Article

# Compliance Without Pressure: The Foot-in-the-Door Technique

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## Abstract

2 experiments were conducted to test the proposition that once someone has agreed to a small request he is more likely to comply with a larger request. Exp. I demonstrated this effect when the same person made both requests; Exp. II extended this to the situation in which different people made the 2 requests. Several experimental groups were run in an effort to explain these results, and possible explanations are discussed.

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... Therefore, we chose to test such narrative messages via an example of FITD. FITD techniques are mostly employed in the interpersonal settings under various contexts (Cialdini et al., 1978;Cialdini & Goldstein, 2004;Dillard et al., 1984;Fennis et al., 2009;Freedman & Fraser, 1966;Guéguen, 2014). Through FITD, one is usually asked to grant some small, effortless, and easy-to-carry-out requests, followed by a request to grant an even larger favor, the actual outcome that a compliance gainer aimed for (Fennis et al., 2009). ...
... Face-to-face compliance gaining through an initial agreement has been known for its continued effectiveness in achieving altruistic goals even when the subsequent requests were not (a) made by the same agent or (b) made face-to-face. And initial agreement matters the most in generating outcomes in prosocial behavior (Cialdini & Goldstein, 2004;Fennis et al., 2009;Freedman & Fraser, 1966). Indeed, while granting an initial request has long been known to be effective when the request was made via an agent face-to-face, studies have shown that email requests toward donating to humanitarian organizations were similarly effective (Guéguen, 2002;Guéguen & Jacob, 2001). ...
... Usually, accepting an initial request has been found to enhance the perception that one is supportive of the cause (DeJong, 1979;Freedman & Fraser, 1966). Self-perception theory (Bem, 1972) suggested that one's action may reinforce one's self-concepts. ...
Article
The current study assessed whether vicariously experiencing story characters granting a small favor can induce similar intentions from its audiences. Acting upon the perspectives of story characters, audiences may agree to a subsequent larger request to the same cause, as in the case of vicarious foot-in-the-door (VFITD). Study 1 found that a VFITD story was more effective in eliciting prosocial intentions than a non-VFITD story and a non-narrative message. That is, the VFITD condition generated greater intentions to volunteer in a series of activities, with attitudes mediating this process. Study 2 replicated this result. It also showed that when a VFITD story can generate sufficient levels of identification, it is more effective than a non-VFITD narrative in eliciting prosocial intentions. Implications of this study are also discussed.
... I will show situations in these meetings where municipal residents' questions for experts function as a "foot-in-the-door" (cf. Freedman & Fraser, 1966) of the meeting's discussion agenda, on which basis expert 9 I have referred to the questioner as "resident." Although asking questions typically positions someone as lacking knowledge (Heritage & Raymond, 2012), this does not immediately position this person as "resident." ...
... Residents thereby use a format suggesting a knowledge asymmetry, but this format is then deployed for a different course of action by which residents indicate to evaluate the answers "in light of the beliefs or assumptions […] held prior to the query" (Raymond 2018: 78, italics in original). Residents' first question thus functions as a "foot-in-the-door" (see Freedman and Fraser 1966), laying the ground for the pursuit of an admission. ...
... Residents' first question provides them with a foot-in-the-door of the discussion agenda (see Freedman and Fraser 1966), establishing the basis for expanding on their skepticism. This becomes particularly clear in the ways residents treat subsequent answers: as incomplete or uninformative and as not being the correct answers, of which they show to already have had a clear grasp (see Raymond 2018: 75-81). ...
... L'un des modèles particulièrement mobilisé jusqu'aux années 90 était la théorie des processus antagoniques (Solomon, 1980), dont l'apport principal pour l'engagement dans le don de sang s'est fait à travers la notion d'habituation à un stimulus déplaisant, amenant à une diminution de son appréhension négative, et à une augmentation du sentiment de bien-être une fois le stimulus passé. Appliquée au don de sang (Piliavin & Callero, 1991 (Freedman & Fraser, 1966) pour réaliser un comportement considéré altruiste, on considère alors que la réalisation d'un comportement d'aide préparatoire aura permis d'activer chez l'individu l'attribution d'une vision de lui-même comme étant une personne disposée à aider son prochain. ...
... Cet encadré présente de façon synthétique les résultats d'une étude expérimentale complémentaire réalisée lors de deux collectes de sang. Celle-ci, mettant en place un protocole de pied-dans-la-porte implicite (Freedman & Fraser, 1966) avec étiquetage social et fonctionnel (Fointiat, 2006;Fonte et al., 2017;Goldman et al., 1982;Kraut, 1973) L'expérimentation a en revanche échoué à démontrer une efficacité de l'étiquetage comportemental sur la conversion au don de plasma, en comparaison à une simple présentation de la procédure de don de plasma. ...
... Ces données renforcent la pertinence a priori des travaux combinant techniques de communication et d'engagement pour agir sur l'intention et le changement comportemental.D'autres travaux en France, se sont basés sur des techniques d'engagement telles que la porteau-nez(Sénémeaud et al., 2008), l'étiquetage comportemental(Sénémeaud et al., 2014), ou encore reposant sur l'utilisation de nudges avec la technique du « watching-eye »(Sénémeaud et al., 2017). Ces études ont permis de démontrer qu'il était possible d'améliorer significativement l'efficacité des pratiques de recrutement de l'EFS à l'aide de techniques peu coûteuses comme la porte-au-nez, le pied-dans-la-porte(Freedman & Fraser, 1966) ou les nudges, ainsi que de renforcer la fidélisation grâce notamment à l'inclusion dans les invitations ...
Thesis
Depuis des décennies, l’engagement des populations dans le don de sang représente un enjeu sanitaire majeur dans le monde. Ces dernières années, l’augmentation forte des besoins en produits dérivés du plasma entraîne des difficultés pour les systèmes de collecte non-rémunéré, tels que l’Établissement Français du Sang, à assurer l’autosuffisance nationale. Cette thèse vise à mobiliser des connaissances et techniques issues des sciences humaines et sociales, plus spécifiquement issues de la psychologie sociale, pour développer des solutions appliquées permettant de mieux convertir les donneurs de sang au don de plasma. Pour ce faire, nous avons réalisé trois études au cours desquelles les motivations et freins au don de plasma de donneurs de sang étaient évalués. Une intervention construite autour de la théorie du comportement planifié et de l’implémentation d’intentions était testée dans les deux expérimentations suivantes. L’objectif de cette intervention était de réduire les freins au don, d’augmenter l’intention de donner, et de favoriser la conversion au don de plasma. Nos résultats montrent que les donneurs de sang perçoivent plus de freins au don de plasma qu’au don de sang, et que des interventions de communication centrées sur ces freins sont efficaces pour favoriser la conversion. Ces résultats nous permettent de mieux comprendre les déterminants de l’engagement des donneurs de sang dans le don de plasma, et d’identifier des solutions concrètes pour l’Établissement Français du Sang.
... Moreover, it is common for such identity-related consumption decisions to be made along sequences, such as when shopping in a mall or running errands. Though many studies in marketing and psychology have examined the tendency to make consistent or inconsistent sequential decisions in a variety of contexts [5][6][7][8][9][10], very few have discussed the consistency of these decisions in the context of expressed identity. The current research sheds light on this issue by identifying a product characteristic that encourages consumers to consistently express one type of identity more prominently, either social or personal, along a sequence of decisions. ...
