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Abstract

This study proved that ruminants have the physiologic capacity for sleep and paradoxical sleep. Daytime ruminant sleep in goats was transient and polyphasic, averaging 5.1 ± 0.6 minutes per episode. The frequency was variable, ranging from 0 to 6 episodes during daytime. In addition, the goats exhibited paradoxical sleep, known as dreaming in man, with average durations of 5.5 ± 0.4 minutes. Rumen contraction rates apparently had no causal relation to behavioral states, but rather were a consequence of the animals' state of alertness.
... Of the 240 species comprising the highly diverse Artiodactyl order, only a select few of these species have been studied with regard to their sleep phenomenology. For example, sleep has been recorded electrophysiologically in captivity for the okapi , cow (Ruckebusch et al., 1970;Hänninen et al., 2008), sheep (Ruckebusch, 1961;, pig Robert and Dallaire, 1986), giraffe (Tobler and Schwierin, 1996), and goat (Klemm, 1966;) (See Table 4 for sleep quotas from Artiodactyls previously studied). As such, a large amount of work is required in order to cover sleep in such a large and highly ecologically relevant order. ...
Thesis
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The evolution and function of sleep remains an enigma in modern science. Significant variation can be observed within species and across taxa. Little is understood about how sleep exists, or presents itself in species surviving in extreme conditions. For example, harsh desert ecosystems with notably lower survival rates for resident species. It has been hypothesized that specialized sleep-related behaviours impact thermoregulation to promote survival advantage. The threatened Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), a member of the Cetartiodactyl superorder, is a large desert dwelling ungulate species successfully residing in the arid zones of the Middle East. Arabian Oryx exhibit numerous morphophysiological adaptations and capabilities to cope with their harsh environment. The current thesis provides an examination of the neuroanatomy, physiology and behavioural patterns related to sleep in wild, free-roaming Arabian oryx under natural conditions. It was our objective to determine whether the extreme conditions and climate of the Arabian Desert has led to novelties within the organization of the oryx’s sleep related neuronal architecture, seasonal behaviour patterns and sleep physiology. Using immunohistochemistry and stereology our results indicate the sleep related nuclei in the brain of the oryx exhibit a typical mammalian organizational plan with additional order-specific and novel, species-specific features. Actigraphy revealed that oryx exhibit temporal niche switching patterns seasonally presenting with winter diurnal- and summer nocturnal activity and intermittent patterns during the transitional periods of spring and autumn. Polysomnography results indicate novel sleep patterns between seasons and physiologically confirm activity-based temporal niche switching at a seasonal level. Our work covers the first examination of the Arabian oryx brain sleep centers as well as its year-long activity patterns. Importantly, it is the first examination of physiological sleep in wild mammals within a desert environment. Our results suggest that ambient temperature acts a dominant driving force for the adaptive behavioural and physiological features described. The Arabian oryx is a remarkable species, well adapted to such an extreme environment and its highly plastic survival mechanisms appear unique. Considering the continual desertification of our planet and the predicted consequences of climate change, knowledge of such species and their continued conservation is of vital importance.
... Originally, scientists assumed that ruminants never slept, just dozed, in order to keep from regurgitating their regurgitated cud. However, we now know that ruminants do exhibit SWS and REM, and they shut down rumination to do so (Klemm, 1966). Total time is SWS is short, so not surprisingly, REM is short. ...
Data
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... The rumination periods lasted 33 ± 12 min, which correspond to previous findings for dairy cows (Nielsen et al., 2000). It is still unclear whether the animals can be asleep or whether they are always awake during rumination, with a number of studies disagreeing on this subject (Klemm, 1966;Bell and Itabisashi, 1973;Ruckebusch et al., 1974;Itabisashi, 1973). During chewing, EMG data contaminated the EEG traces, because of these artefacts it was not possible to analyse brain activity during chewing. ...
... Originally, scientists assumed that ruminants never slept, just dozed, in order to keep from regurgitating their regurgitated cud. However, we now know that ruminants do exhibit SWS and REM, and they shut down rumination to do so (Klemm, 1966). Total time is SWS is short, so not surprisingly, REM is short. ...
Article
Full-text available
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