect, and theoretical models as yet fail to consider the operation of gender in PTSD processes. The current study explored explanations for gender differences in PTSD within the context of current theoretical insights. Drawing from the literature it was hypothesised that differential vulnerability to PTSD may be related to sex differences in the cognitive contextualisation of emotional experience. Sex differences in cognitive and emotion word usage were therefore examined in a non-clinical sample of university students writing about a neutral and personally traumatic experience. It was found that while males and females did not differ in terms of total emotion words used across the conditions, men used more positive emotion words than did females and females used more anxiety and fear related words than did males. Further, females were found to use significantly more cognitive words than did males. The results of the study support the notion that sex differences may exist in the management of emotion and suggests interesting directions for future research attention.</p
... Similarly, subgroups of individuals who had undergone gender-affirming surgery significantly differed in the length of timeline segments assigned to the past (Nourkova & Ivanova, 2017). Participants with low levels of acquired gender-stereotyped traits as measured by the BSRI (Bem Sex-Role Inventory;Bem, 1974) gave less space to their past than peers who scored high on this scale, indicating successful acquisition of affirming gender-stereotyped traits. In both life-changing conditions, it seems possible that a decrease in uncertainty restored a sense of personal continuity and, as a result, made past TP more assessable. ...
Article
Little is known about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the way people construct their time perspective (TP). This study investigated past and future TP in Hubei, China, comparing a ‘pre-pandemic’ sample collected before the pandemic (late 2019, n = 138) to a ‘habitual-pandemic’ sample collected when the pandemic was largely under control (beginning 2021, n = 109). Using the time line paradigm, participants generated significant past and future personal events indicating dates, emotional valence, and intensity for each. We used these data to test the predictions that the COVID-19 pandemic would shorten TP and evoke pessimism for the future and disappointment for the past. Counter to these predictions, we found: (a) typical levels of positivity in both samples for both past and future events; (b) a higher proportion of positive memories in the habitual-pandemic sample than pre-pandemic one; (c) past and future time extension in the habitual-pandemic sample; and (d) the future was more often completed with one’s own ‘peaceful death’ in the habitual-pandemic sample. To determine whether the ‘peaceful death’ phenomenon is adaptive or maladaptive we examined its coincidence with other timeline characteristics. The analyses indicated that the ‘peaceful death’ phenomenon in both samples was associated with a moderately positive TP and a plurality of prospects with frequent references to travel. These results allow to propose that an elongated TP and a distant ‘peaceful death’ may buffer pandemic-related uncertainty and that an accelerated TP functions in the service of self-continuity and well-being.
Article
Why are women under-represented in the field of economics relative to men? We propose that stereotypes associated with economists contribute to women's interest in the field. We test the predictions that economists are stereotypically associated with low levels of communion and high levels of agency and that this type of stereotype content is associated with women's lower interest in the field. In Study 1 (N = 883), stereotypes associated with people in the field of economics were masculine, characterized with low levels of communion and high levels of agency. In Study 2 (N = 182), undergraduate women were less interested than men in majoring in fields that share the same pattern of stereotyping found for economists in Study 1. The results from this study have important implications for increasing young women's interest and representation in the field of economics.
Article
Despite the conceptual proximity between the basic needs and agency and communion and their similar function for psychological functioning, studies investigating their interplay are scarce. This study aims to investigate their joint role in hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. Self-reports were collected from 13,313 adolescents (Sample 1) and 1,707 young adults (Sample 2) from Austria. The results show the importance of both agency and communion for the fulfillment of different basic needs and their role in well-being, with a universal interaction effect between communion and perceived competence on intrinsic motivation (eudaimonic aspect) in both gender groups in adolescence, as well as on positive emotions (hedonic aspect) among young women. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Article
Research shows that the subscales of the Relationship Profile Test (RPT) are related to adult attachment. Gender differences have been implicated, but findings are inconsistent in terms of replication. A limited amount of research has been conducted on ethnic differences in the context of interpersonal dependency. This study aims to bridge the gap in the literature in terms of using the RPT to predict attachment styles and to assess gender and ethnic group differences in RPT scores. Four samples from various treatment settings were combined to yield a heterogeneous group of ethnically diverse men and women (N = 470) with a mean age of 31.96. No gender differences were observed; however, ethnic differences were noted, with the RPT scales predicting unique variance in secure and insecure attachment styles. This study evidences the incremental validity of the RPT scales when predicting adult attachment style with consideration of ethnic group differences, which can help inform the treatment and assessment process.