... Studies examining individuals' likelihood to make consistent as opposed to inconsistent sequential decisions have yielded mixed observations. On the one hand, some evidence shows that individuals tend to show consistent behavior when making sequential decisions [6,7,10,24,27,28]. For example, if an individual consumes a tasty but unhealthy New York strip steak in a restaurant, s/he is then more likely to have a tasty but unhealthy chocolate cake at the same dinner [7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Consumers often make decisions that reflect either personal or social identities. In many cases, such decisions are made along a sequence. Our research introduces a central factor that influences consumers’ likelihood of expressing a consistent identity type along a sequence of decisions: the extent to which their usage of the product involved in the first decision is expected to be observable by others (the product’s expected visibility ). A field experiment, and four lab studies, coupled with an internal meta-analysis, show that when the product involved in the first decision has high (as opposed to low) expected visibility, consumers are more likely to make a subsequent decision that is consistent with the first. Results show that self-presentation mediates this effect, and suggest that low integration between the identities involved in the decisions might attenuate it. Our findings offer implications for identity research and practical implications for marketers seeking to develop products and design communications that encourage consistent (or inconsistent) behavior.
... The door-in-the-face effect and the position toward the object of the requests: a neglected association Whereas classic influence techniques are based on the acceptance of an attractive first proposal to favor the acceptance of a target request (cf. the Low-Ball technique, Cialdini et al., 1978; or the Foot-In-The-Door technique, Freedman & Fraser, 1966), the DITF technique effectively requires the refusal of a first one, in order to encourage the acceptance of a second one. More specifically, its principle is based on the formulation of two requests, a first request which is too large to be accepted and a smaller one, which is the desired target request. ...
... Secondly, measuring the position toward the issue of the requests allows the introduction of new parameters to be taken into account in a DITF situation and to progress, by this way, in the understanding of the explanatory psychological mechanisms at stake in the DITF situation. One has to recall that the DITF technique is different from the influence techniques developed during the same period (cf. the Low-Ball technique, Cialdini et al., 1978; or the Foot-In-The-Door technique, Freedman & Fraser, 1966) because they all imply the acceptance and not the refusal, of a first behavior to favor the realization of a second one. This specificity has led Cialdini et al. (1975) to consider DIFT as opposed to a classic psychological process, namely the need for consistency (e.g., Festinger, 1957;Heider, 1946Heider, , 1958. ...
Article
This research aimed to test the moderating effect of people's initial position to blood donation on the actual acceptance to donate blood in a door-in-the-face situation. This position (attitude, self-importance, normative beliefs) was measured one month prior to the request (Study 1, N = 99) or immediately before (Study 2, N = 80). The results revealed that the door-in-the-face effect is moderated by the importance of blood donation to the self, all the more so when the position is made salient. This highlights the specific character of blood donation in France and the centrality of the importance of donating for the self at the heart of the DITF technique. These results offer new insights into the conditions that must be met to achieve acceptance to donate blood after an initial refusal.
... What is the relationship between the PFC and the effectiveness of the sequential request tactics of social influence? There are three classical techniques that have received the most attention in social psychology research: the foot-inthe-door (FITD; Freedman & Fraser, 1966), the door-inthe-face (DITF; Cialdini et al., 1975), and the low-ball (LB; Cialdini et al., 1978) technique. All three contain a sequence of two requests of increasing (FITD, LB) or decreasing (DITF) level of expectations. ...
... So far, research on the PFC has contributed the most to the knowledge about moderators of the FITD technique (Freedman & Fraser, 1966). The tactic introduced by Freedman and Fraser successfully induces compliance without external pressure by asking individuals to comply with a small initial request (e.g., signing a petition for safe driving) and when accepted, asking for fulfillment of the more demanding, target request (e.g., installing a big ''Drive Carefully'' sign on the front lawn of one's house). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to fill the knowledge gap related to the role of the preference for consistency in understanding the effectiveness of sequential social influence techniques. Previous research has shown, at least in part, that these effects are moderated by the preference for consistency. For those who prefer consistency in their beliefs and behaviors, the foot-in-the-door technique will be a more effective tool of inducing compliance while people with a low preference for consistency, who value unpredictability, are more susceptible to the door-in-the-face technique. So far, there has been no research on the role of preference for consistency in the effectiveness of the third sequential request technique—low-ball. Our results suggest that, indeed, the preference for consistency is a strong moderator of the latter mentioned technique. While the low-ball technique was generally successful in inducing compliance, the strongest effect was noticed among people with a high preference for consistency.
... Since the first study on the foot-in-the-door paradigm, the compliance without pressure research field initiated by Freedman and Fraser (1966) has produced nearly 30 different compliance paradigms (Dolinski 2016). Some of these, in particular the foot-in-the-door (Freedman & Fraser, 1966), foot-in-the-mouth (Howard, 1990), or lowball (Cialdini et al., 1978) paradigms, are sequential and draw their effectiveness from the consistency mechanism. ...
... Since the first study on the foot-in-the-door paradigm, the compliance without pressure research field initiated by Freedman and Fraser (1966) has produced nearly 30 different compliance paradigms (Dolinski 2016). Some of these, in particular the foot-in-the-door (Freedman & Fraser, 1966), foot-in-the-mouth (Howard, 1990), or lowball (Cialdini et al., 1978) paradigms, are sequential and draw their effectiveness from the consistency mechanism. People are first induced to produce a costless act, answer a trivial question, or make an a priori advantageous decision, before being asked to produce a costly act. ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have examined the effect of a prior general request for a service or a favor before formulating a specific request and shown an increase in the acceptance rate. The purpose of this study is to replicate the results and to extend the investigation of the effect by mobilizing action identification theory. Results reveal that in addition to a prior request for a service or favor, high-level identities of action carrying information about the social value of the action increase the rates of acceptance of answering a questionnaire (Exp. 1) or donating money (Exp. 2). The discussion focuses on the psychological mechanism at work in terms of action identification theory, the activation of social norms, and cognitive dissonance theory. Future research directions are proposed.
... Close to the subject at hand in this paper is the foot-in-thedoor effect (Freedman and Fraser, 1966). This phenomenon, predicted by the commitment theory, occurs when making someone accept to engage in an initial low-cost behavior (called initial act of support) increases the chances of acceptance of a second, more costly behavior (Joule et al., 2007). ...
... According to Chartrand et al. (1999), "the effect appears more often than would be expected by chance. Hence, the foot-in-thedoor phenomenon first demonstrated by Freedman and Fraser (1966) is real. Unfortunately, this is only part of the story. ...
Article
Full-text available
Increase or decrease in subsequent action following a low-cost act of support for a cause can be predicted from both commitment theory and the slacktivism effect. In this paper, we report on three studies that tested type of motivation (prosocial vs. impression management) as a moderator of the effect of an initial act of support [wearing a badge (S1) and writing a slogan (S2 and 3)] has on support for blood donation. Small-scale meta-analysis performed on data from the three studies shows that activating prosocial motivation generally leads to greater support for the cause after an initial act of support compared to the control condition, while the effect from impression-management motivation can either be negative or null.
