ArticleLiterature Review

Martin, G. R. Teratocarcinomas and mammalian embryogenesis. Science 209, 768-776

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Abstract

In the last decade there has emerged an appreciation of the remarkable similarity between the cells that give rise to teratocarcinomas in mice and the cells that give rise to the developing mouse embryo. The resemblance is so close that in certain instances the tumor stem cells can join with their embryonic counterparts and develop into a completely normal mouse. The availability of stem cell lines isolated from mouse teratocarcinomas has made possible a number of new biochemical, immunological, and genetic approahes to the study of early mammalian development.

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... In a continuity, further transplantation of these tumours showcased that the differentiated cells of the teratomas do not have the ability of self-renewing and propagating, but this is a characteristic of the ECCs (G. R. Martin, 1980). To further validate the potency of cells, mice embryos were transplanted outside of the uterus and the pluripotent cells gave rise teratocarcinomas (Diwan & Stevens, 1976;Solter et al., 1970;Stevens, 1968). ...
Thesis
The adrenal cortex (AC) is a central steroidogenic organ with key functions in maintaining body homeostasis. Several adrenal diseases (eg Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)) could in principle be repaired by correcting the mutation (e.g. via recombination) or introduction of a transgene carrying a wildtype form of the mutated gene to permanently restore enzyme activity. However, data from our and other groups demonstrate a rapid turnover of the adrenal cortex. Thus, steroidogenic cells that have been genetically modified are likely to be rapidly replaced by amplifying progenitors that may still carry the mutation. Genetic correction will therefore need to target adrenal stem cell (ASC) populations rather than fully differentiated steroidogenic cells, and in vitro seems to be the better approach. In principle two alternative routes could be envisaged: 1) Generation of induced pluripotent cells (IPSC) from a patient, correction of the mutation using a CRISPR/Cas9 approach and subsequent differentiation towards the adrenal lineage with transplantation in/under the patient's adrenal capsule. 2) Isolation and culture of ASCs, correction in vitro followed by transplantation back into the patient. Aim of this project is to establish a protocol for the in vitro differentiation of mouse ES cells (mESCs) into adrenal progenitor cells and to evaluate their suitability for transplantations under the adrenal capsule. To achieve this goal, I decided to develop a stepwise differentiation procedure that follows as much as possible normal development. The adreno-gonadal primordium (AGP) develops at the interface of the anterior intermediate and lateral plate mesoderm. I developed a robust protocol that allows in vitro differentiation of mESCs via the EpiSC and primitive streak state, into the anterior intermediate and lateral plate mesoderm. Proper differentiation was demonstrated by the expression of cell type specific markers including Brachyury (T) for the primitive streak, Osr1, Gata4 and WT1 for mesodermal lineage, LIM1 and PAX2 for the anterior intermediate, and Foxf1 with Prrx1 for lateral plate mesoderm. The pathways underlying the specification of steroidogenic organs are not yet well established. To obtain further insight into this process, we established a collaboration with Prof. Serge Nef (University of Geneva), whose laboratory has performed single cell RNA-Seq experiments at critical time points of adreno-gonadal differentiation and separation of the adreno-gonadal primordium (AGP) into adrenal primordium (AP) and gonadal primordium (GP). Using information extracted from this cell atlas, and by testing various pathway activators and inhibitors, I was able to further orient differentiation towards the early steroidogenic fate as demonstrated by the upregulation of Nr5a1, a master regulator of steroidogenesis. By testing a range of extracellular matrix proteins, I could show that fibronectin 1 (FN1) enhanced the production of NR5A1 positive cells. Moreover, induction of the PKA pathway using a cAMP derivative (8-Br-cAMP) further increased NR5A1 expression levels in these conditions, both at the RNA and protein level; but still in limiting numbers to claim high efficiency of the protocol. In addition, culturing cells in 3D induced Nr5a1 and other early adrenal progenitor markers over gonadal ones in specific conditions. Further investigation for key aspects of the in vitro differentiation is needed to establish a robust adrenal organoid protocol. Finally, I could partially translate the protocol to hIPSCs, in which the cells were fated correctly for the early steroidogenic progenitor lineage. Taken together these results provide a road map for differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into adrenal progenitors and will form the basis for future work towards transplantation therapies of adrenal diseases.
... Amongst the first in vitro-derived embryonic cells were the human and mouse embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell lines, which can be maintained in vitro but are derived from teratocarcinomas and have multiple mutations and abnormal karyotypes (Martin, 1980). Several EC lines were derived, and while each line has a set of common embryonic features, they also have linespecific effects, such as restricted differentiation potential and different culture requirements (Andrews, 1988;Alonso et al., 1991). ...
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A major event in embryonic development is the rearrangement of epigenetic information as the somatic genome is reprogrammed for a new round of organismal development. Epigenetic data are held in chemical modifications on DNA and histones, and there are dramatic and dynamic changes in these marks during embryogenesis. However, the mechanisms behind this intricate process and how it is regulating and responding to embryonic development remain unclear. As embryos develop from totipotency to pluripotency, they pass through several distinct stages that can be captured permanently or transiently in vitro . Pluripotent naïve cells resemble the early epiblast, primed cells resemble the late epiblast, and blastomere-like cells have been isolated, although fully totipotent cells remain elusive. Experiments using these in vitro model systems have led to insights into chromatin changes in embryonic development, which has informed exploration of pre-implantation embryos. Intriguingly, human and mouse cells rely on different signaling and epigenetic pathways, and it remains a mystery why this variation exists. In this review, we will summarize the chromatin rearrangements in early embryonic development, drawing from genomic data from in vitro cell lines, and human and mouse embryos.
... For this purpose, NCCIT as a human embryonic carcinoma (hEC) cell line was used and treated with RA, phytol and cisplatin separately. EC cells are derived from teratocarcinoma germ cell tumors (34)(35)(36). EC cells have self-renewal potential, differentiation ability into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers and express the key pluripotency transcription factors including OCT4, NANOG and SOX2. Therefore, they are pluripotent stem cells with cancerous properties and could be considered as the archetype of CSC (37). ...
Article
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subgroup of cancer cells, have self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential and drive tumor growth. CSCs are highly-resistant to conventional chemo-radio therapy. Phytochemicals were shown to be able to eliminate CSCs. Phytol is a diterpene alcohol with demonstrated anticancer effects. The current study compared the effect of phytol with retinoic acid (RA) as a well-known inducers of CSC differentiation and cisplatin, a common chemotherapy drug, on CSC markers in human embryonic carcinoma NCCIT cells. NCCIT cells were exposed to 10 mM RA for 14 day to induce differentiation. Moreover, NCCIT cells were treated with IC50 dose of cisplatin (12 µM) and phytol (40 µM) for 7 day. Real-time PCR showed that phytol was more effective that RA and cisplatin in down-regulating the CSC markers OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, ALDH1, ABCB1, CD44 and CD133. Percentage of SP (13%) and ABCB1⁺ (0.34%) in NCCIT cells decreased to 7% and 0.1% respectively after treatment with phytol. A very small proportion of NCCIT cells were positive for CD44 (0.2%) and CD133 (0.48%) and this fraction did not change significantly after treatment with three agents. In conclusion, phytol has the greatest inhibitory effect on CSC population and markers than RA and cisplatin.
... The first studies implemented the culture protocols of mESCs using feeder cells and serum-supplemented medium [9]. The establishment of these culture conditions highlighted either the presence (in the serum and in the conditioned medium) or the production (by the feeder cells) of factors favoring the survival of mESCs [9,10,12,13]. ...
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Complex gene regulation systems ensure maintenance of cellular identity during early development in mammals. Eukaryotic small RNAs have emerged as critical players in RNA interference (RNAi) by mediating gene silencing during embryonic stem cell self-renewal. Most of the proteins involved in the biogenesis of small RNAs are essential for proliferation and differentiation into the three germ layers of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). In the last decade, new functions for some RNAi proteins, independent of their roles in RNAi pathways, have been demonstrated in different biological systems. In parallel, new concepts in stem cell biology have emerged. Here, we review and integrate the current understanding of how RNAi proteins regulate stem cell identity with the new advances in the stem cell field and the recent non-canonical functions of the RNAi proteins. Finally, we propose the re-evaluation of RNAi mutant phenotypes as non-canonical (small non-coding RNA independent) functions may contribute to the molecular mechanisms governing mESCs commitment.
