Article

Microbial Contamination in Ocular Cosmetics

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Abstract

Eye cosmetic samples (428) from 235 women were cultured for bacteria and fungi. Contamination was noted in 12% (fungal) and 43% (bacterial) of the samples. Cultures from the outer eye of women with contaminated cosmetics yielded the same organism in a significant number of cases. In one instance, the mascara of a woman with keratomycosis due to Fusarium solani yielded the same fungus and in five of six women with pseudomonas-contaminated cosmetics, pseudomonas was isolated from the outer eye. New cosmetic samples were essentially free of microbial contamination. Representative fungal isolates were shown to assimilate cosmetic components such as paraffin oil, petroleum, and isopropyl myristate. This study demonstrates that bacteria and fungi may contaminate eye makeup, presenting a potential hazard of ocular infection.

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... 145 Use of cosmetics contaminated with microbes may also induce ocular surface inflammation. 140,179,267,268 Inflammatory mediators within the tear film lead to goblet cell loss, disturbances in glycocalyx mucin expression and disruption to the mucin layer of the tear film, predisposing to ocular surface epithelial damage and driving further inflammation. Periocular cosmetics and eye make up removers contain a variety of chemicals, including fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, emollients, resins, nickel-containing pigments, and pearlescent additives. ...
... These infections were initially treated as allergic reactions and worsened with immunosuppression. 110,268 Cosmetic tattoos are often performed in non-clinical settings and, although rare, blood-borne infections do occur in patients undergoing eyelid and eyebrow tattoos. 228 Liao abd coworkers describe a case of eyelid hypopigmentation as a delayed reaction to eyeliner tattoos, postulating that chemicals within the ink inhibited melanin synthesis. ...
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The popularity and variety of temporary and permanent periocular aesthetic treatments has increased over the past decade. Patients frequently present to eye clinics with ocular complications and side effects following these treatments, their severity ranging from ocular irritation from dry eyes to visual loss from vascular occlusion. A careful, thorough history is essential, as many patients may not associate aesthetic procedures with ocular complications, and some may be embarrassed to disclose this information. All ophthalmologists should understand the potential ocular sequelae of these treatments and be able to initiate treatment in sight-threatening cases. Wesummarises the current literature on ophthalmic complications of the most common periocular aesthetic treatments.
... Sources of this microbial contamination may include air and water, manufacturing equipment, manufacturing personnel and/or the consumer [5]. Bacterial contamination of products through consumer use, has resulted in presence of mixed and harmful microbial flora in the product [6]. ...
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... C. albicans survives well on moist surfaces and can be isolated from the toothbrushes of subjects with oral yeasts (Koch & Koch 1981). It may also survive in eye cosmetics (Wilson et al. 1971) and hand cream (France 1968). An endophthalmitis outbreak in drug addicts was thought to result from a contaminated diluent used in injections (Shankland & Richardson 1988). ...
... A report from Wilson et al. (12) states that the outer eyes of women who use eye cosmetics often harbor pseudomonas organisms which are transferred to their eye liners, mascaras, and eye shadows, where growth may continue. Later, these potentially infectious materials are reapplied to the eyes. ...
Article
Synopsis--The potential hazard to consumers from use of EYE-AREA COSMETICS contami-nated with PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA was evaluated. The development of pseudo-monas KERATITIS in rabbit and monkey eyes could only be achieved consistently when or-ganisms were introduced into eyes whose corneal epithelium was not intact. Data are also presented which compare the effects of introducing viable organisms and ENDOTOXIN (a pscudomonas lipopolysaccharide) into CORNEA with those obtained on SCLERA and DERMIS by topical application and injecti,on techniques. The RABBIT EYE appears to be more sensitive to the virulent effects of P. aeruginosa than the MONKEY EYE. Finally, experimental results suggest that corneal destruction by P. aeruginosa results from the or-ganism's elaboration of a COLLAGENOLYTIC ENZYME, which may be activated in vivo during the infectire process. When endotoxin prepared from P. aeruginosa is injected into the cornea, it produces corneal changes resembling pseudomonas keratitis. The endotoxin also appears to be capable of stimulating the release of a collagenolytic enzyme. Further work is needed to establish the precise mechanisms of tissue destruction.