... Most often, social influence related phenomena are shown through influence techniques [6]. Research on discreet attempts to influence others originated from works of Freedman and Fraser [9], who hypothesised that people who agree to fulfill a small request would be more likely to comply with a more difficult request. In the original experiments, people who agreed to sign a petition to keep California clean, to improve road safety, or agreed to put a small label in the window encouraging compliance with these petitions, were more likely than in the control group to agree to put up an ugly sign in front of their house with the words "drive carefully". ...
Chapter
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Classic social influence effects are present both in games and virtual environments, similarly to real life. The use of games and virtual environments to study them offers the possibility to better control the experimental situation but also brings limitations. On one hand, sequential request techniques of social influence are studied in virtual environments, which enables the control of the experimental situation at the laboratory level. On the other hand, mere presence in the laboratory, devices for measuring physiological responses and awareness of participation in the game provide additional confounding variables that influence the results. We show examples of successful and unsuccessful replications of the foot-in-the-door, door-in-the-face and foot-in-the-face effects accompanied by the analysis of the indicators of physiological arousal. Virtual environments are useful tools for social psychology, but they need to be applied carefully because even a serious game is sometimes just a game.
... If priming causes the relatively weak interdependent self to become temporarily dominant, dispositionally independent people are likely to adopt more socially desirable behaviors. That is, according to the foot-in-the-door effect, after individuals have felt satisfaction from prosocial behaviors, they are likely to continue helping others in need (Freedman and Fraser 1966). Framing the initial behavior as evidence of their commitment, they will continue the behavior. ...
Article
The authors examine hypocrisy induction, a strategy for encouraging ethical behavior by making perpetrators realize that they are violating moral values when they use anonymous online venues to abuse unknown strangers. Two studies show that hypocrisy induction prompts study participants with interdependent self-construals, but not those with independent self-construals, to report favorable responses toward an online campaign for preventing cyberbullying. In addition, feelings of guilt mediate the moderating role of self-construal. Theoretical implications and ideas for future research are discussed.
... et celle de l'engagementde Kiesler (1971) par le biais de la technique du pied dans la porte, dontFreedman & Fraser (1966) sont à l'origine, à la manière d'Eyssartier et al (2007), afin de les inciter à s'engager sur la question du surinvestissement. Cette combinaison s'appuie sur l'analyse du contenu et de la structure des RS concernées par la démarche. ...
Thesis
Malgré une amélioration substantielle de la condition des femmes dans les organisations depuis le milieu des années 1960 en France, force est de constater la persistance de phénomènes inégalitaires qui les handicapent dans leurs évolutions professionnelles. De nombreux travaux académiques en sociologie et en gestion des ressources humaines désignent les représentations sociales (RS) ou l’un de leurs composants comme étant la source de ces inégalités, qu’elles justifient. C’est devant le constat que ces inégalités perdurent en dépit des préconisations de la littérature en sciences de gestion pour les faire évoluer et de la présence d’un cadre légal se voulant de plus en plus coercitif que nous remettons en question ces dernières et notamment leur unité d’analyse, les stéréotypes. La question du construit social entourant les sexes, qui oppose deux groupes sociaux aux intérêts divergents étant par essence sociale, nous choisissons de mobiliser la théorie des représentations sociales de Moscovici et précisément son approche structurale théorisée par Abric. Selon ce dernier, une représentation sociale est une structure hiérarchisée, dont il convient d’étudier le contenu et la structure, puisque la place des éléments cognitifs, dont les stéréotypes font partie, leur confère un rôle précis dans la représentation. Aussi nous nous interrogeons sur les apports de l’analyse structurale des représentations sociales pour améliorer les pratiques de GRH visant leur modification et ainsi la réduction des inégalités. Pour ce faire, nous réalisons une étude de cas exemplaire, en termes de démarche égalité, afin d’étudier les mécanismes sous-jacents à l’origine de potentielles résistances causant la persistance des phénomènes susmentionnés. La pluri-méthodologie que nous mettons en place nous a permis de mettre en évidence les spécificités dans les représentations des différents groupes impliqués dans les évolutions de carrière des femmes cadres et ingénieures, plaidant en la faveur d’une approche sociologique de l’étude des RS. Par la mise en discussion de leur contenu par zone (noyau central, périphéries) avec la manière dont les mesures présentes dans les accords sont appliquées par les acteurs sur le terrain, nous analysons la pertinence de la démarche égalité de notre cas, en profondeur, ce sur quoi nous basons nos préconisations managériales. Notamment la mise en place de formations spécifiques aux différents publiques en se basant sur nos résultats issus de l’approche sociologique de l’étude des RS, qui serviront par ailleurs, associés à une technique de changement comportemental, comme le préconisent Moliner et Guimelli, à travailler sur la question globale du surinvestissement qui défavorise particulièrement les femmes, plus impliquées dans la sphère domestique. En outre, l’ajout de dispositifs de contrôle des décisions managériales, nous semble indispensable. Le recours à la théorie du noyau central d’Abric, rarement utilisée en sciences de gestion, constitue au vu de nos résultats l’apport théorique majeur de notre travail de thèse, de même que la pluri-méthodologie que nous mobilisons, qui forme un modèle d’analyse utilisable par les universitaires comme par les praticiens afin de poursuivre ce travail pluridisciplinaire visant l’égalité professionnelle.
... Would time dedicated to advising a person decrease with the number of requests? Or would it increase, as advisors feel increasingly committed, like in the foot-in-the-door technique (Freedman and Fraser 1966)? ...
Article
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Many activities in organizations benefit from informal networks, in which individuals help each other without an obligation to do so. Helping can take time and effort and expert helpers may find themselves in high demand not being able to help every requester. In this research, we examine the impact of prior help in the decision to help the same person again versus help someone new. We propose that feelings of partnership created by an initial act of help encourage helpers to stick to the same person, but a sense of fairness pushes helpers toward those who have not received help before. Thus, oftentimes people prefer to help someone with whom they have a weaker bond. Furthermore, we argue that repeated helping strengthens the feeling of partnership and increases preference for helping the same person over another. In contrast, knowing that the helped party has similar relationships with other helpers dampen this feeling and reduces future help. Helpers consider not only the help they have given, but more broadly the help that was received by all the parties involved. We also distinguish two aspects of fairness: even/equal distribution of help and helping who is in greater need.
... This prediction is supported by classic notions in persuasion of balance (e.g., Heider, 1958) and consistency (Cialdini & Goldstein, 2004;Festinger, 1957;Kelman, 1961). Even the promise of the footin-the-door strategy (Freedman & Fraser, 1966) is based on the idea that as people yield to one request, they will agree to other, larger requests out of consistency (Cialdini, & Goldstein, 2004). This is also the prediction that underlies full-out rejection: as people turn down one recommendation, they will turn down the others as well. ...
