Young Core-Collapse Supernova Remnants and Their Supernovae

ArticleinThe Astrophysical Journal 619(2) · September 2004with9 Reads
DOI: 10.1086/426584 · Source: arXiv
Massive star supernovae can be divided into four categories depending on the amount of mass loss from the progenitor star and the star's radius: red supergiant stars with most of the H envelope intact (SN IIP), stars with some H but most lost (IIL, IIb), stars with all H lost (Ib, Ic), and blue supergiant stars with a massive H envelope (SN 1987A-like). Various aspects of the immediate aftermath of the supernova are expected to develop in different ways depending on the supernova category: mixing in the supernova, fallback on the central compact object, expansion of any pulsar wind nebula, interaction with circumstellar matter, and photoionization by shock breakout radiation. The observed properties of young supernova remnants allow many of them to be placed in one of the supernova categories; all the categories are represented except for the SN 1987A-like type. Of the remnants with central pulsars, the pulsar properties do not appear to be related to the supernova category. There is no evidence that the supernova categories form a mass sequence, as would be expected in a single star scenario for the evolution. Models for young pulsar wind nebulae expanding into supernova ejecta indicate initial pulsar periods of 10-100 ms and approximate equipartition between particle and magnetic energies. Ages are obtained for pulsar nebulae, including an age of 2400 pm 500 yr for 3C58, which is not consistent with an origin in SN 1181. There is no evidence that mass fallback plays a role in neutron star properties. Comment: 43 pages, ApJ, revised, discussion of 3C58 changed, in press for Feb. 1, 2005
    • "At early times, the supernova ejecta presents also a dense baryonic background that can lead to efficient hadronic interactions for UHECRs. The mean density of the sphere over the size R ej (t) = β ej ct can be written [42]: "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relativistic winds of fast-spinning pulsars have been proposed as a potential site for cosmic-ray acceleration from very high energies (VHE) to ultrahigh energies (UHE). We re-examine conditions for high-energy neutrino production, considering the interaction of accelerated particles with baryons of the expanding supernova ejecta and the radiation fields in the wind nebula. We make use of the current IceCube sensitivity in diffusive high-energy neutrino background, in order to constrain the parameter space of the most extreme neutron stars as sources of VHE and UHE cosmic rays. We demonstrate that the current non-observation of $10^{18}$ eV neutrinos put stringent constraints on the pulsar scenario. For a given model, birthrates, ejecta mass and acceleration efficiency of the magnetar sources can be constrained. When we assume a proton cosmic ray composition and spherical supernovae ejecta, we find that the IceCube limits almost exclude their significant contribution to the observed UHE cosmic-ray flux. Furthermore, we consider scenarios where a fraction of cosmic rays can escape from jet-like structures piercing the ejecta, without significant interactions. Such scenarios would enable the production of UHE cosmic rays and help remove the tension between their EeV neutrino production and the observational data.
    Article · Nov 2015
    • "Here the S 9 is the flux density of the radiation at a frequency of 1 GHz in Jy, u-factor of volumetric filling, and k is the ratio of the energy of ions density to the energy of electrons density. The magnetic fields in range (25– 1000) 10 À5 Gs for SR with the historically dated was observed by radio observation (Chevalier, 2005; Walder et al., 2012). In order the synchrotron mechanism of radiation to be effective, the existence of the strong magnetic field in the stellar wind is necessary. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The evolution of external electromagnetic field of the stars during their gravitational collapse has been considered. As follows from the calculations, the external magnetic and electrical field of the stars grows very strong during the gravitational collapse. By decreasing radius more than by three orders, the magnetic field increases by millions of times. The external magnetic field of a star increases by billions of times at the final stage of gravitation collapse, reaching values of 1012 Gs near stellar surface. During the collapse the electrical field also increases. At the final stage of the collapse, the electric field increases by billions of times.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
    • "It is widely assumed that 3C 58 is located at a distance of 3.2 kpc [3], but recent H I measurements suggest a distance of 2 kpc [4]. The age of the system is estimated to be ∼ 2.5 kyr [5] from the PWN evolution and energetics, however this is a matter of debate. The pulsar has one of the highest spin-down powers known ( ˙ E = 2.7×10 37 erg s −1 ). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Pulsar Wind Nebula (PWN) 3C 58 is energized by one of the highest spin-down power pulsars known (5% of Crab pulsar) and it has been compared to the Crab Nebula due to their morphological similarities. This object was detected by Fermi-LAT with a spectrum extending beyond 100 GeV. We analyzed 81 hours of 3C 58 data taken with the MAGIC telescopes and we detected VHE gamma-ray emission for the first time at TeV energies with a significance of 5.7 sigma and an integral flux of 0.65% C.U. above 1 TeV. The differential energy spectrum between 400 GeV and 10 TeV is well described by a power-law function $d\Phi/dE=f_{o}(E/1TeV)^{-\Gamma}$ with $f_{o}=(2.0\pm0.4stat\pm0.6sys) 10^{-13}cm^{-2}s^{-1}TeV^{-1}$ and $\Gamma=2.4\pm0.2sta\pm0.2sys$. This leads 3C 58 to be the least luminous PWN ever detected at VHE and the one with the lowest flux at VHE to date. According to time-dependent models in which electrons up-scatter photon fields, the best representation favors a distance to the PWN of 2 kpc and FIR comparable to CMB photon fields. If we consider an unexpectedly high FIR density, the data can also be reproduced by models assuming a 3.2 kpc distance. A low magnetic field, far from equipartition, is required to explain the VHE data. Hadronic contribution from the hosting supernova remnant (SNR) requires unrealistic energy budget given the density of the medium, disfavoring cosmic ray acceleration in the SNR as origin of the VHE gamma-ray emission.
    Article · Jan 2015 · Advances in Space Research
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