... Abnormal cell behaviours such as tumour progression are caused by inappropriate cell -microenvironment interactions [47]. Martin et al. [48] reported that cells performed normal embryogenesis if they were located in the uterus, while they were differentiated into malignant tissue cells when they were co-cultured with ectopic embryonic cells. Oral squamous carcinoma cells had similar behaviours in the synthetic poly (lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffold in vitro and in vivo compared to two-dimensional culture as evidenced by increase in secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin 8 (IL-8), as well as basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF). ...
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Three-dimensional multicellular spheroids (MCSs) have a complex architectural structure, dynamic cell–cell/cell–matrix interactions and bio-mimicking in vivo microenvironment. As a fundamental building block for tissue reconstruction, MCSs have emerged as a powerful tool to narrow down the gap between the in vitro and in vivo model. In this review paper, we discussed the structure and biology of MCSs and detailed fabricating methods. Among these methods, the approach in microfluidics with hydrogel support for MCS formation is promising because it allows essential cell–cell/cell–matrix interactions in a confined space.%U http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royinterface/14/127/20160877.full.pdf
... The P19 embryonic stem (ES) cells were derived from the inner cell mass of a mouse blastoderm and are multipotent cells capable of differentiating to all three germ layers [16]. While these cells are anchorage-independent, lack contact inhibition, and are tumori- genic [17] , they respond to a number of morphogens by differentiating into primitive endoderm, mesoderm, neuron-like cells [18] and beating cardiomyocytes [19,20] . The P19 ES cells, therefore , have been used as an ideal model system for studying early embryonic development and differentiation. ...
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RNA silencing is used as a common method for investigating loss-of-function effects of genes of interest. In mammalian cells, RNA interference (RNAi) or RNA silencing can be achieved by transient siRNA (small or short interfering RNA) transfection or by stable shRNA (short hairpin RNA) systems. Various vectors are used for efficient delivery of shRNA. Lentiviral vectors offer an efficient delivery system for stable and long-term expression of the shRNA in mammalian cells. The widely used lentiviral pLKO.1 plasmid vector is very popular in RNAi studies. A large RNAi database, a TRC (the RNAi Consortium) library, was established based on the pLKO.1-TRC plasmid vector. This plasmid (also called pLKO.1-puro) has a puromycin-resistant gene for selection in mammalian cells along with designs for generating lentiviral particles as well for RNA silencing. While using the pLKO.1-puro TRC control shRNA plasmid for transfection in murine P19 embryonic stem (ES) cells, it was unexpectedly discovered that this plasmid vector induced robust endodermal differentiation. Since P19 ES cells are pluripotent and respond to external stimuli that have the potential to alter the phenotype and thus its stemness, other cell types used in RNA silencing studies do not display the obvious effect and therefore, may affect experiments in subtle ways that would go undetected. This study for the first time provides evidence that raises concern and warrants extreme caution while using the pLKO.1-puro control shRNA vector because of its unexpected non-specific effects on cellular integrity.
... These multi-differentiated tumors comprise derivatives of all germ layers along with an undifferentiated proliferative compartment. The primitive proliferative cells, called embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, could be propagated in culture and remain pluripotent (Martin, 1980). However, EC cells are karyotypically abnormal and tumorigenic (Silver et al., 1983). ...
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Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a unique tool for genetic perturbation of mammalian cellular and organismal processes additionally in humans offer unprecedented opportunities for disease modeling and cell therapy. Furthermore, ESCs are a powerful system for exploring the fundamental biology of pluripotency. Indeed understanding the control of self-renewal and differentiation is key to realizing the potential of ESCs. Building on previous observations, we found that mouse ESCs can be derived and maintained with high efficiency through insulation from differentiation cues combined with consolidation of an innate cell proliferation program. This finding of a pluripotent ground state has led to conceptual and practical advances, including the establishment of germline-competent ESCs from recalcitrant mouse strains and for the first time from the rat. Here, we summarize historical and recent progress in defining the signaling environment that supports self-renewal. We compare the contrasting requirements of two types of pluripotent stem cell, naive ESCs and primed post-implantation epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs), and consider the outstanding challenge of generating naive pluripotent stem cells from different mammals.
... The ability to culture ESCs has opened many doors to furthering our understanding of developmental biology since, beyond studying specific cells isolated from developing tissue, these PSCs actually provide a tool to watch features of early development and observe differentiation and self-organization into different identities in vitro. When grown in suspension, the ability of ESCs to follow developmental trajectories becomes evident as they aggregate to form small spheres called embryoid bodies (EBs) (Martin 1980(Martin , 1981Evans and Kaufman 1981). EBs essentially mimic the very early events of embryogenesis as, following the blastocyst stage, an embryo will undergo gastrulation and formation of the three germ layers. ...
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Zusammenfassung Totipotente/pluripotente embryonale Stammzellen sind ein wichtiges Zellmodell der Entwicklungsbiologie zur Untersuchung von Embryogenese und Differenzierung. Drei in vitro-Systeme pluripotenter Zellen stehen als permanente Linien zur Verfügung: Embryonale Karzinom (EC)- Zellen, embryonale Stamm (ES)-Zellen und die aus primordialen Keimzellen (PGC) etablierten embryonalen Keim (EG)-Zellen. Alle drei Zelltypen können in Kultur in Derivate aller drei Keimblätter, Endoderm, Ektoderm und Mesoderm, differenzieren. Es wurden in vitro-Methoden für die Differenzierung von ES-Zellen in die kardiogene, myogene und neurogene Linie etabliert. Durch Behandlung mit Wachstums- und Differenzierungsfaktoren oder mit embryoto-xischen Substanzen und mit Hilfe von „loss of function“und „gain of function“-Versuchen kann die Differenzierung von ES-Zellen in vitro moduliert werden. Embryonale Stammzellen können weiterhin als Zellmodell fur totipotente undifferenzierte embryonale Zellen dienen und in Zytotoxizitätstesten, Gen- und Chromosomenmutationsuntersuchungen eingesetzt werden. Für Untersuchungen über die teratogene Wirkung chemischer Substanzen sind Testsysteme erforderlich, die Prozesse der frühen Embryonalentwicklung und Differenzierung widerspiegeln. Summary Embryonic stem cells as a model for developmental genetics and reproductive biology Totipotent/pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells are one of the most important cellular models to study early embryogenesis and differentiation. Three types of pluripotent cells are available as permanent cell lines: Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, embryonal stem (ES) cells, and embryonic germ (EG) cells established from primordial germ cells (PGC) of early embryos. EC cells, ES cells and EG cells are able to differentiate in culture into derivatives of all three primary germ layers: endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm. We established in vitro methods for the differentiation of ES cells into cardiogenic, myogenic and neurogenic lineage. The differentiation capacity and differentiation pattern is modulated by treatment with growth and differentiation factors or with embryotoxic substances and by using “loss of function” and “gain of function” approaches. Furthermore, embryonic stem cells may be used for the analysis of cytotoxic effects and the induction of gene and chromosomal mutations as cellular systems resembling totipotent undifferentiated germ cells. For investigations about teratogenic effects of chemical substances in vitro systems are necessary which reflect the processes of early embryogenesis and differentiation.
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We examined neuronal differentiation of F9 teratocarcinoma cells using retinoic acid (RA) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) as inducing agents. Neuronal differentiation was monitored using (1) cDNA probes for the rat 68‐kDa neurofilament gene, (2) RT‐PCR for neurofilament genes and (3) antibodies against several neuronal differentiation markers. We found by Northern blotting that the uninduced F9 cells, grown in 10% serum, expressed mRNA for the 68‐kDa neurofilament protein whereas the control cells, grown in 3% serum, failed to express detectable levels of the 68‐kDa neurofilament transcripts. However, RT‐PCR allowed detection of both the 68‐ and 200‐kDa neurofilament gene transcripts in F9 cells with or without the inducing agents. Under serum deprivation, a prolonged (>10–15 days) cultivation of the F9 cells in the presence of RA and cAMP was required for the expression of detectable levels of the 68‐kDa neurofilament transcripts and immunocytochemically detectable neurofilament proteins. Treatment of the F9 cells with RA and cAMP was also required for induction of their neuronal phenotype. Immunocytochemically, the uninduced F9 cells expressed several neuronal antigens including the 68‐kDa neurofilament protein, the 200‐kDa neurofilament protein, neural cell adhesion molecule (N‐CAM) and a neuronal specific tubulin isoform (TUJI). The control cells expressed N‐CAM and TUJI, but failed to express the neurofilament proteins. A subclone, D9L2, derived from a single F9 parent cell, expressed both TUJI and neurofilament proteins, but no N‐CAM molecule. The present results indicate that both the 68‐ and the 200‐kDa neurofilament genes are constitutively active in uninduced F9 teratocarcinoma cells. Under serum deprivation both RA and cAMP are required for expression of detectable levels of neurofilament mRNA and protein. Thus, serum deprivation of the F9 cells either down‐regulates the NF gene expression, stability of mRNA or degradation of the NF‐proteins. Importantly, expression of a neuronal phenotype by a subpopulation of F9 cells appears to require administration of RA and cAMP, although expression of neuronal marker proteins is not dependent on these agents. Lastly, we demonstrate cloning of a novel cell line (D9L2), derived from a single F9 parent cells, capable of extending neurites and expressing several neuronal antigens under serum deprivation without the requirement of RA and cAMP. We propose that the D9L2 cell line may offer a simplified F9 cell model system to investigate the mechanisms of neuronal differentiation.