... 67 As described above, most eye cosmetics contain preservatives. Wilson et al. 68 reported that there must be more than 5,000 organisms per milliliter in a liquid eyeliner to hinder the function of the preservatives within it. Repeated use of eye cosmetics by multiple users (e.g., testers at cosmetic counters) increases exposure to contaminants and can inoculate the product with high levels of bacteria. ...
Article
Despite the fact that cosmetic products undergo rigorous testing to ensure they are safe for human use, some users report mild discomfort following their application. The cutaneous changes, such as allergic dermatitis, are well reported, but the ocular changes associated with eye cosmetic use are less so. Some pigmented cosmetic products may accumulate within the lacrimal system and conjunctivae over many years of use, but immediate reports of eye discomfort after application are most common. Changes to the tear film and its stability may occur shortly after application, and contact lens wearers can also be affected by lens spoliation from cosmetic products. Additionally, creams used in the prevention of skin aging are often applied around the eyes, and retinoids present in these formulations can have negative effects on meibomian gland function and may be a contributing factor to dry eye disease. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the impact of cosmetic products on the eye, ocular surface, and tear film.
... Studies of in-use mascaras that are applied to eye lashes have shown that these periocular cosmetics are often contaminated with microorganisms, which usually are representative of the normal human skin flora (3,17,30,31). Eye shadows are another type of cosmetic applied around the eyes, usually on the upper lid. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first surveillance study of the type and incidence of microbial contamination associated with in-use store display eye shadow testers. ...
Article
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... 2,6,7 There is an increased risk of ocular infection with microbial con- tamination of the products, which may arise from multiple sources, such as during the manufacturing process, reduced preservative efficacy with the age of the product, and shared use of cosmetic products amongst multiple users. [36][37][38][39] Ocular Demodex mites have a high affinity toward oil-rich environ- ments, such as the meibomian glands, and may also survive in oil-based cosmetic products and applicators. 6 Corneal trauma is a recognized potential complication from the use of mascara applicator wands (Figure 4). ...
Article
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Eye cosmetics are frequently applied among female populations of all age groups around the world. However, the migration of cosmetic products across the eyelid margin has been reported, and this is thought to exacerbate tear film instability and symptoms of dry eye. Furthermore, numerous adverse effects and complications have also been reported with eye cosmetic wear, and the associated inflammatory responses may potentially increase the propensity toward ocular surface disease development. Prospective studies have demonstrated that eyeliner application at the inner eyelash line is associated with higher levels of tear film contamination and ocular discomfort than application at the outer periocular skin. A recent randomized trial also highlighted the potential for eye cosmetic wear to compromise the efficacy of lipid-based dry eye supplements. This review outlines the current evidence base and understanding regarding the periocular migration of eye cosmetic products, the effects of cosmetic product contamination on tear film function, and the use of dry eye treatments in eye cosmetic wearers.
... 27,72 Curvularia keratitis is also a rare complication of soft contact lens wear, 82 possibly because this fungus is capable of contaminating contact lenses 82,103 and cosmetics. 104 Curvularia may be found on unwashed skin but colonizes less than 1% of normal human eyelids 105 and only 1% to 3% of healthy conjunctivae. 70,[106][107][108] Curvularia keratitis has a slower course and less inflammation than some other fungal corneal infections. ...
Article
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The literature between January, 1970 and June, 1972 on external diseases of the eye has been reviewed. Summaries of forty-two papers arc presented which demonstrate changes in approach and concern in the area of external diseases of the eye.
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Rabbit corneas, intact or abraded, were inoculated with 10 different fungal or bacterial microorganisms. Lesions developed in abraded eyes only in four of six animals infected with P. aeruginosa strain F1 and one of six treated with Fd2 strain of the same organism. None of the remaining organisms produced lesions in the intact or injured corneas. A cosmetic eyeliner was contaminated with a mixture of large inocula of the same organisms. After three days at room temperature, the number of viable organisms was markedly reduced. Neither the uncontaminated nor the three-day contaminated cosmetic produced conjunctival or corneal lesions when introduced into intact or abraded rabbit eyes.
