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View Through a Window May Influence Recovery from Surgery

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Abstract

Records on recovery after cholecystectomy of patients in a suburban Pennsylvania hospital between 1972 and 1981 were examined to determine whether assignment to a room with a window view of a natural setting might have restorative influences. Twenty-three surgical patients assigned to rooms with windows looking out on a natural scene had shorter postoperative hospital stays, received fewer negative evaluative comments in nurses' notes, and took fewer potent analgesics than 23 matched patients in similar rooms with windows facing a brick building wall.
... SRT suggests that natural landscapes are places for stress alleviation (Han, 2003;Ulrich, 1984). If a person is experiencing a high level of stress, nature exposure rapidly elicits positive affect and declines negative feelings and stressful thoughts (Hartig, 2007;Ulrich et al., 1991). ...
... There are studies that highlighted the importance of having view out of window to restorative environments. Two famous addressed examples on the restorative outcomes of windows with view of natural elements have been provided by Ulrich (1984) in hospital and Kaplan (2001b) in living environments. In the study by Ulrich (1984), it showed that the patients who were in rooms with the nature view window had shorter post-operative care and took fewer pain-relieving medications than the patients in the rooms with brick blocks. ...
... Two famous addressed examples on the restorative outcomes of windows with view of natural elements have been provided by Ulrich (1984) in hospital and Kaplan (2001b) in living environments. In the study by Ulrich (1984), it showed that the patients who were in rooms with the nature view window had shorter post-operative care and took fewer pain-relieving medications than the patients in the rooms with brick blocks. In the study by Kaplan (2001b), views of natural elements from apartments' windows positively contributed to residents' satisfaction with their living area and their greater sense of well-being. ...
Preprint
Contact with nature is suggested to be as an important resource for human health and well-being. Stress alleviation and reduction of mental fatigue are main instances of improvement of human health and well-being in contact with nature. Although the term restoration experience in contact with nature has been used repeatedly for concepts of stress alleviation and reduction of mental fatigue, these refer to different sets of theories and research studies. In this paper, by reviewing the nature-health related theories of Biophilia, Stress Recovery Theory, Attention Restoration Theory and Supportive Environment Theory (SET), the similarities and differences between these two concepts have been discussed. Moreover, the measurement approach instruments based on different study methodologies and aims are provided. This paper could provide information for future studies with focus on factors to be of benefit for restoration experience in design and planning of natural landscape environments with the aim of health and well-being development.
... 城市街道既是居民与城市建成环境发生社会交互的主要界面,也 是人类活动的集聚地 [1] 。作为城市景观特征的重要代表,街道深刻反映 并影响着人们的生活方式、身心健康与社会福祉 [1] 。而基于街道尺度对 城市环境进行量化分析则有助于深入了解城市街道的功能。 街道绿地是街道景观中必不可少的组成部分,它们发挥着重要的 生态系统功能。其不仅有利于提升人们对城市风貌的审美能力 [2] [3] ,也 可美化住宅区街道,创造良好的步行条件 [4] ,亦有助于促进病人术后 康复 [5] ...
... It helps increase people's esthetic rating of urban scenes [2] [3] and the attractiveness and walkability of residential streets [4] . The visibility of urban greenery could even increase the restorative potential of patients from surgery [5] [6] . ...
... For instance, it has shown to promote less-aggressive behavior and reduce crime (Kuo & Sullivan, 2001); promote social integration (Kweon et al., 1998) and increase self-confidence and personal or community identity (Horwitz et al., 2001;Maller et al., 2006). Also, access to a naturally integrated landscape promoted physical well-being, such as enhancing recovery after surgery (Ulrich, 1984) and lowering blood pressure (Lohr & Pearson-Mims, 2006); relieving stress (Leather et al., 1998); increasing positive mood (Maller et al., 2006) and reducing mental fatigue (Staats et al., 2003). Similarly, a study based on grey literature by Reed et al. (2017) suggested that landscape approaches constitute a powerful attempt to reconcile conservation and development and improve social capital, enhance community income and employment opportunities while simultaneously reducing land degradation and conserving natural resources. ...