Article
By fall 2020, students returning to U.S. university campuses were mandated to engage in COVID-19 mitigation behaviors, including masking, which was a relatively novel prevention behavior in the U.S. Masking became a target of university mandates and campaigns, and it became politicized. Critical questions are whether the influences of injunctive norms and response efficacy on one behavior (i.e. masking) spill over to other mitigation behaviors (e.g. hand-washing), and how patterns of mitigation behaviors are associated with clinical outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of college students who returned to campus (N = 837) to explore these questions, and conducted COVID-19 antibody testing on a subset of participants to identify correlations between behaviors and disease burden. The results showed that college students were more likely to intend to wear face masks as they experienced more positive injunctive norms, liberal political views, stronger response efficacy for masks, and less pessimism. Latent class analysis revealed four mitigation classes: Adherents who intended to wear face masks and engage in the other COVID-19 mitigation behaviors; Hygiene Stewards and Masked Symptom Managers who intended to wear masks but only some other behaviors, and Refusers who intended to engage in no mitigation behaviors. Importantly, the Hygiene Stewards and Refusers had the highest likelihood of positive antibodies; these two classes differed in their masking intentions, but shared very low likelihoods of physical distancing from others and avoiding crowds or mass gatherings. The implications for theories of normative influences on novel behaviors, spillover effects, and future messaging are discussed.
... Dans un programme de recherches, Eyssartier et al. (2007), ont tenté d'articuler le champ de la soumission librement consentie à celui des représentations sociales afin de promouvoir le don d'organes chez les étudiants. En se basant sur le paradigme du pied-dans-la porte (voir Freedman & Fraser, 1966), ils ont demandé à des sujets de réaliser un acte préparatoire, dans lequel un élément central vs. périphérique a été activé (i.e., pour l'objet de représentation « don d'organes »). Les résultats de la première étude montrent qu'en matière de don d'organe, le pied-dans-la-porte est une procédure plus efficace pour obtenir des DAVID, Jean-Charles. ...
Thesis
La résistance aux antibiotiques est reconnue comme l'une des plus grandes menaces sanitaires du XXIe siècle par l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé. En France, au début des années 2000, des actions de santé publique ont été menées pour enrayer le phénomène, aboutissant à la création du premier plan intersectoriel de lutte contre l'antibiorésistance et à la première campagne nationale de communication. Cependant, le grand public ne semble pas réaliser l'ampleur de la menace. Dans cette thèse, nous mobilisons la théorie des représentations sociales pour atteindre deux objectifs spécifiques : (1) comprendre par quels mécanismes psychosociaux s'opère la construction d’un risque sanitaire, et (2) communiquer sur le risque et orienter le changement des pratiques de santé. Les résultats observés démontrent la pertinence d'une approche basée sur la théorie des représentations sociales dans le domaine de la santé. Tout d’abord, cette théorie constitue un outil « diagnostic » qui permet de mettre en évidence la manière dont un risque sanitaire est assimilé par le grand public. D'autre part, elle peut être considérée comme un outil « incitatif » dans la mesure où elle permet de cibler des pistes d’intervention en fonction des caractéristiques des groupes sociaux et des situations dans lesquelles ils s’inscrivent. Nous concluons cette thèse en évoquant d'autres possibilités de recherche et d'application dans le domaine de la santé.
... In addition, by offering suspects a face-saving excuse for the crime, interrogators may also be using a type of foot-in-the-door technique. The foot-in-the-door technique is a well-established social influence strategy for eliciting compliance indicating that an individual will be more likely to comply with a large request once they have already agreed to a smaller request (Burger, 1999;Dillard, 1991;Freedman & Fraser, 1966). Interrogators can encourage suspects to accept full responsibility for a crime (i.e., a large request) by first getting them to accept a face-saving excuse for the crime (Hartwig et al., 2005). ...
... J. Freedman i S.Fraser przeprowadzili eksperyment, w którym badacze zwrócili się do właścicieli domów z dość nietypową prośbą: by ci zezwolili na zamieszczenie w swoich ogródkach ogromnej planszy z napisem: Jedź ostrożnie! Okazało się, że największa liczba osób (76%) 97 zgodziła się z grupy, od której badacze jeszcze przed prośbą właściwą uzyskali najpierw akceptację na zamieszczenie małego plakatu w oknie, z hasłem o podobnym znaczeniu. Wobec grupy tej zadziałała reguła konsekwencji, skoro zgodzili się na mały plakat w oknie, to dwa tygodnie później w wyniku swojego zaangażowania w akcję promującą bezpieczeństwo nie odmówili także prośbie umieszczenia ogromnych planszy w ich ogródkach. ...
... They argued (p. 161) that "altering the order of intrusiveness of a set of questions is akin to asking respondents to comply with requests of different magnitude and therefore is comparable to the literature on 'foot-in-the-door' (FITD) (Freedman and Fraser 1966) or 'door-in-theface' (DITF) techniques (Cialdini et al. 1975)." Contrary to the FITD expectation and the prevailing survey literature advocating for starting with lesssensitive questions, their results suggest that "beginning with milder questions only to move toward more intrusive questions may actually elicit lower overall willingness to divulge" (Acquisti et al. 2012, pp. ...
Article
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It is increasingly common for researchers to link survey data to administrative data. If several administrative data sources are of interest, respondents are required to give consent to each of them, meaning that multiple consent questions have to be included in one survey. Existing literature suggests that individual consent varies widely between data sources and over time, but little is known about how respondents process multiple consent requests in a single survey. Using an online access panel in Great Britain, we conducted a set of experiments in two surveys to explore multiple consent requests (covering five domains or data sources). In the first study we experimentally varied the format of the request, testing three versions: 1) a sequence of pages (with one response per domain), 2) all five requests on the same page (with one response per domain), and 3) a single request (with one joint request covering all five domains). We also varied the order of the domains. We find that average consent rates do not differ by format, but asking a less sensitive or easier-to-comply request first yields slightly higher average consent rates than asking a more sensitive request first. We repeated the order experiment in a second study, using an independent sample from the same panel, and adding two more order conditions. We find average consent rates are not affected much by order, but the consent to individual domains is affected by order. However, we fail to replicate the pattern of consents found in the first study. We conclude that the order in which multiple consent requests is asked does matter, but in complicated ways that depend on the particular outcomes in which one is interested. Objective knowledge and subjective comprehension of the consent process, and confidence in the decision are largely unaffected by format or order.
... (i) The foot-in-the-door technique Introduced by Freedman and Fraser, 21 this technique emphasizes the notion that individuals who are induced to comply with a smaller and easier request initially are more likely to comply later with a larger request. 21 Agreement to the rst request or target increases the individuals' con dence and alters their self-perceived capability and willingness to comply with further requests or targets. In this study, we incorporated the foot-in-the-door technique to facilitate the recruitment process and boost the compliance of the participants. ...
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This randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and ascertain the feasibility of a general health promotion approach that uses instant messaging to deliver brief motivational interviewing to help smokers with non-communicable diseases quit smoking. A total of 60 participants who had medical follow-up in a special out-patient clinic were randomized into two groups, 30 in the intervention group received brief motivational interviewing to assist them with their chosen behavioral changes, and 30 in the control group received only a smoking cessation booklet. The primary outcome, by intention-to-treat, was biochemically validated abstinence at 12 months. The intervention group had a higher biochemically validated abstinence rate than the control group at 12 months (16.7% vs 6.7% P =.23) although the difference was not statistically significant (Adjusted OR 2.4, 95% CI 0.43–13.75; P =.32). In addition, the intervention group had a significantly higher self-reported reduction of at least 50% in daily cigarette consumption than the control group at 6 months (Adjusted OR 7.2, 95% CI 1.22–42.44; P =.03).This study demonstrated the potential efficacy and feasibility of a general health promotion approach that uses instant messaging to deliver brief motivational interviewing to help smokers with non-communicable diseases quit smoking.