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Although genetic mutations are required for cancer development, reversible non-genetic alterations also play a pivotal role in cancer progression. Failure of well-orchestrated gene regulation by chromatin states and master transcription factors can be one such non-genetic etiology for cancer development. Master transcription factor-mediated cellular reprogramming of human cancer cells allows us to model cancer progression. Here I cover the history and recent advances in reprogramming cancer cells, followed by lessons from cellular reprogramming of normal cells that may apply to cancer. Lastly, I share my perspective on cellular reprogramming for studying epigenetic alterations that have occurred in tumorigenesis, discuss the current limitations, and propose ways to overcome the obstacles in the reprogramming of cancer.
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A derivative, FOT5, of the F9 murine embryonal carcinoma cell line which is resistant to ouabain and thioguanine was fused with a near diploid parietal endodermal cell line, PFHR9, Hybrid clones (ENEC1 to ENEC5) were isolated in HAT Medium containing ouabain at a frequency of approximately 2 x 10(-4). The DNA contents and chromosome number of the ENEC hybrids were approximately the sum of those of the parents. Five hybrid cell lines examined in detail expressed the following parietal endodermal functions: plasminogen activator activity, basement membrane proteins, and endodermal cytoskeletal proteins. Embryonal carcinoma characteristic functions (tumorigenicity, a stage specific embryonic antigen, and high alkaline phosphatase activity) were extinguished in the hybrids. No hybrid clones with embryonal carcinoma morphology were observed among 1,358 hybrid clones examined. Hybrids, propagated for over 100 generations, continued to express endodermal functions and not embryonal carcinoma functions. The coordinate expression of endodermal functions and the extinction of embryonal carcinoma functions in the ENEC hybrids suggest that the parietal endodermal cells contain diffusible activities which extinguish embryonal carcinoma functions and possibly cause the embryonal carcinoma genome to express parietal endodermal characteristics.
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We have cloned a novel kinase (STY) from an embryonal carcinoma cell line. Sequence analysis of the STY cDNA reveals that it shares sequence homology with serine/threonine-type kinases and yet the bacterial expression product of the STY cDNA appears to have serine-, threonine-, and tyrosine-phosphorylating activities. The predicted STY protein is highly basic and contains a putative nuclear localization signal. During differentiation, two new mRNAs were detected in addition to the embryonic transcript.
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Previous work has shown that murine embryonal carcinoma cells are refractory to infection with various viruses, including simian virus 40. Thus, large T and small t antigens, the products of the simian virus 40 early region, are not produced when the virus infects embryonal carcinoma cells, in contrast to other cell types. We show, by qualitative and quantitative analyses, that embryonal carcinoma cell hybrids, containing a simian virus 40 early region integrated into human DNA, are capable of producing viral large T antigen.
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Sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that bind to the long terminal repeat (LTR) of Moloney leukemia virus in undifferentiated and differentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells were identified by gel retardation assay. The proteins that bind to the CCAAT box were present in both undifferentiated and differentiated EC cells. The amounts and the number of species of the proteins that bind to the enhancer and the GC-rich region were far lower in undifferentiated EC cells than in the differentiated counterparts. These proteins were supposed to be transcriptional activators. Proteins that bind upstream of the enhancer, namely, the -352 to -346 region and the -407 to -404 region, were identified. These proteins were designated the embryonic LTR-binding protein (ELP) and the LTR-binding protein, respectively. The ELP was present only in undifferentiated EC cell lines. The LTR-binding protein was detected in all cell lines tested. The mechanism of suppression of the LTR was investigated by the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay. The enhancer and the GC-rich region of the LTR functioned poorly in undifferentiated cells. When eight copies of ELP-binding sequences were inserted upstream of the enhancer region, expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene was reduced about threefold in ECA2 cells. From these data, we concluded that two mechanisms, the shortage of activator proteins and the presence of a negative regulatory protein (ELP), are involved in the suppression of the LTR in undifferentiated EC cells.
Article
The methylation pattern of the germ line-transmitted Moloney leukemia proviral genome was analyzed in DNA of sperm, of day-12 and day-17 embryos, and of adult mice from six different Mov substrains. At day 12 of gestation, all 50 testable CpG sites in the individual viral genomes as well as sites in flanking host sequences were highly methylated. Some sites were unmethylated in sperm, indicating de novo methylation of unique DNA sequences during normal mouse development. At subsequent stages of development, specific CpG sites which were localized exclusively in the 5' and 3' enhancer regions of the long terminal repeat became progressively demethylated in all six proviruses. The extent of enhancer demethylation, however, was tissue specific and strongly affected by the chromosomal position of the respective proviral genome. This position-dependent demethylation of enhancer sequences was not accompanied by a similar change within the flanking host sequences, which remained virtually unchanged. Our results indicate that viral enhancer sequences, but not other sequences in the M-MuLV genome, may have an intrinsic ability to interact with cellular proteins, which can perturb the interaction of the methylase with DNA. Demethylation of enhancer sequences is not sufficient for gene expression but may be a necessary event which enables the enhancer to respond to developmental signals which ultimately lead to gene activation.
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Embryonal carcinoma and embryonic stem cells expressed a novel form of platelet-derived growth factor receptor mRNA which was approximately 1,100 base pairs shorter than the 5.3-kilobase (kb) transcript expressed in fibroblasts and other cell types. The 4.2-kb stem cell transcript was initiated within the genomic region immediately upstream of exon 6 of the 5.3-kb transcript and therefore lacked the first five exons, which encode much of the extracellular domain of the receptor expressed in fibroblasts. In stem cells, the short form was predominant, although both forms were present at low levels. Following differentiation in vitro, expression levels of the long form increased dramatically. These findings suggest that during early embryogenesis, a stem cell-specific promoter is used in a stage- and cell type-specific manner to express a form of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor that lacks much of the extracellular domain and may function independently of ligand.
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Biosynthesis of the receptor for epidermal growth factor was investigated in two human tumor-derived cell lines, Hep 3B and A431. When grown in the presence of tunicamycin, both cells expressed a receptor-related species p135, the presumptive aglycosylated form of the biosynthetic precursor, gp145, of the mature form of the receptor, gp165, expressed at the cell surface. Two additional receptor-related species, p115 and p70, were detected when A431, but not Hep 3B, cells were treated with tunicamycin. Furthermore, digestion of the A431 receptor-related proteins with endoglycosidase F resulted in the detection of these three aglycosylated species. P70 appears to be the aglycosylated form of gp95, the presumptive intracellular precursor of the receptor-related species gp120 that is secreted by A431 but not Hep 3B cells; gp120 has a complex pattern of N-linked glycosylation, with consequent molecular weight and charge heterogeneity. P115 may be the aglycosylated form of a third biosynthetic intermediate, possibly a gp135 species detected in the early time points of pulse-chase labeling. Alternatively, p115 and gp135 may be derived co- or post-translationally by Ca2+-mediated proteolysis from p135 and gp145, respectively. The implications of the complexity of the biosynthesis of this molecule with regard to the multiple opportunities it affords the cell to modulate cell proliferation are discussed.
Article
Retinoic acid (RA) receptor alpha (RAR alpha) and RAR gamma steady-state mRNA levels remained relatively constant over time after the addition of RA to F9 teratocarcinoma stem cells. In contrast, the steady-state RAR beta mRNA level started to increase within 12 h after the addition of RA and reached a 20-fold-higher level by 48 h. This RA-associated RAR beta mRNA increase was not prevented by protein synthesis inhibitors but was prevented by the addition of cyclic AMP analogs. In the presence of RA, cyclic AMP analogs also greatly reduced the RAR alpha and RAR gamma mRNA levels, even though cyclic AMP analogs alone did not alter these mRNA levels. The addition of either RA or RA plus cyclic AMP analogs did not result in changes in the three RAR mRNA half-lives. These results suggest that agents which elevate the internal cyclic AMP concentration may also affect the cellular response to RA by altering the expression of the RARs.