Article
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory musculoskeletal disease with a chronic, progressive course. Various aspects of PsA, including its clinical features, disease course and response to treatment, are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics of the patient. This includes patient sex, the biological attributes associated with being male or female, and gender, a sociocultural construct that comprises attitudes, traits and behaviours associated with being a man or a woman. An understanding of sex- and gender-related differences in PsA, as well as their underlying mechanisms, is therefore important for individualized care. In this narrative review, the influence of sex and gender on PsA manifestation and course, patient function and quality of life, and their association with comorbidities are described. Sex- and gender-related disparities in response to advanced therapies and their potential underlying mechanisms are delineated. Differences in pathophysiological mechanisms between male and female patients including genetics, immune and hormonal mechanisms are discussed. Finally, fertility and pregnancy outcomes in PsA are outlined. By adopting sex and gender lenses, this review is aimed at highlighting key differences between male and female patients with PsA and uncovering mechanisms underlying these differences, ultimately promoting individualized care of men and women with PsA and informing future research in this area.
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Despite numerous evidence for the leader's role in facilitating employees' green behavior, few studies have delved into the intervening mechanisms of the trickle‐down effect transmitting green behavior from leaders to their subordinates. Drawing on social learning theory, we explicate a trickle‐down process for voluntary green behavior from leaders to subordinates through leaders' green role model influence and employees' green self‐efficacy, with leader gender as a moderator. Analysis of 70 leaders and 190 employees revealed that leaders' green role model influence and employees' green self‐efficacy sequentially mediated the relationship between voluntary green behavior of leaders and that of employees. Moreover, both the direct and indirect effects were moderated by leader gender: While the direct effect was stronger for male leaders, the sequential mediating effect was stronger for female leaders. Overall, our study confirms the utility of social learning theory in explaining the trickle‐down effect of voluntary green behavior at work.
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Women of color (vs. White women) are underrepresented in the United States government. Identifying factors that affect evaluations of these women is important to understand their underrepresentation. Deviating from communal expectations contributes to backlash against women. Being perceived as prioritizing communality thus appears key for women to receive support. Little work, however, has examined this relation in actual politicians and how perceiver political ideology may affect it. We examined how gendered trait inferences and political ideology affected evaluations of Kamala Harris, the first woman of color elected to the executive branch, before the 2020 election. People perceived Harris as more agentic than communal (Studies 1–2). Communal trait inferences and having a more liberal political ideology each positively related to evaluations of Harris. More liberal relative to more conservative perceivers had weaker positive communality effects when evaluating her expected success (Studies 1–2) and when a description conveyed Harris’s communality (vs. agency; Study 2). These findings highlight communality effects on evaluations of Harris and suggest a context under which she was likely more supported by co-partisans. Moreover, these studies identify potential sources of bias toward female candidates of color, illustrating a need for gendered trait inferences to be thoroughly considered in campaign strategies. Additional online materials for this article are available on PWQ’s website at http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/suppl/10.1177/03616843221104383 .
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Although there are classical and modern leadership styles, from a historical perspective, hybrid leadership practices have been the norm. It is essential to state that the idea of hybrid leadership is not new, nor has it resulted from hybrid working conditions. This chapter analyzes hybrid leadership from different perspectives, tracing its origins, the start of publications in the field, and its evolution. A short bibliometric analysis is included to provide a general background about how the study of hybrid leadership has evolved. The different leadership styles and models connected to hybrid leadership will be analyzed, as well as its main characteristics. The goal is to present an overview of hybrid leadership and how it has been applied in different contexts.