... Embedded questions in email invitations to participate in the survey may be viewed as a foot-in-the-door phenomenon. Freedman and Fraser (1966) described this phenomenon as a technique of using a smaller request to gain compliance with the following larger request. In the context of the survey research, this technique has been applied by asking participants a few questions over the phone, and later requesting them to complete a longer questionnaire on a related topic. ...
... SPM: (Freedman and Fraser 1966;Burger 1999;Cialdini and Cialdini 2007) ML: (Chen and Yang 2021b;Wang et al. 2019;Vargheese, Collinson, and Masthoff 2020) Overcoming Resistance ...
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Modeling what makes an advertisement persuasive, i.e., eliciting the desired response from consumer, is critical to the study of propaganda, social psychology, and marketing. Despite its importance, computational modeling of persuasion in computer vision is still in its infancy, primarily due to the lack of benchmark datasets that can provide persuasion-strategy labels associated with ads. Motivated by persuasion literature in social psychology and marketing, we introduce an extensive vocabulary of persuasion strategies and build the first ad image corpus annotated with persuasion strategies. We then formulate the task of persuasion strategy prediction with multi-modal learning, where we design a multi-task attention fusion model that can leverage other ad-understanding tasks to predict persuasion strategies. Further, we conduct a real-world case study on 1600 advertising campaigns of 30 Fortune-500 companies where we use our model’s predictions to analyze which strategies work with different demographics (age and gender). The dataset also provides image segmentation masks, which labels persuasion strategies in the corresponding ad images on the test split. We publicly release our code and dataset: https://midas-research.github.io/persuasion-advertisements/
... In terms of consequences, identity theory, cognitive dissonance theory, and moral licensing theory are important theoretical bases for spillover effect of pro-environmental behavior [32]. From the perspective of identity, individuals who adopt pro-environment behavior form a kind of self-perception [55]. When individuals see themselves as people who care about the environment, they will continue to behave in ways consistent with this identity, and are more likely to engage in other pro-environment behaviors [56,57]. ...
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Realistic environmental problems drive the growth of pro-environment behavior research, among which the most important progress is about the theoretical innovation and development of pro-environmental behavior. Thus, the main purpose of this paper was to review the literature and help researchers to understand the theoretical progress of pro-environmental behavior. This study systematically analyzed 1806 papers published in SCI-EXPANDED and SSCI databases. It presented the research overview of pro-environmental behavior in terms of status of literature publication, research hotspots and topics. On this basis, this paper further focused on key theoretical papers and summarized three paths of theoretical progress for pro-environmental behavior: theoretical development, theoretical exploration and theoretical integration. Along the theoretical development path, studies mainly apply theories of psychology, sociology and economics to analyze and explain the formation and consequences of pro-environmental behavior. In terms of theoretical exploration, existing studies propose and develop value-belief-norm theory, behavioral theories related to contexts and pro-environmental behavior decision models. Theoretical integration is the direction of future research, such as the combination of rationality and sensibility, and the combination of external and internal causes. Therefore, this paper summarized the theoretical progress of pro-environmental behavior and proposed future research directions, which contribute to its theoretical development.
... [16] We also made use of the concept of cognitive dissonance, which can be a powerful motivating force [6]. We made use of this concept together with the ideas of both the "foot in the door" technique [7], and "nudges" [15] as they can be helpful in shaping ecological behaviours. We were also inspired the role of children and young adults as environmental educators and ambassadors among their families. ...
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To understand and begin to address the challenge of air pollution in Europe we conducted participatory research, art and design activities with the residents of one of the areas most affected by smog in Poland. The participatory research events, described in detail in this article, centered around the theme of ecology and served to design an application that would allow us to conduct field research on pro-environmental behaviours at a larger scale. As a result we developed a research application, rooted in local culture and history and place attachment, which makes use of gamification techniques. The application gathers air quality data from the densest network of air pollution sensors in Europe, thereby aligning the visible signs of pollution in the app with the local sensor data. At the same time it reinforces the users' pro-environmental habits and exposes them to educational messages about air quality and the environment. The data gathered with this application will validate the efficacy of this kind of an intervention in addressing residents' smog-causing behaviours.
... [16] We also made use of the concept of cognitive dissonance, which can be a powerful motivating force [6]. We made use of this concept together with the ideas of both the "foot in the door" technique [7], and "nudges" [15] as they can be helpful in shaping ecological behaviours. We were also inspired the role of children and young adults as environmental educators and ambassadors among their families. ...
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To understand and begin to address the challenge of air pollution in Europe we conducted participatory research, art and design activities with the residents of one of the areas most affected by smog in Poland. The participatory research events, described in detail in this article, centered around the theme of ecology and served to design an application that would allow us to conduct field research on pro-environmental behaviours at a larger scale. As a result we developed a research application, rooted in local culture and history and place attachment, which makes use of gamification techniques. The application gathers air quality data from the densest network of air pollution sensors in Europe, thereby aligning the visible signs of pollution in the app with the local sensor data. At the same time it reinforces the users’ pro-environmental habits and exposes them to educational messages about air quality and the environment. The data gathered with this application will validate the efficacy of this kind of an intervention in addressing residents’ smog-causing behaviours.
... Enhanced personal reputation causes employees to construct a positive self-view or self-image as warm-hearted and competent (Grant & Dutton, 2012). To preserve positive self-view or self-image, they would be motivated to maintain their personal reputation (Cialdini et al., 1995;Freedman & Fraser, 1966;Joosten et al., 2014). In addition, prior research has suggested that due to the instrumental benefits of personal reputation (e.g., boosting self-esteem, facilitating career development, promoting positive social exchange, decreasing transaction costs) (Baer et al., 2015;Ferris et al., 2003;Zinko et al., 2012), once getting positive personal reputation, employees will be strongly motivated to maintain it (Baer et al., 2015;Bolino, 1999;Leary & Kowalski, 1990). ...
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This study adopts an intrapersonal perspective to explore how and when employees shift roles from help giver to help seeker by investigating the relationship between their help-giving and following help-seeking behavior. Based on self-regulation theory, we hypothesize two contradictory psychological processes (i.e., consistency vs. licensing) via which employees determine whether to seek help after giving help. Importantly, we differentiate autonomous help-seeking from dependent help-seeking and propose stronger effects of help-giving on dependent help-seeking. Further, we identify leader respect as a moderator to solve the opposite effects of employees’ help-giving on their subsequent help-seeking indicated by the two contradictory mechanisms. Results of two field studies consistently showed that the negative (positive) relationship between help-giving and dependent help-seeking was serially mediated by personal reputation and reputation maintenance concerns (perceived increase of moral credits and help-seeking justification). Results regarding autonomous help-seeking were inconsistent and help-giving only positively affected autonomous help-seeking via perceived increase of moral credits and help-seeking justification in Study 2. Leader respect weakened the positive (in Study 1) but strengthened the negative relationship (in Study 1 and 2). We discuss theoretical implications for helping literature, self-regulation theory, and moral behavior research.
... The "foot in the door technique" is a compliance tactic that assumes that agreeing to a small request increases the likelihood of agreeing to subsequent requests. If an initial small request is accepted, the person who agrees to this finds it more difficult to refuse a bigger one (Freedman & Fraser, 1966). ...