Article
BOX DNA was previously isolated from the DNA sequence inserted in the enhancer B domain of mutant polyomavirus (fPyF9) DNA. We also reported that BOX DNA functioned negatively on DNA replication and transcription of another polyomavirus mutant (PyhrN2) in F9-28 cells, a subclone of mouse F9 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells expressing the polyomavirus large T antigen. In this study, we demonstrate that BOX DNA enhances transcription from the thymidine kinase (TK) promoter in various EC cells. One or three copies of BOX DNA, linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene under the control of the herpes simplex virus TK promoter, activated promoter activity in F9, P19, and ECA2 cells. Band shift assays using BOX DNA as a probe revealed that specific binding proteins were present in all EC cells examined; the patterns of BOX DNA-protein complexes were the same among them. A mutation introduced within BOX DNA abolished enhancer activity as well as the formation of specific DNA-protein complexes. In non-EC cells, including L and BALB/3T3 cells, the enhancer activity of BOX DNA on the TK promoter was not observed, although binding proteins specific to the sequence exist. In band shift assays, the patterns of the DNA-protein complexes of either L or BALB/3T3 cells were different from those of EC cells. Furthermore, the enhancer activity of BOX DNA decreased upon differentiation induction in all EC cells examined, of different origins and distinct differentiation ability. In parallel with the loss of enhancer activity, the binding proteins specific for BOX DNA decreased in these cells. Moreover, we cloned a genomic DNA of F9, termed BOXF1, containing BOX DNA sequence approximately 400 bp upstream from the RNA start site of the gene. BOXF1, containing a TATA-like motif and the binding elements for Sp1 and Oct in addition to BOX DNA, possessed promoter activity deduced by a BOXF1-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase construct. Deletion analyses of the construct revealed that the transcription of BOXF1 gene is regulated by BOX DNA, preferentially in undifferentiated EC cells versus differentiated cells. Hence, BOX DNA is probably a novel transcriptional element related to EC cell differentiation.
Article
Circular, double-stranded DNA molecules were injected into nuclei of mouse oocytes and one- or two-cell embryos to determine whether specific sequences were required to replicate DNA during mouse development. Although all of the injected DNAs were stable, replication of plasmid pML-1 DNA was not detected unless it contained either polyomavirus (PyV) or simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA sequences. Replication occurred in embryos, but not in oocytes. PyV DNA, either alone or recombined with pML-1, underwent multiple rounds of replication to produce superhelical and relaxed circular monomers after injection into one- or two-cell embryos. SV40 DNA also replicated, but only 3% as well as PyV DNA. Coinjection of PyV DNA with either pML-1 or SV40 had no effect on the replicating properties of the three DNAs. These results are consistent with a requirement for specific cis-acting sequences to replicate DNA in mammalian embryos, in contrast to sequence-independent replication of DNA injected into Xenopus eggs. Furthermore, PyV DNA replication in mouse embryos required PyV large T-antigen and either the alpha-beta-core or beta-core configuration of the PyV origin of replication. Although the alpha-core configuration replicated in differentiated mouse cells, it failed to replicate in mouse embryos, demonstrating cell-specific activation of an origin of replication. Replication or expression of PyV DNA interfered with normal embryonic development. These results reveal that mouse embryos are permissive for PyV DNA replication, in contrast to the absence of PyV DNA replication and gene expression in mouse embryonal carcinoma cells.
Article
We used a series of cell clones from a human teratocarcinoma cell line, PA-1, to study the effect of transformation by an activated N-ras oncogene on the expression of genes involved in retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation and growth regulation. Recently, it has been shown that expression of human HOX 2 genes is sequentially activated by RA beginning from Hox 2.9 at the 3' end of the HOX 2 cluster (A. Simeone, D. Acampora, L. Arcioni, P. W. Andrews, E. Boncinelli, and F. Mavilio, Nature [London] 346:763-766, 1990). We now report that six different genes of the cluster HOX 1 are sequentially induced by RA in a similar temporal pattern, beginning with genes at the 3' end of the cluster. However, in N-ras-transformed cell clones, RA-induced expression of these homeobox genes is delayed. Hox 1.4 and Hox 1.3, genes abundantly induced in nontransformed clones after 3 days of RA treatment, are expressed in N-ras-transformed cells only after 10 days of RA treatment. At this time, the cells' growth is arrested at very high density, and no differentiated morphologic characteristics are observed. Constitutive expression of a transfected Hox 1.4 gene under the control of a simian virus 40 promotor leads to differentiated cell morphology similar to that of the RA-induced phenotype and restores the growth-inhibitory effects of RA in N-ras-transformed cells. These observations provide evidence that enhanced proliferation in N-ras-transformed cells compromises teratocarcinoma cell differentiation by a mechanism that transiently suppresses homeobox gene induction and implies a central role for homeobox genes in RA-induced cell differentiation. We conclude that stimulation of a putative growth factor signal pathway, associated with ras-induced proliferation, transiently suppresses the induction of transcription factors functionally involved in cell growth and differentiation.
Article
Murine F9 embryonal carcinoma (F9 EC) stem cells have an E1a-like transcription activity that is down-regulated as these cells differentiate to parietal endoderm. For the adenovirus E2A promoter, this activity requires at least two sequence-specific transcription factors, one that binds the cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE) and the other, DRTF1, the DNA-binding activity of which is down-regulated as F9 EC cells differentiate. Here we report the characterization of several binding activities in F9 EC cell extracts, referred to as DRTF 1a, 1b and 1c, that recognize the DRTF1 cis-regulatory sequence (-70 to -50 region). These activities can be chromatographically separated but are not distinguishable by DNA sequence specificity. Activity 1a is a detergent-sensitive complex in which DNA binding is regulated by phosphorylation. In contrast, activities 1b and 1c are unaffected by these treatments but exist as multicomponent protein complexes even before DNA binding. Two sets of DNA-binding polypeptides, p50DR and p30DR, affinity purified from F9 EC cell extracts produce complexes 1b and 1c. Both polypeptides appear to be present in the same DNA-bound protein complex and both directly contact DNA. These affinity-purified polypeptides activate transcription in vitro in a binding-site-dependent manner. These data indicate the in F9 EC stem cells, multicomponent differentiation-regulated transcription factors contribute to the cellular E1a-like activity.
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The Lex determinant (Galβ 1→4[Fucα1→3]GlcNAc-β1→R) has been implicated as having a role in mediating compaction of the mouse embryo at the morula stage (Fenderson, B., Zehavi, U., and Hakomori, S. (1984) J. Exp. Med. 160, 1591–1596). Here, we present evidence suggesting a role for Lex in F9 embryonal carcinoma cell adhesion and a mechanism for Lex recognition based on carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction. Homotypic aggregation of F9 cells was inhibited by lacto-N-fucopentaose III, and F9 cells showed a preferential interaction with Lex liposomes. The following observations suggest that the structure capable of recognizing Lex per se on F9 cells is Lex: (i) Cell surface-labeled components solubilized in octylglucoside, affinity-bound on an Lex-octyl-Sepharose column, contained glycoproteins reactive with anti-Lex antibody. (ii) Liposomes containing Lex showed significant interaction with Lex glycolipid, but not other glycolipids, coated on a plastic surface. (iii) Liposomes containing Lex glycolipid were found to self-aggregate, whereas liposomes containing paragloboside (nLc4) or sialylparagloboside (IV³NeuAcnLc⁴) did not. (iv) The diffusibility of 3H-labeled lacto-N-fucopentaitol III (but not I or II), incubated with Lex liposome, from the lower to the upper Boyden chamber through a semipermeable membrane was inhibited. In all these experiments (i-iv), the interaction of Lex to Lex (or Lex to lacto-N-fucopentaose III) was clearly observed only in the presence of Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺ and was enhanced by the presence of Mn²⁺. These interactions were inhibited by EDTA. The results suggest the novel hypothesis that carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions may play an important role in controlling cell recognition during F9 cell aggregation and during embryonic development.
