Monoclonal antibodies to low density lipoprotein used for the study of low- and very-low-density lipoproteins, in "ELISA" and immunoprecipitation technics

ArticleinBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 125(2):704-11 · January 1985with2 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/0006-291X(84)90596-5 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Seven monoclonal antibodies to low-density lipoprotein were studied by the ELISA for their reactivity with LDL or VLDL. Cotitration experiments showed that five of them are addressed to different antigenic epitopes. Two of the monoclonal antibodies were temperature independent whereas the others had a decreased binding activity at 37 degrees C compared to that obtained at 25 degrees C or 4 degrees C, suggesting the presence of antibodies directed to sequence or conformation epitopes, respectively. All antibodies reacted with both LDL and VLDL; four of them had a higher affinity for LDL and two others for VLDL. Immunoprecipitation of LDL and/or VLDL was observed upon immunodiffusion with certain pairs of antibodies. This may allow the use of pairs of monoclonal antibodies to LDL for the quantitative determination of apolipoprotein B in serum LDL and VLDL.
    • "Total lipoproteins were isolated by ultracentrifugation (d < 1.21 g/mL for 4 hours at 90,000 rpm in a NVT 90 Beckman rotor) and analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Western blotting was performed with three monoclonal antibodies (generous gift of Y. Marcel) to detect the presence of apoB48, apoB100 and possible truncated forms of apoB [45,46] : the antibodies are specific for 1) the Nterminal side of apoB100 and apo B48 (antibody 1D1 recognizes epitopes located between amino acids 474 and 539 of the protein), 2) for the C-terminal side of apoB100 (antibody L3 recognizes the epitopes close to amino acid 4355) and 3) for the central part of apoB (antibody L9 is specific for amino acids located between residues 2835 and 2922 present in both apoB48 and apoB100). Gene sequencing of SAR1A, SAR1B, PCSK9 and exon 7 of the LDLR Genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood containing EDTA with a PSS Magtration 8 Lx machine using a magnetic marble technique, according to the manufacturer's instructions. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anderson's disease (AD) or chylomicron retention disease (CMRD) is a very rare hereditary lipid malabsorption syndrome. In order to discover novel mutations in the SAR1B gene and to evaluate the expression, as compared to healthy subjects, of the Sar1 gene and protein paralogues in the intestine, we investigated three previously undescribed individuals with the disease. The SAR1B, SAR1A and PCSK9 genes were sequenced. The expression of the SAR1B and SAR1A genes in intestinal biopsies of both normal individuals and patients was measured by RTqPCR. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies to recombinant Sar1 protein was used to evaluate the expression and localization of the Sar1 paralogues in the duodenal biopsies. Two patients had a novel SAR1B mutation (p.Asp48ThrfsX17). The third patient, who had a previously described SAR1B mutation (p.Leu28ArgfsX7), also had a p.Leu21dup variant of the PCSK9 gene. The expression of the SAR1B gene in duodenal biopsies from an AD/CMRD patient was significantly decreased whereas the expression of the SAR1A gene was significantly increased, as compared to healthy individuals. The Sar1 proteins were present in decreased amounts in enterocytes in duodenal biopsies from the patients as compared to those from healthy subjects. Although the proteins encoded by the SAR1A and SAR1B genes are 90% identical, the increased expression of the SAR1A gene in AD/CMRD does not appear to compensate for the lack of the SAR1B protein. The PCSK9 variant, although reported to be associated with low levels of cholesterol, does not appear to exert any additional effect in this patient. The results provide further insight into the tissue-specific nature of AD/CMRD.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Large triglyceride-rich very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) Sf 60-400 from hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) patients, but not VLDL from normal subjects, bind to the LDL receptor of human skin fibroblasts because they contain apolipoprotein E (apoE) of the correct conformation, accessible both to the LDL receptor and to specific proteolysis by alpha-thrombin. Trypsin treatment of HTG-VLDL Sf 60-400 causes extensive apoB hydrolysis (fragments less than 100,000 mol wt), total degradation of apoE, and thus complete loss of LDL receptor binding. The reincorporation of apoE (1 mol/mol VLDL) into trypsin-treated HTG-VLDL completely restored the ability of HTG-VLDL to interact with the LDL receptor, suggesting that apoE probably does not induce a conformational change in apoB which results in receptor recognition, nor is intact apoB necessary to maintain the appropriate conformation of apoE for LDL receptor binding. As a model of large triglyceride-rich VLDL Sf greater than 60, we fractionated Intralipid by the Lindgren method of cumulative flotation and prepared apoE-Intralipid complexes. Competitive binding studies demonstrated that apoE-Intralipid is at least as effective as LDL for uptake and degradation of 125I-labeled LDL. Control Intralipid complexes containing apoA-I instead of apoE do not compete with iodinated LDL. Since these TG-rich complexes contain no apoB, apoB is, therefore, not only not sufficient for receptor-mediated uptake of large particles, it is not necessary. ApoE of the correct conformation is not only necessary but is sufficient to mediate receptor binding of large triglyceride-rich particles to the LDL receptor.
    Article · Feb 1986
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) is a large (Mr = 2-3 X 10(6), complex particle composed of lipid, protein and carbohydrate. We obtained about 40 mouse spleen-myeloma hybrid cell lines which produce antibodies against LDL. Three of them, SC2, SC3 and SC10, have been cloned and subcloned and their antibody products characterized. They recognize three non-overlapping epitopes in native LDL. Two of them, SC3 and SC10, also are capable of recognizing very low density lipoprotein, (VLDL), whereas SC2 reacts only weakly with VLDL. All three antigenic determinants remain intact, and accessible to antibodies on the LDL protein apo B, prepared by delipidation in a 'non-denaturing' detergent, sodium deoxycholate. However, apo B prepared by organic solvent, ether-ethanol, or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) delipidation, while reacting strongly with SC10, is only poorly recognized by SC2 or SC3. Proteolysis of LDL with trypsin, chymotrypsin, Staphylococcus aureus protease, papain or thermolysin gives, in each case, several non-identical protein fragments which are separable by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Upon immunoblotting, some of these fragments are now recognized by either SC3 or SC10 but not SC2, some are recognized by both SC3 and SC10, and others are immunologically unreactive. The protein bands that are separated by SDS gel electrophoresis are composed of several non-identical fragments and contain the antigenic sites to differing degrees. Some of the immunologically reactive fragments do not appear to contain carbohydrate. Reduction and carboxymethylation do not destroy the immunoreactivity of LDL toward any of the antibodies; however, modification of lysine residues by citraconic anhydride markedly diminishes the reactivity of LDL toward SC3. It is likely that the two antibodies SC3 and SC10 are directed against different linear amino acid sequences or very stable domains, whereas the third, SC2, is directed against a more fragile conformational domain of apo B.
    Article · May 1986
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