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View Through a Window May Influence Recovery from Surgery

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Abstract

Records on recovery after cholecystectomy of patients in a suburban Pennsylvania hospital between 1972 and 1981 were examined to determine whether assignment to a room with a window view of a natural setting might have restorative influences. Twenty-three surgical patients assigned to rooms with windows looking out on a natural scene had shorter postoperative hospital stays, received fewer negative evaluative comments in nurses' notes, and took fewer potent analgesics than 23 matched patients in similar rooms with windows facing a brick building wall.
... Numerous studies show how people are drawn to natural settings compared to urban ones. Further, Psycho-evolutionary theory argues men have an inherited ability to respond positively to various elements of nature (Ulrich, 1984;Ulrich et al., 1991). In the 1980s, Kaplan & Kaplan established Attention Restoration Theory (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989), where the therapeutic effects of nature are defined through our perception and attention. ...
... Also, it has been proven that greenspace can reduce brain fatigue, stimulate the regeneration of the nervous system, have a beneficial effect on restoring attention, activating the involuntary "spontaneous" attention. These processes reduce the risk of mental illness, psychosis, depression, and anxiety (Gidlow et al., 2012;Hartig et al., 2014;Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989;Thompson et al., 2012;Ulrich, 1984Ulrich, , 1991. Apart from natural elements, built characteristics of open public space can influence the improvement of public health (Marić, 2020). ...
... Also, there is a difference between passive and active usage of open space. According to Ulrich (1984), even passive form of spending time in open green space, such as a view towards the green landscape, is salutogenic and can help in reducing stress (Ulrich, 1984). On the other hand, several scientists argue how active usage of greenspace has a more beneficial role in general health outcomes (Marić, 2020;Thompson et al., 2012;WHO, 2016). ...
... Access to many types of natural environments for recreation, or even just the experience of being in nature, has been associated with various positive physical and mental health and well-being outcomes (see evidence summarised in Sunderland 2012 andSandifer et al. 2015). For example, more rapid recovery from illness by hospital patients who observed a natural or semi-natural view from a window (Ulrich 1984). In Wales, both designated sites (e.g. ...
Technical Report
Review of the wider benefits and ecosystem services provided by the conservation of the great crested newt (Triturus cristatus; Amphibia: Salamandridae) with particular reference to locations in North East Wales, UK.
... Um die Flächen wirklich in Bezug auf Nährstoffverhältnisse und daraus möglichen Vegetationsgesellschaften einschätzen zu können, kann in der Stadt eine Bodenuntersuchung in Kombination mit einer Vegetationsaufnahme empfohlen werden(Albertshauser 1985).Für den sozialen und ökonomischen Wert von grüner Infrastruktur gibt es viele Quellen, die diese belegen und in dieser Arbeit angeführt werden. BeiUlrich (1984) ist aber anzumerken, dass die Anzahl an Probanden doch sehr niedrig war und es bei so geringen Patient*innenzahlen in einer Studie zu verfälschten Ergebnissen kommen kann. Trotzdem, wenn auch nicht ganz aktuell sind die Ergebnisse der Studie sehr interessant, welche eingebettet in all die anderen Studien in diesem Kapitel, die ähnliche Ergebnisse präsentieren, als glaubwürdig eingestuft werden können.FF1: Welche Möglichkeiten gibt es, um Rasen-und Wiesenflächen in ökologisch wertvollere Standorte umzuwandeln oder in ihrer Funktion zu erhalten?Grundsätzlich gibt es zwei Methoden, einen Standort mit einer Rasen-oder Wiesenfläche in einen ökologisch wertvolleren Bestand umzuwandeln. ...
