Unconventional Bose—Einstein Condensations from Spin-Orbit Coupling

Chinese Physics Letters (Impact Factor: 0.95). 09/2008; 28(9). DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/28/9/097102
Source: arXiv


According to the "no-node" theorem, many-body ground state wavefunctions of
conventional Bose-Einstein condensations (BEC) are positive-definite, thus
time-reversal symmetry cannot be spontaneously broken. We find that
multi-component bosons with spin-orbit coupling provide an unconventional type
of BECs beyond this paradigm. We focus on the subtle case of isotropic Rashba
spin-orbit coupling and the spin-independent interaction. In the limit of the
weak confining potential, the condensate wavefunctions are frustrated at the
Hartree-Fock level due to the degeneracy of the Rashba ring. Quantum zero-point
energy selects the spin-spiral type condensate through the
"order-from-disorder" mechanism. In a strong harmonic confining trap, the
condensate spontaneously generates a half-quantum vortex combined with the
skyrmion type of spin texture. In both cases, time-reversal symmetry is
spontaneously broken. These phenomena can be realized in both cold atom systems
with artificial spin-orbit couplings generated from atom-laser interactions and
exciton condensates in semi-conductor systems.

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    • "Recently, the ground state properties of a BEC with one dimensional (1D) or two dimensional (2D) SO coupling have been analyzed theoretically. These investigations have predicted a plane wave or stripe phase for different parameter regimes [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22], agreeing with the experimental observations [3]. In the plane wave phase of such a SO coupled BEC, the atomic spins collectively interact with the motional degrees of freedom in the external trapping field, providing a possible analogy to the well known quantum Dicke model. "
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    ABSTRACT: Spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) provide a powerful tool to investigate interesting gauge field-related phenomena. Here we study the ground state properties of such a system and show that it can be mapped to the well-known Dicke model in quantum optics, which describes the interactions between an ensemble of atoms and an optical field. A central prediction of the Dicke model is a quantum phase transition between a superradiant phase and a normal phase. We detect this transition in a spin-orbit-coupled BEC by measuring various physical quantities across the phase transition. These quantities include the spin polarization, the relative occupation of the nearly degenerate single-particle states, the quantity analogous to the photon field occupation and the period of a collective oscillation (quadrupole mode). The applicability of the Dicke model to spin-orbit-coupled BECs may lead to interesting applications in quantum optics and quantum information science.
    Preview · Article · May 2014 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we prove analytically that the plane-wave Bose-Einstein condensates with spin-orbit coupling are stable in two dimensions at zero temperature. The SOC induced extra breaking of the O(2) symmetry of the ground state makes the goldstone modes more divergent in the infrared limit. But the depletions are still finite, which means the condensates are stable.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · The European Physical Journal D
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    ABSTRACT: A model of two Calogero-Sutherland Bose gases A and B with strong odd-wave AB attractions induced by a p-wave AB Feshbach resonance is studied. The ground state wave function is found analytically by a Bose-Bose duality mapping, which permits one to accurately determine static physical properties by a Monte Carlo method. The condensation of particles or particle pairs (molecules) is tested by analyzing the presence of the off-diagonal long-range order in one- or two-body density matrices. The p-wave symmetry of AB interaction makes possible quasi-condensation of type A particles at the Fermi momentum of the B component. The zero-temperature phase diagram is drawn in terms of densities and interaction strengths.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Physical Review A
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