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This article describes the process from first proposals in the early 1990s to project completion many years later for seven large Swedish road and railway projects. The purpose is to find reasons for the massive cost overruns as well as explanations for why projects are brought to completion despite much higher costs than when the decision to build was made. Cost overruns are set in an institutional context to highlight the interplay among national, regional, and local policymakers. National investment programs are seen as promises by other parts of society, irrespective of whether project costs increase during the process toward procurement and implementation. Another aspect is that the infrastructure manager’s administrative framework currently makes it impossible to compare costs in contracts with final cost, meaning that there is no institutionalized learning process in place. Design preparations and the estimation of costs for new projects must therefore be done without an understanding of what has been working well in the implementation of previous projects. While Benefit-Cost Analysis (BCA) played no role in the planning of the seven projects, the article sends a stark warning that early cost estimates provide poor input for assessing project rate of return.
... Survey questions were designed so that most questions were Likert scaled over seven numbers titled as "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree." Some items were reverse coded to prevent "foot-in-the-door syndrome," (Freedman and Fraser, 1966); that is, to make respondents read each of the questions carefully, in order to minimize the likelihood that an individual will lessen her effort by choosing the same Likert response for multiple questions. Of the 1,060 full-time faculty and staff members, a total of 486 employees responded which produced 462 usable responses. ...
... Theorizing and empirical evidence thus far is mixed. While some studies have argued that prior helping acts are likely to lead to subsequent helping for behavioral consistency (Freedman & Fraser, 1966;Lin et al., 2019), others have found that people display lower helping intentions and behaviors after having helped someone (Jordan et al., 2011). In line with prior work that has shown that the link between a helping episode and subsequent helping depends on how helpers experience helping motives in a given helping episode , our work provides further evidence that perceiving helping motivation as self-initiated increases future helping intentions. ...
Article
Moral identity has been considered an important predictor of prosocial behavior. This article extends prior research by investigating how and when moral identity predicts helping behavior. Specifically, we examine the mediating effect of episodic autonomous motivation on the relationship between moral identity and future helping intentions. We also test the moderating effect of an important contextual factor in helping episodes: the quality of the gratitude expression received by helpers. In two studies using autobiographical recall tasks with different samples (Study 1: N = 134, college students; Study 2: N = 192, adult workers), we found convergent evidence that helpers with high moral identity experience higher autonomous motivation in a helping episode, which in turn increases their willingness to help the same beneficiary in the future. We further found support for the interactive effects between autonomous motivation and gratitude quality on future helping intentions. High-quality gratitude expressions are particularly important in predicting subsequent helping for helpers with low episodic autonomous motivation. In this case, high-quality gratitude expressions can compensate for the lack of intrinsic motivation in a helping episode and increase future help provision.
... Most are Likert scale questions over seven numbers labeled from "strongly disagree ( ¼ 1)" to "strongly agree ( ¼ 7) [3]," although some that measure employee happiness and satisfaction are coded in a five-point Likert scale. Several questions are coded in the reverse direction to avoid respondents' automatically choosing the answers without reading the questions carefully (see "foot-in-the-door syndrome" by Freedman and Fraser, 1966). ...
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Handwriting difficulties are frequent and impairing. However, the assessment of motor learning is difficult and limits early stage rehabilitation. Electronic sensors and algorithms can help to measure motor difficulties more easily and objectively. Electronic tablets, for instance, give access to handwriting features that are not usually evaluated in classical assessments. We describe how such digital features (in static, dynamic, pressure, and tilt domains) allow diagnosing dysgraphia and how they evolve during children development. From a finer analysis, three different clusters of dysgraphia emerge. We hope that future longitudinal studies will allow to underline different patterns of development that seemingly require tailored remediation strategies. However, those digital features are not used in the context of conventional pen and paper therapies. It is possible to engage typically developping children in handwriting ex- ercises by asking them to teach a robot to write. We implemented a long-term case study (20 sessions, 500 minutes in total) observing a child with severe Developmental Coordi- nation Disorder who did not progress anymore with a classic pen and paper approach by enriching this setup with various training activities using real-time feedback loops (on tilt, pressure, dynamic, pauses). We show how this new method tackles the child’s previous behavior avoidances, boosting his motivation, and improving his motor and writing skills. This thesis demonstrates how new writing digital features allow the implementation of innovative handwriting remediation interventions, which rely on fostering children’s personal characteristics and adaptation skills.
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Starting out from the idea that deference, rather than deterrence, could foster higher and more effective levels of compliance, this chapter questions how individual choices within a corporation could be not only controlled but also directed toward law-abiding behavior on a voluntary basis.
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Cyber attacks are often initiated with a social engineering attack to penetrate a network, which we call Cyber Social Engineering (CSE) attacks. Despite many studies, our understanding of CSE attacks is inadequate in explaining why these attacks are prevalent and why humans are still the weakest link in cybersecurity. This paper aims to deepen our understanding of CSE attacks and help design effective defenses against them. Specifically, we propose a framework, dubbed CSE Kill Chain, for systematically modeling and characterizing CSE attacks. To demonstrate the usefulness of the framework, we perform a case study in which we apply it to analyze a real-world CSE attack.KeywordsCybersecurityCyber attacksCyber social engineering kill chainHuman factorsSocial engineeringCybersecurity modelingScience of cyber security
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Positive cueing (i.e., when commonly performed environmentally friendly behaviors are cued as being pro-environmental) has been proposed as a social marketing technique to promote sustainable behavior. In three studies (N = 2489), we show that the impact of positive cueing is rather limited. In two specific choice contexts, the results point to a positive spillover effect (i.e., consumers are more likely to make a sustainable choice after positive cueing). However, this effect does not generalize over different product categories and only appears if consumers have used the sustainable alternative before. As such, we question the applicability of this social influence technique to truly stimulate pro-environmental choices in real life.
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From the earliest studies of the extent of patient harm, patient safety has evolved into adiscipline with a theoretical foundation and safety science methods designed to measure careassociatedadverse events (ADEs) and provide concrete and lasting improvements to preventsimilar events from occurring in the future. It is not enough to recognize that AEIS do occur.We also need to understand the causes and make the changes necessary to prevent furtherdamage. One in ten patients dies or suffers an adverse reaction during hospital treatment. It istherefore essential to implement quality care in all health care establishments. To improvepatient safety, the surveillance and prevention of nosocomial infections are a priority forhealthcare establishments. In this thesis, we have carried out several studies using innovativeand multidisciplinary approaches with the objective of improving the quality of care and patientsafety.In order to have as complete a panorama as possible about the problem, we thought that inparallel with new technologies and multidisciplinary approaches to the quality of care, thefeelings of caregivers and patients should be investigated. This is the subject of our systematicreview on the perceptions of caregivers and patients on the use of subcutaneous catheterinjections. This review clarifies if there is a different perception about catheters used in nursingcare. We have identified a preference for subcutaneous catheters. In the second part, we carriedout a cross-sectional study in order to validate a tool for recording care by caregivers in thepatient's bed that we called PSR to Patient Smart Reader. The use of this tool at bedside greatlyimproves the traceability of care, that of peripheral venous catheters. In the third part, we wantto improve the traceability of peripheral venous catheters by using communication techniquesvery rarely used in health called engaging communication. This study was made possible bythe collaboration with the Aix Marseille University School of Journalism and Communication.We used the above-mentioned bedside nursing recording system combined with engaging communication. Analyzes were done using a control chart and time series analysis. This studyshowed the relevance of the combination of technology and social science approaches toimprove the traceability of peripheral venous catheters.In the fourth part, a longitudinal study was carried out to explore hand hygiene in situations atrisk of cross-transmission. Indeed, to date, there is no automated hand hygiene monitoringsystem which, like the WHO audits, collects specific compliance during risky acts (WHOmoment 2). Here we have combined different technologies to try to monitor the disinfection ofthe hands of caregivers during an aseptic procedure. This study shows that during risky actions,hand hygiene is insufficiently practiced. It will be important in the future to developtechnologies to target hand hygiene in situations with the highest risk of transmission.This thesis shows the feasibility of new and multidisciplinary approaches to improve the qualityof nursing care. The impact on the transmission of microorganisms responsible for healthcarerelatedinfections remains to be seen.