Thesis
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This thesis deals with the public meadow areas in the municipality of Amstetten. The aim was to identify public lawns and meadows suitable for conversion into species-rich flower meadows and to determine a method for efficient area mapping. In addition, factors which influence lawn and meadow areas which should be taken into account were identified from prior literature. In this systematic literature research on the topic of green infrastructure and meadow maintenance and foundations were collected and shown, illustrating the value of flower meadows for the citizens, fauna and flora. Furthermore, an assessment was made of whether it is possible to return lawn and meadow areas to species-rich meadow stands by means of extensive maintenance. Measures are presented which are necessary to maintain meadows in a species-sensitive and appropriate manner and to pay particular attention to the animals living in the stands of vegetation. Subsequently, an urban biotope mapping of all public lawn and meadow areas in the processing area was carried out. An expert interview with a representative of the "Natur im Garten" initiative confirmed many measures from the literature and showed what practical experiences there are in establishing flower meadows in Lower Austrian communities. In an interview with an expert employed by the Amstetten building and commercial yard, it was determined which maintenance measures are used and how often these take place on the public lawns and meadows. It turned out that in the processing area in the city of Amstetten there are around 8.6 hectares with a total area of around 4,320 hectares, which are suitable for being converted into species-rich flowering meadows. This corresponds to approximately 0.2% of the total processing area. In order to maintain a species-rich meadow through extensive maintenance, basic requirements must be met which include an existing flowering aspect, a dry location and a nutrient-poor soil. If these conditions are not met, the area must be re-cultivated with a suitable seed mixture. In summary, this Thesis shows that there are areas in the city of Amstetten that have the potential to be converted into species-rich meadows and thus to make a contribution to fauna and flora as well as to people, while at the same time saving resources through less maintenance. Keywords: urbane meadows, flower meadows, green infrastructure, public green spaces, meadow management, extensification, species protection
... Windows can contribute to indirect nature exposure (22,23). According to previous studies, the visibility of nature is a fundamental dimension for nature exposure through windows (21,22), which may be affected by neighborhood greening rate and the geographical location of windows. ...
Article
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Nature exposure is known to promote life satisfaction and well-being, and indirect exposure through windows is likely to benefit isolated populations. However, whether such type of exposure can benefit prisoners, the extremely isolated population, is unknown. In the current study, we investigated 326 male prisoners from three prisons in southwest China. Psychological variables including depression, anxiety, loneliness, distress tolerance, life satisfaction, and well-being were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), short-form UCLA Loneliness Scale (ULS-6), Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5), respectively. Structural equation modeling was employed to identify the pathways from the visibility of nature through windows to prisoners' life satisfaction and well-being. Our results demonstrated that visibility of nature promoted the frequency and duration of viewing nature through windows. The frequency directly affected well-being, but the duration did not effectively affect any measured variables. The visibility of nature enhanced life satisfaction mainly via direct effects but enhanced well-being mainly via indirect effects. Regarding the indirect pathways, the visibility of nature increased distress tolerance and thus reduced loneliness and mental health problems. The reduced mental health problem, in turn, promoted life satisfaction and well-being. Our findings suggest that nature exposure through windows is effective in enhancing prisoners' life satisfaction and well-being. The policymaker may need to consider nature-based solutions such as indirect nature exposure in prions to benefit isolated populations.
... To cite only a few examples, the psychological benefits of visual contact with nature are well substantiated and have motivated architects and designers to increasingly include natural elements in buildings (for an overview, see Grinde & Patil, 2009). In this connection, hospital buildings with views of nature tend to have restorative effects, facilitating healing and creating a buffer to stress (e.g., Ulrich, 1984; for a review of the biophilic design hypothesis, see Gillis & Gatersleben, 2015). Exposure to nature also boosts creativity by allowing attention restoration and mind wondering (Martínez-Soto et al., 2013;Williams et al., 2018). ...
Chapter
According to current embodied cognition models, sensorimotor experiences play a critical role in cognition, including social cognition. Since our bodies are embedded in a sociocultural context, it is likely that the link between bodily states and cognition is shaped and constrained by culture. Here we argue that culture affects embodied cognition through three distinct means: (1) the physical environment and the affordances it offers, (2) cultural values and conventions that encourage certain sensorimotor experiences while discouraging others (such as body postures of submission or pride, smiling, hand-washing, and touching), and (3) cultural differences related to language, including metaphors and script direction. The present review is not meant to be exhaustive, but it offers selective insights into the paths through which diverse cultural environments shape embodied cognition. The chapter also discusses possible future venues for research on cultural embodied cognition.