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Chapter
IntroductionMajor Microbial Risk FactorsPackage Characteristics That Influence Risk AssessmentRefillable Packaging ConceptsReusable/Refillable Packaging RisksBulk Product ConsiderationsBulk Product And Refill DispensersCosmetic Applicators And Mode Of ApplicationClosures And Delivery SystemsRating Packaging Microbial RiskSummaryReferences
Chapter
IntroductionUnique Microbiological Issues To Going GreenNatural CosmeticsEffectiveness Of Natural Preservatives“Free From” DilemmaSummationReferences
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Chapter
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Chapter
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To protect consumers from unsafe or deceptively labeled cosmetics, the Food and Drug Administration promulgates regulations, conducts factory inspections, investigates marketed products, evaluates consumer complaints, maintains registries of voluntarily submitted formulation and adverse reaction information, and carries out analytical, microbiological and lexicological studies. There has been a significant shift in program priorities from surveillance activities to scientific research and the determination of systemic hazards to health. Major scientific efforts involve studies to determine the dermal toxicity of cosmetics, develop methods for predicting the efficacy of preservatives, and answer questions about the skin penetration and carcinogenicity of nitrosodiethanolamine. A further issue of concern is the carcinogenic hazard of hair dyes.
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A patient with superficial punctate keratitis, who was receiving antibiotic and steroid therapy, developed an indolent corneal ulcer due to Candida parapsilosis (C. parakrusei). Treatment, which included use of the antifungal antibiotics nystatin (Mycostatin) and amphotericin B (Fungizone), was followed by slow healing of the ulcer.Report of a Case The patient was first seen on Oct. 26, 1956, at the age of 37 years. She gave a history of five-year chronic recurrent inflammation of first one eye and then the other. Examination revealed a superficial punctate keratitis of the left eye. The vision was 20/20 in the right eye and only 2/200 in the left. The left eye was amblyopic due to esotropia in childhood. A litmus paper test revealed only 5 mm. of paper to be moist in the right side and only 6 mm. on the left after five minutes. The patient was thought to have keratitis
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The clinical signs of nail psoriasis are described and correlated with the psoriatic involvement of the original nail components responsible for the formation of these signs. Nail plate abnormalities, ie, pits and grooves, result from previous matrix psoriasis. Nail bed discoloration, onycholysis, and subungual keratosis result from nail bed or hyponychium involvement or both. It is suggested that the yellow greasy-look of psoriatic nails is due to a serum glycoprotein which accumulates in and under the abnormal nail. Isolation of Candida from subungual debris is frequent. The presence of dermatophytes is rare.
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Seven patients with proven fungal ulcers have been treated topically at frequent intervals with pimaricin 5% suspension. Prior laboratory experiments are cited and a volunteer ocular toxicity study is reported. Of seven patients treated, six received topical drops of 1% potassium iodide solution along with the pimaricin therapy. Two patients required penetrating keratoplasties and one patient was given a conjunctival inlay flap after pimaricin treatment. All patients obtained good visual results. In those patients subjected to keratoplasty, pathologic specimens obtained at surgery did not reveal any residual superficial fungus. Pimaricin 5% ophthalmic suspension has proved itself to be nontoxic, nonirritating and well tolerated. It is efficacious in cases of superficial keratomycosis, obtaining cures in two to four weeks. It is viscous, adhering well to the ulcer surface, and it remains in the cul-desac for long periods. This agent warrants further evaluation.
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Full textFull text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (296K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References. 117 Selected References These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article. Mirando EH, Gomez M. Lead poisoning in childhood in Ceylon. Arch Dis Child. 1967 Dec;42(226):579–582. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
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Samples from the eyelid margins and conjunctival sacs of both eyes of 158 people with no clinical evidence of ocular disease were cultured twice to determine the incidence and persistence of fungi. Fungi, predominantly yeasts, were obtained from 47 eyes of 35 individuals, 22 women and 13 men. Candida parapsilosis, the most common species isolated, occurred in 12 out of 47 eyes. Fungi in the healthy outer eye appeared to depend on random seeding from the environment and to be transient. In two cultures at a one-week interval of samples from all eyes, only three subjects had the same fungus in the same eye. Following alteration of environment of two of these three subjects, a third culture was negative for fungi. The introduction of high numbers of adventitious pathogenic fungi into the eye or in the surrounding region, by cosmetics or ophthalmic medications is potentially hazardous.
