Urinary 17-OHCS levels. Data on seven helicopter ambulance medics in combat.
Available from: Eric Vermetten
- "The cortisol system can be highly susceptible to the influence of psychological factors (Bourne et al., 1967; Miller, 1968; Rubin et al., 1969; Miller et al., 1970; Hofer et al., 1972a,b), making the interpretation of findings of baseline HPA axis function in PTSD difficult to interpret. "
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ABSTRACT: Preclinical studies show that animals with a history of chronic stress exposure have increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity following reexposure to stress. Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been found to have normal or decreased function of the HPA axis, however no studies have looked at the HPA response to stress in PTSD. The purpose of this study was to assess cortisol responsivity to a stressful cognitive challenge in patients with PTSD related to childhood abuse. Salivary cortisol levels, as well as heart rate and blood pressure, were measured before and after a stressful cognitive challenge in patients with abuse-related PTSD (N=23) and healthy comparison subjects (N=18). PTSD patients had 61% higher group mean cortisol levels in the time period leading up to the cognitive challenge, and 46% higher cortisol levels during the time period of the cognitive challenge, compared to controls. Both PTSD patients and controls had a similar 66-68% increase in cortisol levels from their own baseline with the cognitive challenge. Following the cognitive challenge, cortisol levels fell in both groups and were similar in PTSD and control groups. PTSD patients appeared to have an increased cortisol response in anticipation of a cognitive challenge relative to controls. Although cortisol has been found to be low at baseline, there does not appear to be an impairment in cortisol response to stressors in PTSD.
Available from: Dirk Hellhammer
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the effect of chronic stress associated with unemployment on the magnitude of salivary cortisol excretion, on the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, and on cortisol reactivity to acute naturalistic stressors using Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM). Employed (N = 60) and unemployed (N = 60) subjects were studied for 2 days. Subjects were beeped 6 times per day by a preprogrammed wristwatch to assess acute stressors; 25 minutes after each ESM-beep, subjects were beeped a second time for saliva samples. The groups did not differ in their overall cortisol excretion or in cortisol reactivity to acute daily stressors. Compared to employed subjects, unemployed subjects had a diurnal pattern of cortisol excretion with relatively higher morning and lower evening levels. Subjects' daily activities and their locations were associated with diurnal rhythm differences.
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