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W roku 2018 ponad 55% światowej populacji mieszkało w miastach, a do roku 2050 odsetek ten może wzrosnąć nawet do 68% (ONZ 2018). Miasto daje wiele możliwości ludziom, którzy-jak ujął to już Arystoteles-są "zwierzętami społecznymi". W większych skupiskach mogą w bardziej efektywny sposób funkcjonować w grupie, korzystać z lepszej infrastruktury, opieki zdrowotnej i edukacji, miasto najczęściej daje też możliwości wyższych zarobków. Wszystkie wymienione czynniki (oraz wiele innych) mogą w sposób bezpośredni zwiększać zarówno komfort życia mieszkańców miast - jak i ich subiektywne poczucie szczęścia. Jest to jednak tylko jedna strona medalu - funkcjonowanie na obszarach zurbanizowanych po-siada również stronę bardziej mroczną. Takie czynniki jak oderwanie od naturalnego środowiska, zanieczyszczenie powietrza, przeludnienie, hałas i wszechobecne stresory w sposób oczywisty muszą negatywnie wpływać na zdrowie psychiczne oraz na kwestię dobrostanu psychologicznego.
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After five decades of its presence in the Western European space, the architectural profession, regardless of the popularity of feng shui, has never systematically declared itself about this phenomenon. This is a professional problem. It is equally absurd to dismiss feng shui as a bunch of superstitious nonsense without properly scientifically researching it, as well as its detailed study following all Western science standards, without asking, at least once, whether the fengshui recommendations have the effect they promise, and if so, which and why. To answer this question an in-depth analyses of scientific articles on feng shui was performed. Evaluation studies found were divided into three groups: comparative studies where the effectiveness of fengshui's recommendations is not directly verified by field research, but compared with findings in other areas of science; field experimental studies that examine the actual effectiveness of selected feng shui recommendations, through a real or virtual environment, engaging participants and sometimes a control protocol and studies of living quality evaluation systems with feng shui recommendations. Based on the results of the studies analysed it can be concluded, that between the feng shui school of form, environmental psychology and sustainable design principles there are certain similarities, which some researchers confirm with a higher or a lower degree of correlation and statistical significance. On the other side, one of the fundamental concepts of feng shui, namely the concept of life energy qi, remains poorly researched. The conclusion is, that the greatest potential of feng shui for contemporary architecture is not so much in the practical application of its techniques and recommendations, as much of this is already included in everyday design practise, but in its philosophical and conceptual foundations. They can encourage architects to rethink spatial concepts and, if necessary, to change established spatial paradigms.
Chapter
Stress and burnout of healthcare providers have become a major healthcare issue that has implications for not only workforce projections, but the cost and quality of patient care and the lives of healthcare providers and their families. Increasingly, organizations are understanding the importance of creating cultures of well-being that both mitigate burnout and create conditions that support well-being and human flourishing. Factors contributing to well-being include health, purpose, relationships, community, safety and security, and the environment. The Wellbeing Leadership Program is a creative blend of programming offered through the Bakken Center that includes 3 day-long retreats, independent study, and online learning. The program emphasizes personal and leadership practices that are simple, concrete, powerful, and inspiring. The series is based on the premise that leaders are needed at every level of the organization who have the knowledge, skills, and capacity to advance well-being.
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This study compared mindfulness practice outcomes retrieved from the authors’ earlier studies in simulated and actual natural environments. We found that both simulated and actual natural environments boosted these outcomes. However, the actual natural environment was associated with larger decreases in stress and greater increases in nature connectedness than the simulated natural environment. The findings evidence the potential value of simulated as well as actual natural environments as settings for the enhancement of the delivery of health care and complementary therapeutic programmes. Whilst actual natural environments are most effective, the development and use of simulated natural environments may support groups who would for mobility or other reasons have difficulty in accessing a natural environment.