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Ensuring adequate food availability to an increasing world population constitutes one of the biggest challenges faced by humankind. Scientific and technological advances in food production during the last century enabled agriculture to cope with the con-comitant increase in food demand. For example, cereal yields have more than doubled from a global average of 1.5 metric tons per hectare in the 1960s up to 3.2 metric tons per hectare in 2018. This was made possible by the work in different research fields such as agronomy, engineering, and plant sciences, showing that an inter and multidisciplinary approach is indispensable for significant progress. This manuscript is aimed at generating reflexion and analysis about the challenges that agriculture faces at present to satisfy projected food demands, which implies a further doubling of food production by 2050, according to the latest estimates. Relevant issues related to food production (climate change, pollution of water and soils by pesticides and fertilizers, loss of germplasm and biodiversity) are discussed and potential solutions to achieve food security in quantity and quality are reviewed, mainly from the plant breeding and crop-production perspectives, always associated with environmental health preservation and improvement. A broad transdisciplinary effort is needed to increase the impact of science and technology to provide more people with healthier and safer food, produced in a sustainable way. Nonetheless, science and technology alone will not succeed to meet those challenges. Education and knowledge transfer strategies are needed to guarantee responsible production and consumption everywhere , therefore allowing the benefits of scientific and technological progress reach the world population. Simultaneously, adequate action by regulatory authorities and governments concerted at international level, with thorough application of the Precautionary Principle, and aiming at environmental and social justice are imperatively required to meet the challenge and achieve the goal. KEYWORDS climate change, food security, genetic erosion, integrated pest management, mycotoxins, watersaving agriculture
... For instance, it has shown to promote less-aggressive behavior and reduce crime (Kuo & Sullivan, 2001); promote social integration (Kweon et al., 1998) and increase self-confidence and personal or community identity (Horwitz et al., 2001;Maller et al., 2006). Also, access to a naturally integrated landscape promoted physical well-being, such as enhancing recovery after surgery (Ulrich, 1984) and lowering blood pressure (Lohr & Pearson-Mims, 2006); relieving stress (Leather et al., 1998); increasing positive mood (Maller et al., 2006) and reducing mental fatigue (Staats et al., 2003). Similarly, a study based on grey literature by Reed et al. (2017) suggested that landscape approaches constitute a powerful attempt to reconcile conservation and development and improve social capital, enhance community income and employment opportunities while simultaneously reducing land degradation and conserving natural resources. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ensuring adequate food availability to an increasing world population constitutes one of the biggest challenges faced by humankind. Scientific and technological advances in food production during the last century enabled agriculture to cope with the con-comitant increase in food demand. For example, cereal yields have more than doubled from a global average of 1.5 metric tons per hectare in the 1960s up to 3.2 metric tons per hectare in 2018. This was made possible by the work in different research fields such as agronomy, engineering, and plant sciences, showing that an inter and multidisciplinary approach is indispensable for significant progress. This manuscript is aimed at generating reflexion and analysis about the challenges that agriculture faces at present to satisfy projected food demands, which implies a further doubling of food production by 2050, according to the latest estimates. Relevant issues related to food production (climate change, pollution of water and soils by pesticides and fertilizers, loss of germplasm and biodiversity) are discussed and potential solutions to achieve food security in quantity and quality are reviewed, mainly from the plant breeding and crop-production perspectives, always associated with environmental health preservation and improvement. A broad transdisciplinary effort is needed to increase the impact of science and technology to provide more people with healthier and safer food, produced in a sustainable way. Nonetheless, science and technology alone will not succeed to meet those challenges. Education and knowledge transfer strategies are needed to guarantee responsible production and consumption everywhere , therefore allowing the benefits of scientific and technological progress reach the world population. Simultaneously, adequate action by regulatory authorities and governments concerted at international level, with thorough application of the Precautionary Principle, and aiming at environmental and social justice are imperatively required to meet the challenge and achieve the goal. KEYWORDS climate change, food security, genetic erosion, integrated pest management, mycotoxins, watersaving agriculture
... Other research has explored the mental health and wellbeing of individuals when exposed to nature more generally , greenspace, and biodiversity (Fuller, et al. 2007). Furthermore, researchers have long known that even having a view of nature, such as through a hospital room window, may aid in recovery (R. S. Ulrich 1984). In times of crisis, such as recently with COVID-19, some people have sought to access the physical and mental health benefits of outdoor activities in nature environments, but is all nature equal? ...
Article
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People's attachment to nature has important relevance to the understanding of nature’s influence on mental health, but in terms of impact, is all nature equal? This study seeks to understand the affective responses of exposure to images of nature across geographically diverse university student populations. Familiarity with certain kinds of scenery may help people to feel more positively about them and, in some cases, even prefer them. Understanding these preferences is one way to help people to cope with the current and future crises. In choosing appropriate designs, it is important for design professionals to understand the extent to which nature scenes, whether photographs, murals on buildings, paintings, landscape design elements, or some other form, elicit affective responses. A total of 227 student respondents, grouped based on their geographical location of residence, rated photographs of desert landscapes, green hills, and mountain scenes. They rated the photographs for attractiveness, chose preferred images among sets of scenes, and gave an affective rating of Very Exciting to Very Relaxing for their chosen images. In this study, respondents from the Southwest region of the USA rated desert landscaping as more attractive than did respondents from New England. Overall, mountain scenes were rated as the most attractive type of scene by all respondents and were also most likely to be chosen as the preferred images. For all groups of respondents, hills were more likely to be rated as relaxing than exciting, deserts were more likely to be rated as exciting than relaxing, and mountains were almost as likely to be rated as relaxing as they were to be rated as exciting. We were particularly interested in students’ responses to nature scenes because university students are a vulnerable group for mental health struggles. With COVID-19 and other future crises, viewing scenes of nature may be a coping mechanism to provide stress relief. Future studies may wish to add a physiological component to assess whether viewing nature scenes has a measurable effect on stress hormones.