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We compare the preferences of athletes who practice individual sports to those of non-athletes, by combining incentivized tasks and survey questions. Athletes were more likely to opt for the tournament payment scheme in the competitive tasks. Female athletes and male non-athletes were equally likely to select the tournament payment. We also find that female athletes were equally as risk-tolerant as non-athlete men and equally as risk-tolerant as men overall (whether athletes or non-athletes), for incentivized tasks and stated preferences. It is concluded that participation in competitive sports favors closure of the gender gaps in competitiveness and risk tolerance.
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The main goal of the present research was to examine whether the activation of gender schema would be indifferent to the method of induction: placing individuals into contexts or incidentally exposing them to contexts. Based on Clément-Guillotin and Fontayne’s (2011. Situational malleability of gender schema: The case of the competitive sport context. Sex Roles, 64 , 426–439) study examining gender-related information processing efficiency while explicitly placing individuals into contexts, we investigated the same aspect while incidentally exposing individuals to contexts. We hypothesized that an exposure to a single, powerfully gendered context ( i.e. , competitive sport) may be sufficient to render gender and sex categories accessible when compared to a gender-neutral context ( i.e. , cinema). Three studies showed that participants primed with a competitive sport context were faster to respond to gender attributes and to indicate their own sex than participants primed with a cinema context. This underlines that the activation of sex and gender category systems is not identical when being incidentally exposed to versus actually being immersed in a gendered context. While explicitly placing individuals into a gendered context seems to activate a single gender schema dimension related to the context, being incidentally exposed to a single gendered context seems to activate both gender schema dimensions.
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In this chapter we juxtapose a queer theory formulation of gender with theories and research in the psychology and sociology of gender. Our discussion focuses on ideas from Judith Butler’s foundational book Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. We discuss three key ideas found in Butler’s early work. The first key idea is Butler’s rejection of a distinction between sex as “natural” and gender as “cultural” which connects to their development of a performativity theory of gender. The second key idea is Butler’s formulation of the heterosexual matrix and its inherent instability, in which heterosexuality is dependent for its identity on the rejection of homosexuality. The third idea we discuss is Butler’s insight that a reconfiguration and proliferation of gender identities can be effectively used to dismantle gender and sexual binaries. We draw connections between each of these postulations and empirical research: on the relationship between biology and genders, on the internalization of gender schemas, and on the development of masculine heterosexual identity. We conclude with a review of psychological research on gender nonbinary and agender identities, and gender fluidity.
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A sense of power refers to the perception that one can control and influence others’ states by providing or withholding valued resources in an asymmetrical way, and which has been associated with greater hope. However, little is known about the neural bases underlying this association. The present study aimed to examine these phenomena in 261 healthy adolescent students by assessing resting-state brain activity (i.e., the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations, ALFF) and connectivity (i.e., resting-state functional connectivity, RSFC). Whole-brain correlation analyses revealed that higher levels of perceived power were linked with reduced ALFF in the left thalamus and increased RSFC between the left thalamus and left superior temporal gyrus. Mediation analyses further showed that perceived power mediated the influence of the left thalamus activity on hope. Our results remained significant even after controlling for the head motion, age, and gender. Our findings contribute to the neurobiological basis of a sense of power and the neural mechanism underlying the relationship between a sense of power and hope.