Article
The induced differentiation of F9 cells by retinoic acid (RA) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) activated transcription of the tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) gene. This differentiation-responsive regulation of the t-PA promoter was also observed in transient assays. Multiple sequence elements within 243 bp of t-PA DNA contributed to the high level of transcription in retinoic acid- and cyclic AMP-differentiated cells. To investigate the factors involved in controlling t-PA transcription upon differentiation, we used F9 cell extracts to examine proteins that bind two proximal promoter elements. These elements (boxes 4 and 5) are homologous to GC boxes that are known binding sites for transcription factor Sp1. Mobility shift assays in the presence and absence of anti-Sp1 antibodies demonstrated that the proteins which bound to this region were immunologically related to human Sp1. The proteins also had a DNA-binding specificity similar to that of a truncated form of Sp1. Mutations of the GC motif within boxes 4 and 5 that interfered with Sp1 binding reduced in parallel the binding of the F9 cellular factors and lowered transcription in vitro as well as in vivo. Although this proximal region of the t-PA promoter was active in vivo only in differentiated cells, the Sp1-like binding proteins were present in equal concentrations and had similar properties in extracts of both stem and differentiated cells. These data suggest that other cellular elements participate with this Sp1-like factor in controlling differentiation-specific expression.
Article
Retinoic acid (RA), the natural acidic derivative of vitamin A, can modulate the expression of specific genes and can induce some cell types, such as the murine F9 teratocarcinoma stem cell line, to differentiate in culture. As an initial step toward understanding the molecular mechanism(s) by which RA exerts these effects, we previously isolated cDNA clones for a gene, ERA-1, which has the characteristics of an early, direct target for RA. We demonstrated that RA causes a rapid, dose-dependent, and protein synthesis-independent expression of the ERA-1 gene (G. J. LaRosa and L. J. Gudas, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:329-333, 1988). We now report the full-length cDNA sequence and the further characterization of this gene. The data indicate that the RA-induced 2.2- to 2.4-kilobase ERA-1 RNA species that we previously detected consists of two alternately spliced messages. One mRNA encodes a protein with a predicted mass of about 36 kilodaltons (kDa) that possesses the Hox 1.6 homeobox domain. The other mRNA encodes a truncated protein of about 15 kDa which is identical to the 36-kDa protein for 114 amino acids at the amino-terminal end but which lacks the homeobox amino acid sequence. The RA-associated increase in the ERA-1 mRNA level does not appear to be due to message stabilization, suggesting that the response is at the level of transcription. By Northern (RNA) blot analysis, the usual 2.2- to 2.4-kilobase mRNA species was also rapidly expressed in P19 teratocarcinoma cells during their differentiation to fibroblastic cells in response to RA and was detected in day 10.5 and day 13.5 mouse embryos. This result indicates that the expression of this gene is not limited to the endodermal differentiation of F9 cells.
Article
The mouse embryonal carcinoma (EC) line, PCC4, was used to construct a series of somatic cell hybrids which contain a single or a few human chromosomes. The hybrids all retained the EC phenotype as determined by morphology, expression of SSEA-1, lack of cell surface H-2 antigen and cytokeratin filaments, high alkaline phosphatase levels, the ability to form EC tumors ectopically in nude mice, and the ability to differentiate in response to retinoic acid. Constitutively differentiated cloned lines were derived from retinoic acid-treated hybrid cultures. Several derived lines had a phenotype indistinguishable from that of parietal endoderm cells, which includes synthesis of large amounts of laminin, type IV procollagen, and plasminogen activator. One differentiated line showed a fibroblast-like morphology. The differentiated lines derived from two of the hybrids, MCP6 and GEOC4, stably maintained the sole human chromosomal component present in the EC progenitors. These EC hybrids therefore provide a system to study developmental regulation of the introduced and stably maintained human genetic material derived from a variety of cell types.
Article
Cells of the teratocarcinoma-derived line P19S1801A1 (01A1) are pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells and can be induced to differentiate when aggregated and exposed to dimethyl sulfoxide. Many nonneural cell types appear in dimethyl sulfoxide-treated cultures, cardiac and skeletal muscle being the most easily identified. We have used immunofluorescence procedures with monoclonal antibodies directed against muscle myosin to confirm and quantitate the number of muscle cells formed. A monoclonal antibody reactive with an embryonal carcinoma-specific surface antigen was used to confirm the disappearance of undifferentiated cells after dimethyl sulfoxide treatment. Cardiac muscle cells developed within 4 to 5 days of drug exposure, but skeletal muscle cells did not become evident until 7 to 8 days. We have isolated a mutant cell line (D3) which appears to be incapable of muscle development but which does form neurons and glial cells when exposed to high retinoic acid concentrations. We propose that this system will be useful for investigation of the means by which pluripotent cells become committed to development along the striated muscle lineages.
Article
The phenotype of a differentiated cell results from the expression of a unique set of genes in that cell. The differentiation of F9 teratocarcinoma cells in response to retinoic acid and cyclic AMP is an excellent example of this process, as the appearance of several gene products during the course of the differentiation process has been documented. In principle, the activation of gene expression could be due to the appearance of positive-acting factors, the loss of negative-acting factors, or a combination of both. Since F9 cells have been shown to express a cellular E1A analog whereas differentiated F9 cells do not, and it is known that the viral E1A gene exerts a negative effect on transcription of both viral and cellular genes, we determined whether the cellular genes activated during F9 cell differentiation are subject to E1A negative control. We found that infection of differentiated F9 cells with wild-type adenovirus resulted in a decline in the levels of collagen type IV mRNA and plasminogen activator mRNA, both of which are induced by differentiation. At least for the collagen gene, this phenomenon appears to involve a transcriptional repression.
Article
beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase (GalTase) has two functionally distinct subcellular distributions. In the Golgi apparatus, GalTase participates in the glycosylation of secretory and membrane-bound glycoproteins, whereas on the cell surface it mediates specific aspects of intercellular adhesion. For this study, a murine GalTase clone was obtained by screening a lambda gt10 cDNA library made from F9 embryonal carcinoma cells with a heterologous bovine GalTase cDNA probe. The murine GalTase cDNA probe was used in conjunction with assays of GalTase activity to investigate the expression and distribution of GalTase during differentiation of F9 stem cells into secretory endodermal epithelium. During the initial phase of F9 cell differentiation, GalTase mRNA levels remained relatively constant; however, as differentiation progressed, as assayed by expression of the differentiation-specific marker laminin B1, GalTase mRNA levels and enzyme activity rose dramatically. Furthermore, subcellular fractionation of these cells showed that the increased GalTase levels were specifically associated with the Golgi apparatus, whereas GalTase specific activity on the plasma membrane remained constant. These results show that levels of cell surface and Golgi GalTase change relative to one another during F9 cell differentiation and suggest that these functionally distinct pools of GalTase are independently and differentially regulated.
Article
F9 cells induced to differentiate with retinoic acid (RA) increase transcription of the tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) gene. Further treatment of these cells with cyclic AMP (cAMP) results in an additional stimulation of t-PA gene transcription. To investigate the mechanism of this two-stage regulation, 4 kilobase pairs (kbp) of 5'-flanking sequence from the murine t-PA gene was isolated. Two major start sites for transcription were found, neither of which depended on a classical TATA motif for correct initiation. By using transient transfection assays, it was determined that 4-kbp of flanking sequence could confer on reporter genes the same two-stage differentiation-specific expression as was observed for the endogenous t-PA gene. Deletion analyses of this 4-kbp fragment showed that 190 bp of flanking sequence was sufficient to bestow the same degree of two-stage regulation on reporter gene constructs. Within this region of DNA, sequence analysis revealed a possible cAMP regulatory element, a CTF/NF-1 recognition sequence, two potential Sp1 sites, and five potential binding sites for transcription factor AP-2. The deletion experiments, coupled with the positions of these potential cis-acting elements, suggest that multiple transcription factors, including those that bind to cAMP regulatory element, CTF/NF-1, Sp1, and AP-2 sites, may be involved in regulation of the t-PA gene during F9 cell differentiation.
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Murine embryonal carcinoma F9 cells, a tissue culture model for early embryonic development, do not produce interferon (IFN) in response to poly(I-C), as determined by an antiviral assay. RNase protection analyses were used to examine total RNA extracted from the cells for the presence of beta-IFN RNA. Whereas F9 cells differentiated in vitro with retinoic acid produced a biologically active protein as well as beta-IFN RNA in response to poly(I-C), undifferentiated F9 cells produced no detectable beta-IFN RNA even in the presence of cycloheximide, an IFN-superinducing agent. These results show that undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma cells do not accumulate beta-IFN RNA in response to an IFN-inducing agent, suggesting a transcriptional regulatory mechanism. However, this control mechanism is altered upon differentiation, since the gene can be transcriptionally activated in retinoic acid-differentiated cells.