... Living in urban environments, where surrounded by concrete, traffic, noise and pollution therefore has a profound negative impact on our physical and mental wellness. Greenery softens this hard environment, through provides a substantial and spiritual connection to nature that missing in the current city [28]. ...
... Such concept is consistent with people's trends: people believe that natural environments are both natural and restorative, though they prefer them to urban environments (e.g. Ulrich, 1984;Walker et al., 1983). Kaplan (1995) attempted to integrate the psycho-evolutionary theory of stress reduction (Ulrich, 1983), which explains attention depletion in terms of effects of stress and the concept of directed attention studied by James (1892). ...
Thesis
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset disease of the neurodevelopment that can persist across the lifespan (Barkley, 1997, 1998; Brodeur & Pond, 2001), with possible impairments in familial, cognitive, academic and occupational functioning. It is mainly characterised by chronic inattentiveness or attention inconsistency and, additionally but not necessarily, impulsive behaviour (hyperactivity-impulsivity). Based on epidemiological data on developing age, international prevalence of the disease is around 5.29% (Polanczyk, Willcutt, Salum, Kieling, & Rohde, 2014) whereas in Italy the range is between 0.4% and 3.6%, depending on geographical areas and, assuming the lowest value, the pathology would concern about thirty thousand children and adolescents. Moreover, the 88,5% of those affected is constituted by males (Maschietto et al., 2012). Current treatments are both behavioural and pharmacological, notwithstanding complementary interventions that might alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life are highly suggested. Attention Restoration Theory (ART; Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989), already widely empirically tested both among typical children and adults (Berto, 2014; Chawla, 2015; Collado & Staats, 2016; Franco, Shanahan, & Fuller, 2017) offers promising beneficial applications on ADHD as confirmed by published literature (Faber Taylor, Kuo & Sullivan, 2001, 2002; Faber Taylor & Kuo, 2008; Van den Berg & Van den Berg, 2010). By considering ART framework, the present research addresses innovative points. Infact, it investigates if and how ADHD symptoms are alleviated after passive exposure in different built and natural environments among children and adolescents (first central point). It also explores the relationship between mindfulness and psychological restoration or the also defined fascination meditation hypothesis (Kaplan, 2001), among typical adolescents (second central point), with the wider and future objective to find (active) ways that may increase the benefits of passive exposure to Nature for ADHD children and adolescents. Such aims are reached by 1) evaluating the recovery effect of different types of outdoor environments (natural and built, yet built has two sub-types 8 historical-urban and standard-urban), (2) evaluating the recovery effect of two different types of natural environments that vary in terms of prospect – a clear field of vision on the surroundings – and refuge – the presence of (potential) hiding places that certain types of vegetation configuration might offer (Appleton, 1975; Gatersleben & Andrews, 2013; Luymes & Tamminga, 1995). Indeed, one is characterised by high prospect and low refuge and another one is characterised by low prospect and high refuge, (3) evaluating the recovery effect by considering the frequency of contact with Nature and the system of relations that involve the child, (4) testing a mediational model between mindfulness and reported restoration mediated by perceived restorativeness. In total, four experimental studies are presented, of which two are experimental. In line with previous findings, general outcomes of Study 1 and Study 2 show that a walk in a large open field characterised by high prospect promotes cognitive functioning, whereas two different natural environments of a botanical garden do not lead to recovery and are not even significantly perceived in different ways. In addition, findings of Study 3 reveal that child’s contact with Nature and connection to Nature are related to a system of family relations that influence symptoms severity. Moreover, findings of Study 4 suggest that it is possible to increase benefits of Nature contact by being mindful during passive exposure to Nature, and this is a promising line of research among ADHD children and adolescents who need to enhance the restorative effect they might obtain from exposure to Nature. Implications relate to the implementation of environment-based behavioural treatments with a mindful approach in healthcares for ADHD, outdoor pedagogies and urban design that include nearby Nature.
Chapter
Nature is the last thing I would think of upon arriving in bustling Penn Station in New York (fig. 11.1). Every day, 600,000 people stream through this station, pouring into the island of Manhattan for work and then flowing back home in the evening (Randolph 2013). People dart left and right through the crowd, looking for a way to move just a little bit faster from point A to point B. It’s a mad ballet of commuters, and a visitor to New York like me feels like a clumsy oaf, disrupting the dance and wasting precious seconds of commuters’ time. Time seems to run faster here, and everyone is in a hurry.
