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Resistance of Escherichia Coli and Salmonella Typhimurium to Carbenicillin

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Abstract

SUMMARY Carbenicillin, a 9-alpha carboxybenzyl penicillin, is bactericidal only for Escherichia coli strains which are resistant to less than 125 pg./ml. of ampi- cillin. All E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium strains in which penicillinase is a surface enzyme are resistant to carbenicillin. E. coli and S. typhimurium strains in which production of beta-lactamase is episomally mediated are resistant to both ampicillin and carbenicillin. A non-hydrolyzable penicillin (methicillin or dicloxacillin) does not allow carbenicillin to exert its anti- bacterial effect against resistant strains of E. coli, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella or Enterobacter. Carbenicillin shows no synergy with penicillinase-resistant penicillins.

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... In our study, growth analysis showed that E. coli strain JJ1886 was resistant to CAR and NHS during the 24-h incubation, and the nlpI gene encoding lipoprotein NlpI was downregulated in the presence of CAR. CAR is a carboxypenicillin, and E. coli strains that have surface β-lactamase are resistant to CAR (40). The mode of action of CAR is to inhibit cell wall synthesis during peptidoglycan cross-linking; this could affect the cell wall and periplasm membrane (41). ...
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Background/aim: β-Lactamase-producing Escherichia coli strain JJ1886 is an epidemic clone with high virulence properties. Because this strain can survive in the bloodstream, we aimed here to understand how β-lactam antibiotics and human serum affect the growth and gene expression of this bacterium. Materials and methods: We report the time-dependent growth effect of normal human serum and heat-inactivated serum, together with β-lactam antibiotics (including cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and carbenicillin), for E. coli strain JJ1886. Relative gene expression of β-lactamase-related genes (encoding the β-lactamase regulator, CTX-M-15, and peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase) and serum survival- associated genes (encoding lipoprotein NlpI, murein lipoprotein, lipopolysaccharide core heptose (I) kinase, lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis protein, capsule synthesis protein, and phosphate transport system) were investigated by RT-qPCR. Results: Cells proliferated during the exponential growth phase when the bacterium was treated with human serum. However, cefotaxime and ceftazidime together with serum had a bactericidal effect at each of the tested time points. Downregulation was observed in gene-encoding lipoprotein NlpI as a result of treatment with carbenicillin. Conclusion: Serum plus cefotaxime or ceftazidime had bactericidal activities. When the bacterium was treated with human serum and β-lactam antibiotics, there were no significant changes in relative gene expression, except for the nlpI gene.
... We tested the effectiveness of tannins (TA and GA) to influence the MIC of the antibiotics CAR and TET. These antibiotics were selected based on the reports of sensitivity of C. violaceum towards the antibiotic CAR (Neu and Swart 1969;Farrar and Odell 1976;Yang and Li 2011) and TET (Lee et al. 1999;Kumar 2012). Of the 72 isolates of C. violaceum tested against different antimicrobial agents, 42% were susceptible to CAR and 92% to TET (Yang and Li 2011). ...
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Chromobacterium violaceum is an opportunistic pathogen that causes infections that are difficult to treat. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of selected tannins (tannic acid (TA) and gallic acid (GA)) on bacterial growth, motility, antibiotic (carbenicillin, tetracycline) susceptibility, and biofilm formation. Both tannins, particularly TA, impaired bacterial growth levels and swimming motilities at sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs). In combination with tannins, antibiotics showed increased MICs, suggesting that tannins interfered with antibacterial activity. Sub-MICs of tetracycline or TA alone enhanced biofilm formation of C. violaceum; however, in combination, these compounds inhibited biofilm formation. In contrast, carbenicillin at sub-MICs was effective in inhibiting C. violaceum biofilm formation; however, in combination with lower concentrations of TA or GA, biofilms were enhanced. These results provide insights into the effects of tannins on C. violaceum growth and their varying interaction with antibiotics used to target C. violaceum infections.
... These results indicate that the regions identified as important for FNR-mediated repression are solvent exposed and also provide further evidence to support the cAMP receptor protein-based predicted FNR structure, because the equivalent positions are known to be surface exposed in the cAMP receptor protein. DISCUSSION Transcription can be repressed either passively by promoter occlusion, i.e. when a regulator blocks access of RNA polymerase to the promoter, or actively, in which the regulator makes direct contact with RNA polymerase to inhibit transcription initiation (17). The observation that FNR and RNA polymerase can simultaneously interact with the FNR-repressible ndh promoter suggested that, in this case, repression is unlikely to be mediated simply by promoter occlusion (6, 7). ...
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Chapter
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Chapter
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Bei Konjugationsversuchen zwischen multiresistenten Stämmen von Escherichia coli und Salmonella heidelberg wurde mit der Ampicillinresistenz immer gemeinsam die Resistenz gegen Carbenicillin übertragen. Die durch R-Plasmide determinierte Resistenz gegen Ampicillin und Carbenicillin wird vermutlich durch ein und dasselbe Gen, das über die Bildung einer Penicillinase die Resistenz realisiert, determiniert.
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The activity of a new semisynthetic penicillin, carbenicillin, was determined against 241 strains of gram-negative bacilli with the tube-dilution technique. Of 143 strains of Pseudomonas sp., 99 had a minimal inhibitory concentration of 200 to 300 mug/ml. The majority of strains of Escherichia coli and Proteus spp. were sensitive to this antibiotic, with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 25 mug/ml or less. Strains of Klebsiella sp. were quite resistant to carbenicillin. The size of inoculum had no significant effect on the minimal inhibitory concentration for Pseudomonas sp.
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