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Fourteen patients have been presented, ranging from 15 to 40 years of age, who have tattooed their conjunctivas by using eyeliner pencil on the conjunctival side of the lashes. This pigmentation appears to be permanent. A conjunctival biopsy was taken from one patient. An unsuccessful attempt was made to duplicate the picture in guinea pigs.
Article
Urine specimens from 1013 patients were selectively and quantitatively cultured for yeasts. The presence of yeasts was correlated with the age, sex, and physical condition of the individual. Yeasts occurred at an incidence of 17·6% with approximately 6% of the patients demonstrating urine populations of at least 105 yeast cells/ml. Candida albicans, Torulopsis glabrata, and C. tropicalis were the most common species isolated. These taxa occurred in high densities most frequently among diabetics and terminal patients. Torulopsis glabrata was the most common species occurring in high numbers in urine specimens from diabetics with urinary tract pathologies; one diabetic patient died of a fungemia due to T. glabrata. The physiological and morphological characteristics employed for the identification of yeasts from urine specimens were critically examined and reviewed. Muestras de orina de 1013 pacientes fueron cultivadas cualitative y cuantitativamente para levaduras. La presencia de levaduras se encontraron relacionadas con la edae, sexo, y condiciones fisicas del paciente. Se hallaron levaduras en un 17.6%, con un 6% approximadamente de pacientes demostraron crecimiento de levaduras a una concentracion de mas de 105 celulas por ml. Candida albicans, Torulopsis glabrata y Candida tropicalis, fueron las especies mas comunes de levaduras aisladas. Estas especies aparecieron en mayor concentracion y mas frecuentemente aun entre los diabeticos y pacientes a termino. T. glabrata fue la especie mas comunmente hallada en altas concentraciones en pacientes diabeticos con otros trastornos pathlogicos de las vias urinarias; un paciente diabetico murio a causa de una infeccion generalizada de T. glabrata. Las caracteristicas fisiologicas y morfologicas utilizadas para la identificacion de las levaduras provenientes de las muestras de orina fueron cuidadosa y detalladamente examindas y revisadas.
Article
The hydrolysis of methylparaben in aqueous solution at 70, 80, and 85° in pH range from 6 to 8 has been studied.
Article
Ten cases of mycotic corneal ulcer are reported with species identification of the fungi cultivated. Two of the 7 organisms were pathogens, 1 of them the anaerobic Actinomyces bovis; the remaining 5 were usually saprophytic molds. Steroid administration was recognized as a contributory etiologic factor in 7 of the 10 cases. This medication is definitely contraindicated in corneal trauma open to contamination. Therapy of superficial keratomycosis can be accomplished with ready available preparations of sulfacetamide and/or thimerosal with little or no visual loss. Deep keratomycosis requires much higher concentrations which may be achieved by iontophoresis with sulfacetamide repeated frequently because it is fungistatic (not fungicidal) and by specially prepared 1:1000 thimerosal ointment applied adequately. Visual loss is severe and perforation may require urgent measures.
Physical chemical aspects of preservative selection for pharmaceutical and cosmetic emulsions.
  • Kostenbauder H.B.
Kostenbauder, H. B. : Physical chemical as-pects of preservative selection for pharmaceutical and cosmetic emulsions. Devel. Ind. Microbiol. 3 : 286, 1962.
The hydrolysis of methyl p-hydroxyhenzoate by Cladosporium resinae.
  • Sokolski W.T.
  • Chidester C.G.
  • Honeywell G.E.
Sokolski, W. T., Chidester, C. G, and Hon-eywell, G. E. : The hydrolysis of methyl p-hydroxy-benzoate bv Cladosporium resinae. Devel. Ind. Mi-crobiol. 3:179, 1962.
Fungal flora of the conjunctival sac in health and disease.
  • Williamson J.
  • Gordon A.M.
  • Wood R.
  • Dyer A.M.
  • Yaha O.A.
Pimaricin therapy of Cephalosporium and Fusarium keratitis.
  • Newmark E.
  • Ellison A.C.
  • Jaufman H.E.