Article
In mouse embryos, the int-1 proto-oncogene is transiently expressed in areas of the developing neural system. Retinoic acid-treated P19 embryonal carcinoma cells have often been used as an in vitro model for the molecular basis of neural development. We shown here that int-1 is transiently expressed in differentiated P19 cells. The time course and retinoic acid dose dependence of int-1 expression suggest that the gene is specifically expressed during early neural differentiation. P19 cells may be a useful model to assist in the study, at the cellular level, of the role of int-1 in neural development.
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This chapter describes the culture and propagation of murine embryonic stem cells, F9 and P19, and strategies for differentiation of these stem cells into neurons. Additional techniques are described for obtaining enriched populations of mature neurons from P19 cells and differentiation of F9 cells into serotonergic or catecholaminergic neurons. The protocols described herein can be used for dissection of the pathways such as gliogenesis and neurogenesis that are involved in differentiation of pluripotent stem cells such as F9 and P19 into glial cells or terminally differentiated neurons.
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Retinoids, derivatives of vitamin A, are antagonistic toward some of the actions of phorbol ester tumor promoters (TPA) in many cell systems, and may be important as agents in cancer chemotherapy and prevention. We have been involved with studies to elucidate the effects and counteractions of retinoic acid (RA) and TPA on two key protein kinase systems known to play a role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and malignant transformation: protein kinase C (PKC) and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Results indicate that RA treatment of cells causes marked changes in PKA activity, and in the PKA regulatory subunits RI and RII, and suggest an important synergism between RA and cyclic AMP to regulate cell growth and differentiation. Treatment of cells with TPA induces a rapid activation of PKC at the plasma membrane. Within 10 min TPA also causes an increase in PKA activity, and in RI and RII, in the cytosol of PYS cells. RA, when added simultaneously with TPA, negates this TPA effect on PKA. Further, prolonged TPA treatment of cells results in a loss of PKC, whereas prolonged RA treatment of some undifferentiated cell types elevates PKC activity in the cytosol. Thus, RA and TPA can elicit opposite and antagonistic effects on PKA and PKC. These changes in protein kinase activities may be involved in the antineoplastic and therapeutic actions of retinoids.
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Cells of two teratocarcinoma stem cell lines (PCC4 azaguanine [aza] 1 and F9 5-bromodeoxyuridine [BrdU]) were fused with normal mouse spleen cells and mouse thymoma-derived cells (BW 5147), respectively. Hybrid clones were tested for the expression of molecules coded by the H-2K and -2D genes both by absorption analysis of conventional H-2 sera and by indirect antibody-binding radioimmunoassay with monoclonal antibodies. Somatic cell hybrids between PCC4 aza 1 and spleen cells morphologically resemble teratocarcinoma stem cells and do not express H-2 antigens. However, after differentiation in vitro, one of these hybrid clones expresses the H-2K and -2D gene products of both parental cell lines, one close expresses H-2-D- but not H-2K-coded antigenic determinants, and one clone remains H-2 negative. Somatic cell hybrids between F9 BrdU and BW 5147 resemble fibroblasts. Analysis of a series of hybrid clones revealed some clones that express both the H-2K- and H-2D-coded antigenic specificities of both parental alleles, some that express H-2D gene products strongly and the H-2K gene products very weakly, and some that express H-2D- but not H-2K-coded molecules. These results imply independent regulation of expression of the H-2K and -2D genes. The H-2D gene products appear to be preferentially expressed if the hybrid cells are capable of expressing H-2. The results suggest complex regulatory mechanisms that are H-2K and H-2D specific.
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CHIMAERAS occur naturally in a variety of species of mammals, including man. For example, cells are exchanged through vascular connexions between the bovine free-martin and its male twin, leading both to the mixing of blood cells1,2 and to female germ cells in the testes of the male foetus2. Limited chimaerism was produced experimentally by injecting tissue into mouse foetuses shortly before term3 or by injecting spleen cells into adult mice which were rendered immunologically tolerant by X-irradiation4. Mosaicism, extending to most tissues of the body in mice, was achieved by fusing pre-implantation embryos together in vitro5,6.
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The host-virus interactions of Simian virus 40 (SV40) and polyoma virus (Py) with cell lines established from a teratocarcinoma were studied. The cells utilized in this study were the multipotential stem cell of the teratocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, and differentiated cells derived from embryonal carcinoma. Several lines of differentiated cells were established in vitro which included parietal yolk sac, epithelial, and spindle cell types. Embryonal carcinoma cells are not susceptible to infection by either SV40 or Py virus. However, differentiated cells are susceptible to infection by these viruses. The differentiated cells are permissive for Py virus replication and nonpermissive for SV40. Several continuously growing cell lines have been established from the SV40 infected cultures which express T antigen in 100% of the cells. The results indicate that undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma cells and their differentiated progeny respond quite differently to challenge with these two oncogenic DNA viruses.
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A cloned line of undifferentiated teratocarcinoma cells (OC15S1) was either maintained as a homogeneous embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell population or was cultured under conditions where the cells differentiated into endoderm-like (END) cells. In this study we examine the synthesis of collagen in both EC and END cells. Cell cultures were incubated with tritiated proline and lysine, and the radioactive collagen secreted into the medium was extracted and purified or immunoprecipitated by antibodies to type IV collagen (Adamson and Ayers, 1979). Radioactive collagens were identified by electrophoretic mobility, by sensitivity to collagenase and to reduction, by insensitivity to pepsin, by cyanogen bromide peptides, and by aminoacid analyses of 3-hydroxyproline, 4-hydroxyproline and proline. OC15S1 EC cells were found to synthesize several collagenous polypeptides, of which 60-70% of the radioactivity was like that of basement membrane (type IV) collagen. Type I-like collagen was the main collagenous product of END cells, but a minor product of EC cells. We concluded that type IV collagen synthesis was suppressed during the differentiation of EC cells to END, while type I-like synthesis was increased. Similarly, other EC cell lines produced mainly type IV-like collagen polypeptides (PC13, F9, PSA1), and following the formation of END cells, two lines produced mainly type I-like collagen polypeptides (PC13, C145b). The type of endoderm formed on embryoid bodies, however, presents an alternate route of differentiation, since immunoperoxidase tests showed that it was synthesizing significant amounts of type IV collagen. We discuss the significance of these findings in relation to a similar change which occurs during normal development.
Article
This chapter reviews studies upon teratocarcinomas of the testes that establish embryonal carcinoma cells as the multipotential stem cells of the tumor, originating the somatic tissues by differentiation. The biological behavior of the somatic tissues was observed in situations devoid of embryonal carcinoma; only two exceptions the somatic tissues were benign. Consequently, it is proposed that the dogma of the irreversibility of the malignant change is incorrect. Using teratocarcinomas as models of tumors in general, it is postulated that differentiated cells respond to carcinogens in a manner analogous to embryonic cells responding to embryonic inductors. In other words, carcinogenesis may be explained as a stable response to inductive phenomena acting through cytoplasmic nuclear controls on an initially unaltered genome rather than as an accident of genetic coding. Because tumor cells are continually differentiating, it is proposed that therapy be approached by attempting to enhance the differentiation of malignant cells through the use of embryonic inductors.
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We have described the differentiation in vitro of clonal pluripotent teratocarcinoma stem cells derived from isolated single cells. By using solvent-resistant plastic petri dishes as a substratum for cell growth, it is possible to prepare histological sections of the cultures which can be compared with sections of teratocarcinomas formed in vivo by the same cells. Our results indicate that almost all of the cell types found in the tumors are formed in vitro, including cartilage, keratinizing epithelium, pigmented epithelium, neural tissue, and muscle. The cells are organized in a tissue structure which is remarkably similar to that found in vivo.
Article
Bone marrow cells from CBA T6T6 mice and testicular teratocarcinoma cells from 129 SvSl mice were transferred into blastocysts from random-bred Swiss albino mice. The blastocysts were allowed to develop in foster mothers and the adults resulting from these blastocysts were studied for evidence of an effect of the transferred cells. A total of 137 adults resulted from the experiments, and one of the mice that had received teratocarcinoma cells in the blastocyst stage showed several thin stripes of agouti hair. All the adult animals received grafts of skin from animals identical to those supplying the cells. In all cases the animals that resulted from blastocysts into which cells had been transferred maintained skin grafts for a significantly longer period than controls. In a number of cases the graft developed agouti hair and in two cases the graft was maintained for approximately 2 mo. These experiments indicate that the transferred cells were able to establish small colonies in the embryos and that some of these cells persisted into the adult.
