Urinary 17-OHCS levels. Data on seven helicopter ambulance medics in combat

ArticleinArchives of General Psychiatry 17(1):104-10 · August 1967with5 Reads
Source: PubMed
    • "[46] Administration of ACTH to pregnant rats results in decreased basal corticosterone levels, reduced adrenocortical reactivity and decreased adrenal volumes in the offspring.[13, 47, 48] In human studies, hypocortisolism has been reported in adults with post-traumatic stress disorder,[49] patients suffering from bodily disorders, such as burnout with physical complaints, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic pelvic pain and asthma among others,5051525354 in very low-income women with high levels of depressive symptoms[55] and in healthy individuals who lived under conditions of ongoing stress.56575859 In children, hypocortisolism has been reported in at risk populations of children,[37] including children with chronic stress,[43, 44, 60] children reared in institutions,[61] or in foster care, [62, 63] boys with attention problems, [64] clinically depressed maltreated school aged children,[65, 66] boys of low income depressed mothers,[67] post-traumatic stress disorder,[68] boys with antisocial behavior69707172737475 and autism.[76] "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Determine the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal environmental adversity on salivary cortisol stress reactivity in school-aged children. Subjects included 743 11-year-old children (n = 320 cocaine-exposed; 423 comparison) followed since birth in a longitudinal prospective multisite study. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol at baseline and after a standardized procedure to induce psychological stress. Children were divided into those who showed an increase in cortisol from baseline to post stress and those who showed a decrease or blunted cortisol response. Covariates measured included site, birthweight, maternal pre and postnatal use of alcohol, tobacco or marijuana, social class, changes in caretakers, maternal depression and psychological symptoms, domestic and community violence, child abuse, and quality of the home. With adjustment for confounding variables, cortisol reactivity to stress was more likely to be blunted in children with prenatal cocaine exposure. Children exposed to cocaine and who experienced domestic violence showed the strongest effects. The combination of prenatal cocaine exposure and an adverse postnatal environment could downregulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis resulting in the blunted cortisol response to stress possibly increasing risk for later psychopathology and adult disease.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010
    • "Study paradigms that involve experimental perturbation of the cortisol system, as seen during stressful challenges, may add additional information about function of the HPA axis in PTSD. The cortisol system can be highly susceptible to the influence of psychological factors (Bourne et al., 1967; Miller, 1968; Rubin et al., 1969; Miller et al., 1970; Hofer et al., 1972a,b), making the interpretation of findings of baseline HPA axis function in PTSD difficult to interpret. Several studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using cognitively challenging tasks such as mental arithmetic, simulated driving, or public speaking, as laboratory tests in the study of the stress response, and have applied this paradigm to research on aging and depression, with findings of blunted cortisol response in depression (Wittersheim et al., 1985; Gotthardt et al., 1995; Trestman et al., 1991; Seeman et al., 1995a,b; Kirschbaum et al., 1996; Lupien et al., 1997 ). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preclinical studies show that animals with a history of chronic stress exposure have increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity following reexposure to stress. Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been found to have normal or decreased function of the HPA axis, however no studies have looked at the HPA response to stress in PTSD. The purpose of this study was to assess cortisol responsivity to a stressful cognitive challenge in patients with PTSD related to childhood abuse. Salivary cortisol levels, as well as heart rate and blood pressure, were measured before and after a stressful cognitive challenge in patients with abuse-related PTSD (N=23) and healthy comparison subjects (N=18). PTSD patients had 61% higher group mean cortisol levels in the time period leading up to the cognitive challenge, and 46% higher cortisol levels during the time period of the cognitive challenge, compared to controls. Both PTSD patients and controls had a similar 66-68% increase in cortisol levels from their own baseline with the cognitive challenge. Following the cognitive challenge, cortisol levels fell in both groups and were similar in PTSD and control groups. PTSD patients appeared to have an increased cortisol response in anticipation of a cognitive challenge relative to controls. Although cortisol has been found to be low at baseline, there does not appear to be an impairment in cortisol response to stressors in PTSD.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2003
    • "It is interesting to note that this pattern of blunted secretion emerged in an early study with parents of cancer patients (Friedman, Mason, & Hamburg, 1963), which found that cortisol levels were remarkably stable across time, even during periods when a child's medical status had deteriorated significantly. Blunted cortisol secretion also has been described in patients who suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (Yehuda, 1998Yehuda, , 2000 Yehuda et al., 1996 ), teachers with workrelated burnout (Pruessner et al., 1999), women with conflicting role demands (Adam & Gunnar, 2001), breast cancer patients who experience accelerated mortality (Sephton, Sapolsky, Kraemer, & Spiegel, 2000), and soldiers in the midst of combat (Bourne, Rose, & Mason, 1967, 1968). Given that the average parent in our study had been dealing with cancer for more than 9 months at the time he or she participated, it is conceivable that declines in IL-6 glucocorticoid sensitivity arose from exposure to high concentrations of cortisol in the months shortly after diagnosis. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined whether chronic stress impairs the immune system's capacity to respond to hormonal signals that terminate inflammation. Fifty healthy adults were studied; half were parents of cancer patients, and half were parents of healthy children. Parents of cancer patients reported more psychological distress than parents of healthy children. They also had flatter diurnal slopes of cortisol secretion, primarily because of reduced output during the morning hours. There was also evidence that chronic stress impaired the immune system's response to anti-inflammatory signals: The capacity of a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone to suppress in vitro production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 was diminished among parents of cancer patients. Findings suggest a novel pathway by which chronic stress might alter the course of inflammatory disease.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2002
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