Article

# Collective excitations of trapped one-dimensional dipolar quantum gases

Physical Review A (Impact Factor: 2.81). 09/2007; 77(1). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.77.015601

Source: arXiv

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**ABSTRACT:**We determine the excitation spectrum of a bosonic dipolar quantum gas in a one-dimensional geometry, from the dynamical density-density correlation functions simulated by means of Reptation Quantum Monte Carlo techniques. The excitation energy is always vanishing at the first vector of the reciprocal lattice in the whole crossover from the liquid-like at low density to the quasi-ordered state at high density, demonstrating the absence of a roton minimum. Gaps at higher reciprocal lattice vectors are seen to progressively close with increasing density, while the quantum state evolves into a quasi-periodic structure. The simulational data together with the uncertainty-principle inequality also provide a rigorous proof of the absence of long-range order in such a super-strongly correlated system. Our conclusions confirm that the dipolar gas is in a Luttinger-liquid state, significantly affected by the dynamical correlations. The connection with ongoing experiments is also discussed. - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**We investigate bosonic atoms or molecules interacting via dipolar interactions in a planar array of one-dimensional tubes. We consider the situation in which the dipoles are oriented perpendicular to the tubes by an external field. We find various quantum phases reaching from a "sliding Luttinger liquid" phase to a two-dimensional charge density wave ordered phase. Two different kinds of charge density wave order occur: a stripe phase in which the bosons in different tubes are aligned and a checkerboard phase. We further point out how to distinguish the occurring phases experimentally. - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Ultracold bosonic and fermionic quantum gases confined to quasi-one-dimensional (1D) geometry are promising candidates for probing fundamental concepts of Luttinger liquid (LL) physics. They can also be exploited for devising applications in quantum information processing and precision measurements. Here, we focus on 1D dipolar Bose gases, where evidence of super-strong coupling behavior has been demonstrated by analyzing the low-energy static and dynamical structures of the fluid at zero temperature by a combined reptation quantum Monte Carlo (RQMC) and bosonization approach. Fingerprints of LL behavior emerge in the whole crossover from the already strongly interacting Tonks–Girardeau at low density to a dipolar density wave regime at high density. We have also shown that a LL framework can be effectively set up and utilized to describe this strongly correlated crossover physics in the case of confined 1D geometries after using the results for the homogeneous system in LL hydrodynamic equations within a local density approximation. This leads to the prediction of observable quantities such as the frequencies of the collective modes of the trapped dipolar gas under the more realistic conditions that could be found in ongoing experiments. The present paper provides a description of the theoretical framework in which the above results have been worked out, making available all the detailed derivations of the hydrodynamic Luttinger equations for the inhomogeneous trapped gas and of the correlation functions for the homogeneous system.