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Social engineering attacks are a major cyber threat because they often serve as a first step for an attacker to break into an otherwise well-defended network, steal victims' credentials, and cause financial losses. The problem has received due amount of attention with many publications proposing defenses against them. Despite this, the situation has not improved. In this SoK paper, we aim to understand and explain this phenomenon by looking into the root cause of the problem. To this end, we examine the literature on attacks and defenses through a unique lens we propose -- {\em psychological factors (PFs) and techniques (PTs)}. We find that there is a big discrepancy between attacks and defenses: Attacks have deliberately exploited PFs by leveraging PTs, but defenses rarely take either of these into consideration, preferring technical solutions. This explains why existing defenses have achieved limited success. This prompts us to propose a roadmap for a more systematic approach towards designing effective defenses against social engineering attacks.
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This book takes 'you', the reader, on board an interdisciplinary journey across genre, time and medium with the second-person pronoun. It offers a model of the various pragmatic functions and effects of 'you' according to different variables and linguistic parameters, cutting across a wide range of genres (ads, political slogans, tweets, news presentation, literary genres etc.), and bringing together print and digital texts under the same theoretical banner. Drawing on recent research into intersubjectivity in neuropsychology and socio-cognition, it delves into the relational and ethical processing at work in the reading of a second-person pronoun narrative. When 'you' takes on its more traditional deictic function of address, the author-reader channel can be opened in different ways, which is explored in examples taken from Fielding, Brontë, Orwell, Kincaid, Grimsley, Royle, Adichie, Bartlett, Auster, and even Spacey's 'creepy' 2018 YouTube video, ultimately foregrounding continuities and contrasts in the positioning of the audience.
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Citizen science (CS) approaches involving non-professional researchers (citizens) as research collaborators has been used infrequently in health promotion generally and specifically, in cancer prevention. Standardized CS approaches may be especially useful for developing communication interventions to encourage families to consider cancer genetic services. We engaged survivors of ovarian cancer and their close relatives as CS collaborators to collect and help interpret data to inform content for a website, printed invitation materials, and short-message reminders. We applied an implementation quality framework, and posed four research questions regarding the feasibility of CS: recruitment, data collection, data quality and evaluation of the experience. CS members were recruited through three networks: clinical sites, local and national cancer support organizations, and online ovarian cancer patient support groups. The professional research team operationalized theory-aligned CS tasks, five data collection options, question banks/scripts for creating surveys, structured interviews, online training and ongoing support from research coaches. 14 CS members agreed to the 12-week and 20-hour commitment for an honorarium. CS members opted to do both qualitative and quantitative assessments. CS members collected 261 surveys and 39 structured interviews. The largest number of surveys were collected for Task 1 (n = 102) to assess survivors’ reactions to different possible options for motivating survivors to visit a study website; 77% of this data were complete (i.e., no missing values). Data collected for tasks 2, 3, 4, and 5 (e.g., assessment of survivors’ and relatives’ respective communication preferences) ranged from 10 to 58 surveys (80% to 84% completeness). All data were collected within the specified time frame. CSs reported 17 hours of work on average and regarded the experience positively. Our experience suggests that CS engagement is feasible, can yield comprehensive quantitative and qualitative data, and is achievable in a relatively a short timeline.
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Purpose Obesity leads to increased mortality and morbidity among children, as well as when they turn adults. Melding marketing theories in social influence and message framing, this study aims to examine how compliance versus conformance social influence, each framed either prescriptively or proscriptively, may guide children’s choice of healthy versus unhealthy food. Design/methodology/approach This study conducted two experiments in a Pakistani junior school. Experiment 1 exposed children to either a prescriptive or a proscriptive compliance influence. Experiment 2 involved a 2 (prescriptive vs proscriptive compliance influence) × 2 (supportive vs conflicting conformance-influence) between-subjects design. Participants in both studies answered an online survey after being exposed to the social-influence messages. Findings Experiment 1 showed proscriptive was stronger than prescriptive compliance influence in nudging children to pick fruits (healthy) over candies (unhealthy). However, frequency of fruits dropped as susceptibility to compliance strengthened. Experiment 2 found that a proscriptive compliance influence reinforced by a supportive conformance-influence led to most children picking fruits. However, a conflicting conformance influence was able to sway some children away from fruits to candies. This signalled the importance of harmful peer influence, particularly with children who were more likely to conform. Research limitations/implications Childhood is a critical stage for inculcating good eating habits. Besides formal education about food and health, social influence within classrooms can be effective in shaping children’s food choice. While compliance and conformance influence can co-exist, one influence can reinforce or negate the other depending on message framing. Practical implications In developing countries like Pakistan, institutional support to tackle childhood obesity may be weak. Teachers can take on official, yet informal, responsibility to encourage healthy eating. Governments can incentivise schools to organise informal activities to develop children’s understanding of healthy consumption. Schools should prevent children from bringing unhealthy food to school, so that harmful peer behaviours are not observable, and even impose high tax on unhealthy products or subsidise healthy products sold in schools. Originality/value This study adopts a marketing lens and draws on social influence and message framing theory to shed light on children’s food choice behaviour within a classroom environment. The context was an underexplored developing country, Pakistan, where childhood obesity is a public health concern.
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Significance Due to market and system failures, policies and programs at the local level are needed to accelerate the renewable energy transition. A voluntary environmental program (VEP), such as SolSmart, can encourage local governments to adopt solar-friendly best practices. Unlike previous research, this study uses a national sample, more recent data, and a matched control group for difference-in-differences estimation to quantify the causal impact of a VEP in the public, rather than private, sector. We offer empirical evidence that SolSmart increased installed solar capacity and, with less statistical significance, the number of solar installations. The results inform the design of sustainability-focused VEPs and future research to understand the causal pathways between local governments’ voluntary actions and solar market development.
