[Role of animals in biogeocenoses]

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... This is due to the fact that in reorganized livestock farms the traditional technology of milk production is applied, biogeocenoses preserved in the process of evolution, including associations of conditionally pathogenic bacteria that cause various pathological processes in animals under farm conditions, have been preserved. 4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13 The underestimation of microorganisms as living beings capable of complex relationships has led to the fact that there are currently no clinical recommendations that allow clear regulation of the actions of a veterinarian aimed at fighting diseases caused by associations of microorganisms. If the veterinarian does not take into account at least one of the parasitocenosis joints that is involved in the etiology of the disease, this leads to a significant decrease in the effectiveness of control measures that are carried out on the farm. ...
... These are diseases such as mastitis, endometritis, vaginitis in adult Systematic Review Pharmacy Vol 11, Issue 5, 2020 animals and gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in newborn young animals. 5,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32 An important step of the diagnostic process is the assessment of the farm biocenosis in which the disease occurred. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the type of dysfunctional biocenosis, its features, the presence of geochemical zones according to the results of studies of soil, feed and a number of endemic diseases, which in turn can lead to a decrease in the resistance of the animal organism. ...
... Anti-epizootic measures that are carried out with the data of the assessment of the biocenosis in which animals of the disadvantaged herd live have a great economic efficiency. 5,6,10,33,34,35,36 For definitive diagnosis usually requires laboratory studies including virological, bacteriological, mycological and parasitological studies. Serological methods of diagnosis are important, if not decisive, and in some cases, histopathological studies are required to identify pathognomonic signs. ...
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The article presents data of detailed biocoenotic diagnostics in 12 farms of the Moscow region affected by obstetric-gynecologic diseases of cows (endometritises, and mastitises), as well as gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases of newborn calves with the aim of identifying zoo-hygienic, zootechnical and veterinary deficiencies to optimize a combat strategy against factor infections. To this end, periodic visits were made to farms for epizootological examinations of farm biogeocenoses and the selection of blood serums, heparin-stabilized blood and samples of pathological material for bacteriological, mycological, virological, hematological and immunological studies. An analysis of the epidemiological situation for cattle diseases caused by conditionally pathogenic bacteria shows that in farms of the Moscow region, where factor infections are unfavorable, there are conditions for the circulation of pathogens, multiple passage through susceptible animals, increased virulence of conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, and in some cases, the emergence of pathogenicity in saprophytic bacteria. It is shown that the main factors contributing to the development and dissemination of these pathologies are the unsatisfactory food basis of farms, violations of elementary veterinary and sanitary rules for keeping and milking, failure to fully implement measures to prevent these diseases due to the lack of sufficient material resources in the farms. All the above demonstrates that experienced farms are lacking adequate conditions to ensure the epidemiological chain in the infectious process. Effective control of malignant microbial ecosystems require in-depth knowledge of the quantitative and species composition of parasitocenoses, the study of relationships between its individual representatives, required isolation of pure cultures of all his affiliates, the determination of marker biological properties of microbial agents, and the conduct of a detailed biocenotic diagnosis of the animal habitat (farming, barn, etc.).
... In artificial biogeocenosis, conditionally pathogenic microflora that circulates in the farm can cause various associated diseases in farm animals. These diseases include mastitis, endometritis, vaginitis in adult animals, and gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in newborn young animals [9][10][11][12][13]. ...
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Background and aim: Mastitis is one of the most important diseases of cows and the most expensive pathology for the dairy industry. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the role of microorganisms isolated from cows with mastitis in the formation of biofilms under the conditions of farm biogeocenosis in the Moscow region. Materials and methods: Periodic visits to 12 farms in the Moscow region were conducted to explore the microbial profile of the udder of cows with mastitis. During the visits, 103 milk samples from sick animals were collected and examined. Through microbiological analyses, 486 cultures of microorganisms were identified, which are assigned to 11 genera. Mastitis in cows is caused not only by a single pathogen but also by microbial associations, which included two to seven microbial isolates. Results: It was observed that 309 isolates (63.6%) from the total number of isolated microorganisms could form a biofilm. The ability to form biofilms was most frequently observed in Staphylococcus aureus (18.8%), Escherichia coli (11.9%), and Staphylococcus uberis (11.7%) cultures from the total number of biofilm-forming microbial cultures. Low biofilm-forming ability among the isolated microorganisms was found in lactobacilli, wherein only 20 (22.5%) Lactobacillus strains had the ability to form biofilms. The isolated microorganisms exhibited different sensitivities to antimicrobial agents, which cause difficulty in selecting an antimicrobial agent that would act on all aspects of the parasitocenosis. Conclusion: A high proportion of microorganisms isolated from cows with mastitis have the ability to form biofilms. The isolated microorganisms exhibited different and highly heterogeneous sensitivity to the action of antimicrobial drugs. This causes difficulty in using these tools for the effective control of mastitis in cows, which is frequently caused by pathogenic associations of microbial biofilms. Therefore, it is important to explore novel and more effective methods to combat this disease.
Some principles of the use of diversity of communities in assessment of quality of the environment, and water quality in particular, are considered. It is justified the use of the biodiversity parameters in three aspects. The first is connected with the use of richness of elements of a system, for example, a number of species, trophic groups, taxocenes, size groups, etc. The second aspect uses the evenness values, relative abundance of elements of the system, degree of domination of the species, life forms, trophic groups, etc. The third aspect is based on two-component diversity while taking into account a hypothesis of average disturbances.
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