Article
We have produced a series of somatic cell hybrids by fusing pluripotent PCC4aza1 embryonal carcinoma ("teretocarcinoma") cells with thymocytes from young adult mice. When these hybrids form tumors in nu/nu or syngeneic mice, all the tumors contain a range of differentiated tissues, as well as embryonal carcinoma-like tissues. Some of the tumors produce alpha-fetoprotein. These results show that pluripotency in embryonal carcinoma cells need not to be abolished by the introduction of a complete diploid genome from a differentiated cell.
Article
A variety of cell lines have been isolated in vitro from transplantable teratocarcinomas. Some of them correspond to embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. They are malignant and represent the stem cells from which all differentiated tissues derive in the tumor or in vitro. EC cells share some biochemical and antigenic properties with multipotential embryonic cells. From one of these EC cell lines, variants have been isolated in vivo and in vitro. Some are of EC type but restricted in their pattern of differentiation; others are altered in their tumorigenicity or in their antigenic characteristics. Another class of such variants corresponds to non-EC types. The most interesting ones correspond to tumoral lines of extra-embryonic tissues. All these cell lines constitute a valuable material for the study of mouse development and differentiation.
Article
This paper summarizes the work done in recent years at the Institut Pasteur in an attempt to use cell lines derived from mouse teratocarcinomas to study the immunological properties of the mouse embryo. The cells used throughout this work were derived from a male tumor, OTT6050. A series of multipotential and nullipotential embryonal carcinoma cell lines was isolated. The antigenic properties of a nullipotential line, F9, and of a multipotential line, PCC4, have been studied with respect to detection, distribution among adult and embryonal cells, and relation to H 2 antigens and to the T/t locus. The F9 antigen disappears early from somatic cells and remains only on the germ line, and can therefore elicit an immunological response in all types of immunization: syngeneic, allogeneic, or xenogeneic.
Article
The progeny of single teratocarcinoma cells will give rise to several different cell types in vitro, and the latter were shown to be functionally differentiated by biochemical criteria. In these studies, cloned lines of mouse teratocarcinoma cells were assayed during the course of differentiation for some biochemical products characteristic of the tissues formed. The carcinoembryonic protein, α-foetoprotein was not synthesized by undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, but was synthesized in increasing amounts during their differentiation to endoderm-type cells in suspension culture. α-Foetoprotein was shown to be a product of endoderm cells, but not all endoderm cells synthesized this protein. During the course of further differentiation when EC cells or aggregates were grown in tissue-culture dishes, other biochemical products appeared. In cultures containing predominantly nerve-type cells, there was a 30-fold increase in the specific activity of acetylcholinesterase, with concomitant appearance of the aldolase isoenzyme characteristic of mouse brain. In some cultures, a small amount of muscle-type cell formation was marked by the appearance of the MB isoenzyme of creating phosphokinase. Generally, biochemical differentiation was immature.
Article
Two glycoproteins, GP-1 and GP-2, have been isolated from an extracellular membrane synthesized in cell culture by an embryonal carcinoma-derived cell line. The amino acid and carbohydrate compositions have been determined. Both proteins are rich in half-cystine residues and contain approximately 12-15% carbohydrate. Antibodies have been obtained against one of the glycoproteins, GP-2, in rabbits. The antibody reacts with basement membranes from adult mouse and human kidney glomeruli and tubules, and all basement membranes tested from mouse embryonic tissues. The molecular properties of GP-2 are superficially similar to LETS protein; however, immunological and other criteria show that they are distinct proteins. The presence of LETS protein and GP-2 in basement membranes suggests that there are subtle interactions which are important in adhesion of epithelial cells to basement membranes.
Article
The murine embryocarcinoma cell line F9 lacks the classical transplantation antigens. However, rabbit anti-H-2 antigen sera, recognizing "backbone structures" of H-2 K and D antigens, react with three types of molecules manufactured by F9 cells. A 49,000- and a 25,000-dalton chain are glycoproteins located on the cell surface. The third component with an apparent molecular weight of 15,000, and the 25,000-dalton chain seem to be unrelated to the 49,000-dalton glycoprotein. The 25,000- and 15,000-dalton components are not manufactured by splenocytes, thymocytes, hepatocytes, or various lymphoma, mastocytoma, and plasmacytoma cell lines. However, fibroblasts derived from both embryos and adult animals synthesize 25,000- and 15,000-dalton molecules reactive with the rabbit anti-H-2 antigen sera. The 49,000-, 25,000-, and 15,000-dalton molecules are not recognized by a syngeneic anti-F9 cell serum.
Article
Changes in plasminogen activator activity have been examined as a clonal line of mouse embryonal carcinoma cells aggregate and differentiate to form cystic embryoid bodies in vitro. Within the first 10 days of study, the pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells aggregate; a layer of endodermal cells appears on the outside of the aggregate forming an embryoid body; a basement membrane forms between the outer layer of endodermal cells and the internal cells; a cyst forms within the embryoid body; and the internal cells assume a columnar appearance along the inner portion of the basement membrane. After the formation of the endodermal layer, there is a rise in intracellular plasminogen activator activity. This rise continues for up to 25 days in culture, providing that the three-dimensional integrity of the embryoid bodies is maintained by culturing them on bacterial petri dishes. Selective removal of the outer endodermal layer of cells reduces the plasminogen activatory activity of the resulting embryoid body cores. Intracellular and secreted plasminogen activator activity of simple embryoid bodies composed of only two cell types can be increased by culturing the embryoid bodies in dbcAMP, theophylline, or cholera toxin. These results suggest that the embryoid body endodermal cells are the source of a cAMP-inducible plasminogen activator activity.
Article
Mouse teratocarcinoma cells from the OTT6050 ascites tumor were established in tissue culture and selected for 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) resistance. The embryonal carcinoma cells grew without a feeder layer, remained deficient for thymidine kinase (EC 2.7.1.75), and differentiated like the original tumor into various tissues after subcutaneous injection into 129 mice. We fused the BrdUrd-resistant mouse teratocarcinoma cells with HT1080-6TG human diploid fibrosarcoma cells deficient in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.8) and selected for hybrid cells in hypoxanthine/aminopterin/thymidine medium. The resulting hybrid cells segregated human chromosomes quickly and retained one to three human chromosomes including chromosome 17 that carries the human genes for thymidine kinase and galactokinase (EC 2.7.1.6). Single hybrid cells from five independent clones containing human chromosome 17 were injected into mouse blastocysts bearing several genetic markers that affect the coat color phenotype and strain-specific enzyme variants in order to detect tissue differentiation derived from the injected cells. After the injection of single hybrid cells into a total of 103 experimental blastocysts that had been surgically transferred to pseudopregnant foster mothers, 49 mice were born and 2 of them clearly revealed coat mosaicism. In 2 of 17 mice thus far analyzed, the injected hybrid cells proved to be capable of participating substantially in development of seven different organs. However, human gene products have not yet been detected unequivocally in those tissues and weak human-specific galactokinase activity could be recovered only from two mosaic tissues. Our results demonstrate that, after in vitro culture and selection, at least some of the human-mouse hybrid cells still retain their in vivo potential to differentiate and become functionally integrated in the living organism. It now seems feasible to cycle mouse teratocarcinoma cells carrying human genetic material through mice via blastocyst injection to study human gene expression during differentiation.
Article
Embryonal carcinoma cells, the stem cells of teratocarcinomas, usually undergo extensive differentiation in vivo and in vitro to a wide variety of cell types. There exist, however, several embryonal carcinoma cell lines that have almost completely lost the capacity to differentiate, so that the cells are propagated primarily as the stem cells. Using one such cell line, F9, we have found that retinoic acid at concentrations as low as 10(-9) M induces multiple phenotypic changes in the cultures in vitro. These changes include morphological alteration at the resolution of the light microscope, elevated levels of plasminogen activator production, sensitivity to cyclic AMP compounds and increased synthesis of collagen-like proteins. The nature of these changes, as well as their independence of the continued presence of retinoic acid, are consistent with the proposition that retinoic acid induces differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells into endoderm.