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Understanding why people do what they do is central to advancing equitable and sustainable futures. Yet, theories about human action are fragmented across many social science disciplines, each with its own jargon and implicit assumptions. This fragmentation has hindered theory integration and accessibility of theories relevant to a given challenge. We synthesized human action theories from across the humanities and social sciences. We developed eight underlying assumptions—metatheories—that reveal a fundamental organization of human action theories. We describe each metatheory and the challenges that it best elucidates (illustrated with climate change examples). No single metatheory addresses the full range of factors and problems; only one treats interactions between factors. Our synthesis will help researchers, policymakers, and practitioners gain a multifaceted understanding of human action. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Volume 47 is October 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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This collection of first-person accounts from legendary social psychologists tells the stories behind the science and offers unique insight into the development of the field from the 1950s to the present. One pillar, the grandson of a slave, was inspired by Kenneth Clark. Yet when he entered his PhD program in the 1960s, he was told that race was not a variable for study. Other pillars faced first-hand a type of sexism that was hardly subtle, when women were not permitted into the faculty dining room. Still others have lived through a tremendous diversification of social psychology, not only in the United States but in Europe and Asia, that characterizes the field today. Together these stories, always witty and sometimes emotional, form a mosaic of the field as a whole – its legends, their theories and research, their relationships with one another, and their sense of where social psychology is headed.
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Due to the public characteristics of the ecological environment, there is an inevitable “free-rider” defect in the pro-environmental behaviors. Therefore, it is essential to study residents' pro-environmental behaviors to guide them to adopt pro-environmental behaviors actively. In the field of environmental behavior, recent studies have identified a phenomenon called “behavior spillover.” Research in this field is still in its infancy. The related research has significant single characteristic: most of them are based on a single theory to explain the spillover effect of pro-environmental behavior. This paper takes the case of D Street in Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, China to research the internal mechanism of positive spillover effects of pro-environmental behaviors. This street is transitioning from not attaching importance to environmental protection to attaching importance to environmental protection, and thus it is a pioneering, representative, and practical sample. This paper takes the theory of planned behavior and cognitive balance theory involving cognition, emotion, and behavior as basic theoretical tools and introduces parallel and chain mediation approaches to cognitive and emotional pathways, in combination with other theories, to examine the factors influencing initial environmental participation behavior on subsequent willingness to participate in a comprehensive way. The study found that in addition to the direct effect environmental protection participation behavior has on subsequent participation willingness, our study found three pathways from Pro-environmental Behaviors to willingness, namely: (1) participating behavior → knowledge → willingness, (2) participating behavior → pleasure → willingness, and (3) participating behavior → knowledge → pleasure → willingness. This paper's aim is to theoretically confirm the complex intermediary mechanism of the positive spillover effect of pro-environmental behavior and to highlight the need to strengthen publicity and education so that residents can appreciate the necessity of environmental protection knowledge and internalize knowledge into positive, stable, and continuous emotions and attitudes, so as to promote their spontaneous environmental protection participation behavior.
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Article
Waste threatens human health and the environment. Public participation, as an essential link in the whole waste management chain, is important for countries to achieve carbon neutrality and promote sustainable development. However, some countries are still in the initial stage of policy practice, for example, China's waste sorting policy is still in the pilot stage and has not yet covered the whole country. Therefore, it is necessary to understand whether waste sorting policy has a catalytic effect on public waste sorting behavior, and based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, knowledge and intention were proposed to have chain-mediating effect. With a large-sample national survey, we compared the differences in public waste sorting behavior between areas with and without waste sorting policies and examined the mechanism. Results showed that the public in areas with waste sorting policies participated more in actual waste sorting behavior than the public in areas without waste sorting policies, and the proposed effects of knowledge and intention were verified. The research results provide valuable insights for policymakers and stakeholders from multiple perspectives of policy implementation, policy instruments, and population differences.
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This research paper discusses the paradox that has made privacy a subject for consideration and the scientific issue. Firstly, by focusing on the contradictions that occur at the level of use of virtual spaces. Secondly, it serves to highlight diametric relationship between privacy on the one hand and the rise of freedom of information on the other. It also opens the discussion to argue how users of social networks voluntarily give up their privacy in exchange for compensatory values and generate different types of capital (social, cultural and economic). The paper does not seek for the origin of the concept or its chronological evolution. Rather,itattempts to review a new situation that requires an answer to a range of emergency questions that were addressed in the presentation of this paper based on the interview tool with a sample of users of virtual spaces and based on thematic analysis methods.
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In order to correlate changes of opinion with changes in propaganda pressure, systematic methods of expressing variation in propaganda must be developed and used. With the construction of adequate dimensions comes the opportunity for intelligible parallel study of propaganda campaigns. German broadcasts were studied and some of them compared with British broadcasts when common topics were used as bases for the broadcasts. The following dimensions were found and are presented as tentative awaiting further study: dissolvent-unifying dimension, negative-positive dimension, the temporal dimension, personal-impersonal dimension, stratified-homogeneous dimension, authoritative-casual dimension, dimension of colloquiality, immediate-remote dimension, and dimension of repetitiousness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The effects of the communicator, as a cue for acceptance, immediately following a communication and after a three-week delay were investigated with "positive" (well informed and fair), "negative" (poorly informed and biased), and "neutral" communicators. Identical communications dealing with the treatment of juvenile delinquents were presented to 330 senior high school students. The communicator cues were reinstated at the time of delayed testing for half of the S's. The effects of this procedure are analyzed in detail.
Article
Several modifications of the Asch experiment in which the S judges the length of lines in the company of a group of "stooges" who carry out the experimenter's instructions are described. These include a face-to-face situation, an anonymous situation, and a group situation, with self-commitment, public commitment and Magic Pad commitment variations. The results indicate that, even when normative social influence in the direction of an incorrect judgment is largely removed (as in the anonymous situation), more errors are made by Ss in experimental groups than by Ss making their judgments when alone.
Article
Three different degrees of change in opinion were advocated by communications presented in such a way as to be independent of the recipient's own position." Communications advocating most extreme change had the greatest influence, those advocating moderate change had the next greatest influence, and those advocating the smallest change had the least influence. At the same time the ratio of change produced to that advocated declined, average amounts of change being 58%, 62%, and 88%, respectively, of the amount of change advocated.
Article
Tested the hypothesis that the greater the inducement offered for performing a counterattitudinal task, the greater the dissonance-if the individuals choose not to comply with the attitude-discrepant request. If was predicted that dissonance aroused by noncompliance would be reduced by a strengthening of the original attitude. 20 undergraduates were offered either a high or a low incentive ($1.50 or$.50) for writing an essay advocating the use of codes of dress in secondary schools. The situation was devised in such a way that all Ss chose not to write the essay. Results of an attitude questionnaire indicate that high incentive Ss became more strongly opposed to dress code regulations than either the low incentive group or a control group (n = 10).
Article
Predictions derived from 3 prominent theories of identificatory learning were tested in 3-person groups representing prototypes of the nuclear family. In 1 condition an adult assumed the role of controller of positive reinforcers. Another adult was the consumer of these resources, while the child, a participant O in the triad, was essentially ignored. In a 2nd treatment condition, one adult controlled the rewarding resources; the child, however, was the recipient of the positive reinforcers, while the other adult was assigned a subordinate and powerless role. Following the experimental social interactions the 2 adult models exhibited divergent patterns of behavior in the presence of the child, and a measure was obtained of the degree to which the child subsequently patterned his behavior after that of the models. Children imitated primarily the model who possessed rewarding power rather than the competitor for the rewards. Moreover, power inversions on the part of the male and female models produced cross-sex imitation, particularly in girls. (21 ref.)