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The paper aims to present the taxonomies of self-presentation tactics, the instruments for investigating and measuring the forms of self-presentation, as well as the determinants of self-presentation. The paper presents and describes the taxonomies of self-presentation tactics developed by Jones and Pittman (1982), Tedeschi (1981), Tedeschi, Lindskold and Rosenfeld (1985), Arkin (1981) and Schültz (1998). Moreover, eight instruments examining and measuring the forms of self-presentation in different social situations were introduced. We also presented numerous scholars’ results related to the determinants of self-presentation, which indicate that self-presentation behavior is determined by one’s personal characteristics (age, gender, level of self-esteem, self-perception, private and public self -awareness, and social anxiety), by the characteristics of tThe paper aims to present the taxonomies of self-presentation tactics, the instruments for investigating and measuring the forms of self-presentation, as well as the determinants of self-presentation. The paper presents and describes the taxonomies of self-presentation tactics developed by Jones and Pittman (1982), Tedeschi (1981), Tedeschi, Lindskold and Rosenfeld (1985), Arkin (1981) and Schültz (1998). Moreover, eight instruments examining and measuring the forms of self-presentation in different social situations were introduced. We also presented numerous scholars’ results related to the determinants of self-presentation, which indicate that self-presentation behavior is determined by one’s personal characteristics (age, gender, level of self-esteem, self-perception, private and public self -awareness, and social anxiety), by the characteristics of the interlocutor or audience to whom a person presents oneself (the social status of the audience, the gender of the audience, the level of familiarity with the audience, the level of dependence on the audience, and the prediction of future interaction with the audience), and by the characteristics of the social situation in which self-presentation takes place (prediction of the target value of impression, the importance of desired aims and balance between the real and desired public image of oneself). Keywords: self-presentation tactics, instruments for measuring the forms of self-presentation, self-presentation determinants. he interlocutor or audience to whom a person presents oneself (the social status of the audience, the gender of the audience, the level of familiarity with the audience, the level of dependence on the audience, and the prediction of future interaction with the audience), and by the characteristics of the social situation in which self-presentation takes place (prediction of the target value of impression, the importance of desired aims and balance between the real and desired public image of oneself). Keywords: self-presentation tactics, instruments for measuring the forms of self-presentation, self-presentation determinants.
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Most people consume meat regularly but simultaneously claim to be animal lovers, which should lead to a state of cognitive dissonance and cause distress. Against this backdrop, it is important to understand why some people decide to stop consuming meat or completely eschew animal products, while others do not. Research has shown gender and self-regulatory mechanisms as important factors, but the underlying psychological processes require further examination. In total, 3259 vegans, vegetarians, and omnivores completed an online questionnaire about their diet, gender role self-concept, moral disengagement from meat consumption, and human supremacy beliefs. The results showed that male vegans described themselves as more feminine but no less masculine than male omnivores, while no such differences were found in women. Furthermore, omnivores reported the highest moral disengagement from meat consumption, followed by vegetarians and vegans. The same was true of human supremacy beliefs. Moreover, the results showed that not only is diet itself related to differences in human supremacy beliefs but also the motives for this diet, with health and environmental motives being associated with stronger human supremacy beliefs than animal-related motives. These findings present practical implications for animal rights activists, marketing, and the health and education sectors.
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An approach to the problem of quantifying norms of social desirability is presented using True or False responses to items or statements on a scale. A 9-point social desirability continuum is suggested ranging from highly undesirable, through neutral, to highly desirable and social desirability scale values for each statement are determined by averaging the points on the scale selected by a number of raters. "Knowing the social desirability scale value of a statement, it is possible to define the concept of a socially desirable response… a True response to an item with a socially desirable scale value or a False response to an item with a socially undesirable scale value." Reasons are given why many personality scales should correlate with a scale designed to measure the tendency to give socially desirable responses. (44 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A survey of certain aspects of socialization in 110 cultures shows that differentiation of the sexes is unimportant in infancy, but that in childhood there is, as in our society, a widespread pattern of greater pressure toward nurturance, obedience, and responsibility in girls, and toward self-reliance and achievement striving in boys. There are a few reversals of sex difference, and many instances of no detectable sex difference; these facts tend to confirm the cultural rather than directly biological nature of the differences. Cultures vary in the degree to which these differentiations are made; correlational analysis suggests some of the social conditions influencing these variations, and helps in understanding why our society has relatively small sex differentiation.
New York: Russell Sage Founda-tion A cognitive-developmental analysis of children's sex-role concepts and attitudes The development of sex dif-ferences Family, socialization, and interaction process
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One consequence of psychological androgyny 1Q74, in press The measurement of human motives by means of personality scales Nebraska symposium on motivation Inner and outer space: Reflections on womanhood The woman in America Acquisition and significance of sex-typing and sex-role identity
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