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Subjects viewed sixty color slides of either (1) nature with water, (2) nature dominated by vegetation, or (3) urban environments without water or vegetation. The information rates of the three slide samples were equivalent. Measurements were taken of the effects of the slide presentations on alpha amplitude, heart rate, and emotional states. Results revealed several significant differences as a function of environment, which together indicate that the two categories of nature views had more positive influences on psychophysiological states than the urban scenes. Alpha was significantly higher during the vegetation as opposed to urban slides; similarly, alpha was higher on the average when subjects viewed water rather than urban content. There was also a consistent pattern for nature, especially water, to have more positive influences on emotional states. A salient finding was that water, and to a lesser extent vegetation views, held attention and interest more effectively than the urban scenes. Implications of the findings for theory development in environmental aesthetics are discussed.
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The therapeutic value of landscape in giving opportunity for 'spiritual renewal' through closer contact with nature has been the basis for much of the scenic conservation movement and lies behind a universal concept of National Parks as providing recreational resources for urban populations. This belief is tested in a series of classroom studies. -C.Laverick
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This study assesses the effectiveness of two stress-reducing strategies in a field setting. The first strategy consists of a coping device which entails the cognitive reappraisal of anxiety-provoking events, calming self-talk, and cognitive control through selective attention. The second strategy consists of supplying information about the threatening event along with reassurances for the purpose of producing emotional inoculation. Patients about to undergo major surgery were exposed to either the coping device, the preparatory information, both strategies, or neither. The prediction that the coping device would effectively reduce both pre- and post-operative stress was confirmed. An analysis of the nurses' ratings of preoperative stress showed a significant main effect for the coping device. There was also a significant main effect for the coping device on postoperative measures (number of pain relievers requested and proportion of patients requesting sedatives). The preparatory information, however, did not produce any significant effects on these postoperative measures.
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The current need for energy conservation has forced some fundamental re-evaluation of building design. One aspect that has come under much review is that of building fenestration. Although windows provide daylight and ventilation, they also can allow undesirable heat gain and loss. In the past, the provision of light and fresh air were essential functions of windows. A building was uninhabitable without windows. Now however, these functions can be fulfilled by artificial lighting and mechanical ventilation. As a result, a number of people have suggested that a substantial reduction in the size of windows, or their complete elimination is desirable in order to reduce excessive energy consumption. Nevertheless, even though a windowless building might be the best solution for eliminating energy loss through windows, there is considerable evidence that this may not be very desirable for the people in the building. In an attempt to delineate some of the functions of windows, the literature on the reaction to both the presence and the absence of windows was surveyed. In the first section, the psychological reaction to windowless buildings is examined to determine if the absence of windows in a building exerts any noticeable effect upon the occupants' behavior or attitudes. In the second section, the various characteristics of windows are reviewed to define some of their functions and benefits. (123 references) (from Introduction)
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Anxiety, depression, and pain were psychometrically assessed in 67 abdominal surgery patients on the day before surgery, on the first postoperative day, and on the third postoperative day. Patients were divided into kidney donor, kidney recipient, and general surgery groups, and a multi-variate analysis of variance was performed in order to compare the trends of response over days across groups. There were significant group differences in the pattern of scores over the three days. Trait anxiety was related to post-surgical pain, anxiety, and depression in general surgery and renal recipient patients, but not in kidney donors. Results suggest that the meaning attached to the stress of surgery significantly affects the subjective state changes surrounding the operation.
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Investigated the effects of surgery on state anxiety (A-state) and perceived pain in 59 white male surgical patients. The Melzack-Torgerson Pain Questionnaire, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Fear of Surgery Scale (FSS) were given the day before the operation and again 10 days after surgery. Results indicate that surgery as a physical threat has an effect on A-state but not on anxiety as a personality disposition (trait anxiety; A-trait). The correlation of A-state and magnitude of reported pain postsurgery, but not presurgery, attributed to the existence of little pain variance before surgery, and to realistic concern over pain following surgery. (19 ref)
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: Surgical patients with similar medical problems differ greatly in their rate of postoperative recovery. This study investigated the relationship between the mode of coping with preoperative stress and recovery from surgery. Sixty-one preoperative surgical patients were interviewed and classified into three groups based on whether they showed avoidance vigilance, or both kinds of coping behavior, concerning their surgical problem. Coping dispositions referring to the same dimension, preoperative anxiety, and previous life stress were also measured. The five recovery variables included days in hospital, number of pain medications, minor medical complications, negative psychological reactions, and the sum of these. Results showed that the vigilant group had the most complicated postoperative recovery, although only two recovery variables (days in hospital and minor complications) were statistically significant. Coping dispositions, anxiety, and life stress showed no clear or consistent relationships with recovery. Ways in which mode of coping may have influenced recovery are discussed. Copyright (C) 1973 by American Psychosomatic Society
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