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The aim of this study is to determine the effective criteria for promoting mental health in the elderly using the biophilic approach. In achieving it, descriptive-analytical methods have been used in a survey context. To collect information, a standard questionnaire was developed based on biophilic criteria. The sample size was calculated according to Cochran's formula (5% error rate) and experts' recommendations. Questionnaires were distributed as a random sampling method among the elderly in the nursing home with moderate to high mental health. Answering the questions, according to the level of ability of the elderly, is done in the form of questions and answers between the researcher and the elderly or by the elderly themselves. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Findings indicate a significant relationship between biophilic patterns and mental health of the elderly. Visual connection with nature (except for one sub-criterion), proximity to water, non-visual connection with nature, connection with natural systems, thermal and air diversity, landscape or landscape, dynamism and splendor, connection with natural materials, effective criteria and Irregular and rhythmic sensory stimuli, risk-taking, complexity and simplicity, biomorphic patterns and forms, mysterious environment and shelter, are ineffective criteria for the mental health of the elderly.The results indicate that seeing flowers and plants (average: 4.73 out of 5) has the greatest effect and the
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Subjects viewed sixty color slides of either (1) nature with water, (2) nature dominated by vegetation, or (3) urban environments without water or vegetation. The information rates of the three slide samples were equivalent. Measurements were taken of the effects of the slide presentations on alpha amplitude, heart rate, and emotional states. Results revealed several significant differences as a function of environment, which together indicate that the two categories of nature views had more positive influences on psychophysiological states than the urban scenes. Alpha was significantly higher during the vegetation as opposed to urban slides; similarly, alpha was higher on the average when subjects viewed water rather than urban content. There was also a consistent pattern for nature, especially water, to have more positive influences on emotional states. A salient finding was that water, and to a lesser extent vegetation views, held attention and interest more effectively than the urban scenes. Implications of the findings for theory development in environmental aesthetics are discussed.
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The current need for energy conservation has forced some fundamental re-evaluation of building design. One aspect that has come under much review is that of building fenestration. Although windows provide daylight and ventilation, they also can allow undesirable heat gain and loss. In the past, the provision of light and fresh air were essential functions of windows. A building was uninhabitable without windows. Now however, these functions can be fulfilled by artificial lighting and mechanical ventilation. As a result, a number of people have suggested that a substantial reduction in the size of windows, or their complete elimination is desirable in order to reduce excessive energy consumption. Nevertheless, even though a windowless building might be the best solution for eliminating energy loss through windows, there is considerable evidence that this may not be very desirable for the people in the building. In an attempt to delineate some of the functions of windows, the literature on the reaction to both the presence and the absence of windows was surveyed. In the first section, the psychological reaction to windowless buildings is examined to determine if the absence of windows in a building exerts any noticeable effect upon the occupants' behavior or attitudes. In the second section, the various characteristics of windows are reviewed to define some of their functions and benefits. (123 references) (from Introduction)
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Anxiety, depression, and pain were psychometrically assessed in 67 abdominal surgery patients on the day before surgery, on the first postoperative day, and on the third postoperative day. Patients were divided into kidney donor, kidney recipient, and general surgery groups, and a multi-variate analysis of variance was performed in order to compare the trends of response over days across groups. There were significant group differences in the pattern of scores over the three days. Trait anxiety was related to post-surgical pain, anxiety, and depression in general surgery and renal recipient patients, but not in kidney donors. Results suggest that the meaning attached to the stress of surgery significantly affects the subjective state changes surrounding the operation.
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Investigated the effects of surgery on state anxiety (A-state) and perceived pain in 59 white male surgical patients. The Melzack-Torgerson Pain Questionnaire, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Fear of Surgery Scale (FSS) were given the day before the operation and again 10 days after surgery. Results indicate that surgery as a physical threat has an effect on A-state but not on anxiety as a personality disposition (trait anxiety; A-trait). The correlation of A-state and magnitude of reported pain postsurgery, but not presurgery, attributed to the existence of little pain variance before surgery, and to realistic concern over pain following surgery. (19 ref)
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: Surgical patients with similar medical problems differ greatly in their rate of postoperative recovery. This study investigated the relationship between the mode of coping with preoperative stress and recovery from surgery. Sixty-one preoperative surgical patients were interviewed and classified into three groups based on whether they showed avoidance vigilance, or both kinds of coping behavior, concerning their surgical problem. Coping dispositions referring to the same dimension, preoperative anxiety, and previous life stress were also measured. The five recovery variables included days in hospital, number of pain medications, minor medical complications, negative psychological reactions, and the sum of these. Results showed that the vigilant group had the most complicated postoperative recovery, although only two recovery variables (days in hospital and minor complications) were statistically significant. Coping dispositions, anxiety, and life stress showed no clear or consistent relationships with recovery. Ways in which mode of coping may have influenced recovery are discussed. Copyright (C) 1973 by American Psychosomatic Society
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