Article
UNDIFFERENTIATED murine teratocarcinoma stem cells do not support simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40) or polyoma virus (Py) replication or even the expression of the early papovavirus proteins. These undifferentiated cells are also entirely refractory to infection with ecotropic murine C-type viruses. If the stem cells are allowed to differentiate to a variety of somatic cell types, they become susceptible to infection by SV40, Py and ecotopic murine C-type viruses1-4. In contrast, adenovirus type 2 can infect and replicate in the undifferentiated stem cells, although not as efficiently as it can in the differentiated mouse cells5 and certainly much less efficiently than it does in human cells. Studies on the mechanism of the resistance of the undifferentiated teratocarcinoma cells to infection by SV40 has shown that the block is not at the level of virus adsorption, penetration uncoating or transport to the nucleus6. We present here evidence indicating that the absence of expression of SV40 genetic information in nondifferentiated teratocarcinoma cells reflects an inability to generate stable viral mRNA. More specifically, the refractoriness of these cells to SV40 seems to be correlated, at least in part, with a deficiency in the splicing of viral mRNA.
Article
Infection of differentiated mouse embryo cells by simian virus 40 (SV40) leads to the production of the early mRNAs and the tumor (T) antigens that they encode. In contrast, undifferentiated F-9 murine teratocarcinoma cells do not support these early stages of the SV40 cycle. This block results from the inability to accumulate stable processed early SV40 mRNAs. It has recently been shown that vitamin A and its derivatives can induce in vitro differentiation of stem cells. Undifferentiated F-9 cells, upon treatment with a low concentration of retinoic acid, exhibited pronounced morphologic changes as well as the appearance of the H-2 surface antigens. After differentiation, the susceptibility of F9 cells to SV40 infection could be demonstrated by the appearance of large T and small T antigens, as shown by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, SI nuclease mapping of early SV40 transcripts confirmed the presence of the two spliced early mRNAs. These results indicate that the undifferentiated F-9 stem cells contain the genetic information needed for generating stable processed early SV40 mRNAs but are blocked in the production of functional species.
Article
Addition of Fab fragments from rabbit antiserum to surface antigen F9 to 2-cell stage mouse embryos in culture does not alter cleavage; however, the addition prevents culture does not alter cleavage; however, the addition prevents the formation of compact morulae and blastocysts. A similar effect is observed when Fab fragments are added to already compact 8-cell stage or even older morulae, but disappears at the beginning of blastocoel formation. This effect is reversible: uncompact 30-cell embryos washed free of Fab become compact in a few hours, produce blastocysts, and upon reimplantation into pseudopregnant mothers can produce mice. Development is not altered by divalent anti-F9 antibodies, by Fab fragments from sera directed against other embryo surface antigens, or by succinyl concanavalin A.
Article
Mutagenized stem cells of a cultured mouse teratocarcinoma cell line were selected for resistance to the purine base analog 6-thioguanine. Cells of a resistant clone were completely deficient in activity of the enzyme hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT, IMP:pyrophosphate phosphoribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.8), the same X-linked lesion as occurs in human Lesch-Nyhan disease. After microinjection into blastocysts of another genetic strain, the previously malignant cells successfully participated in normal embryogenesis and tumor-free, viable mosaic mice were obtained. Cells of tumor lineage were identified by strain markers in virtually all tissues of some individuals. Mature function of those cells was evident from their tissue-specific products (e.g., melanins, liver proteins). These mutagenized teratocarcinoma cells are therefore developmentally totipotent. Retention of the severe HPRT deficiency in the differentiated state was documented in extracts of mosaic tissues by depressed specific activity of the enzyme, and also by presence of unlabeled clones in autoradiographs of explanted cells incubated in [(3)H]hypoxanthine. Some mosaic individuals had mutant-strain cells in only one or a few tissues. Such animals may provide unique opportunities to identify the tissue sources of particular aspects of the complex disease syndrome. The tissue distribution of HPRT-deficient cells suggests that selection against them is particularly strong in blood of the mosaic mice, as is already known to be the case in human heterozygotes. This phenotypic parallelism supports the expectation that afflicted F(1) male mice that might be obtained from mutant germ cells can serve as a model of the human disease.
Article
From embryonal carcinoma cells labeled with fucose, two main classes of glycopeptide products of Pronase digestion can be distinguished by Sephadex G-50 column chromatography: one eluted near the excluded volume and a smaller one. The large fucosyl-glycopeptides are scarcely present in differentiated cells derived from embryonal carcinoma cells (i.e., fibroblastlike cells, myoblasts, and parietal yolk-sac carcinoma). During in vitro differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells, these large glycopeptides disappear almost completely. The small glycopeptides were analyzed by paper electrophoresis, concanavalin A-Sepharose affinity chromatography, and digestion with an endoglycosidase. The major components of these glycopeptides from embryonal carcinoma cells appear to be different from complex glycopeptides known to occur in adult cells. The glycopeptide pattern of mouse preimplantation embryos resembles that of embryonal carcinoma cells. These results suggest that the carbohydrate profile changes fundamentally during early stages of mammalian development.
Article
The immediate purpose of the experiment was to establish a means of introducing specific mitochondrially encoded mutant genes into mice. Mouse teratocarcinoma stem cells were used as vehicles for the cytoplasmic markers because of their known capacity for normal somatic and germinal differentiation after injection into blastocysts. The mutation of choice, chloramphenicol resistance (CAP(R)), was first produced in a melanoma cell line by mutagenesis and selection. The CAP(R) trait was then transferred from a resistant melanoma cell to a sensitive (CAP(S)) teratocarcinoma cell by fusing to the latter only the cytoplasmic portion of the CAP(R) donor. This indirect route demonstrated the cytoplasmic provenance of the mutation. Protein synthesis in mitochondria isolated from the cybrid, or cytoplasmic hybrid, cells was barely affected by chloramphenicol, in contrast to the inhibitory influence of the drug on mitochondria of the parent teratocarcinoma line. Cells of the cybrid clone resembled teratocarcinoma cells and retained their ability to form diverse tissues in solid tumors produced from subcutaneous grafts. Cells from the tumors were retransplanted and were tested periodically by culture in chloramphenicol; they were found to be stably CAP(R) even after 16 weeks in vivo in the absence of the selective agent. The CAP(R) cybrids were microinjected into blastocysts of another inbred strain and, after transfer to foster mothers, mosaic mice were obtained. They comprised both cybrid- and blastocyst-derived cells in various tissues, as indicated by strain-specific nuclear markers. These results demonstrate successful normal differentiation of the CAP(R) lineage in vivo. Teratocarcinoma cybrids thus offer a practical portal of entry of preselected mitochondrial genes into mice. This will ultimately permit in vivo investigation of maternally transmitted traits, of mitochondrial genetic influences in specialized cells, and of possible roles of cytoplasmic genes in clinical and disease states.
Article
In allophenic (mosaic) mice produced from blastocysts injected with teratocarcinoma stem cells of the OTT 6050 transplant line, an unexpected coat phenotype led to the discovery that the tumor-lineage cells carried the steel gene (Sl(J)/+). Because steel also causes a macrocytic anemia, mosaics comprising both genetically anemic and normal (+/+) cells fortuitously provided a unique opportunity to examine in vivo the etiology of this anemia in light of previous results indicating that the lesion is extrinsic to the erythroid cells. The experiment differs from previous ones, which involved postnatal grafting, in that here hematopoietic stem cells of anemic and normal genotypes coexist throughout all developmental stages, confronted by tissues of the hematopoietic microenvironment that consist partly or solely of genetically normal cells. Therefore, the possibility exists that the anemia might be completely prevented rather than secondarily ameliorated. Moreover, variation in proportion of normal-strain cells in the hematopoietic supporting tissues could serve to "titrate" minimal requirements to promote normal erythropoiesis. Mice with mixed populations of steel- and normal-genotype cells in blood and other tissues were identified by means of independent markers specific for tumor vs. blastocyst strains of origin. The clinical blood picture of these mosaics proved to be indistinguishable from that of normal controls, even when only a small minority of cells in all tissues of one of the animals were genetically normal. Phenotypic blood normalcy was shown, by occurrence of the typical steel anemia among F(1) germ-line progeny of mosaics, not to be due to any change in the capacity of the mutant gene to elicit the anemia. The results from the mosaics thus demonstrate that the primary expression of the steel lesion is indeed in the hematopoietic microenvironment. However, they also reveal that a surprisingly small complement of normal cells there appears to be adequate to prevent this anemia permanently. The hypothesis is advanced that relatively short-range diffusible substances, produced by cells in the microenvironment and required for normal erythropoiesis, may account for the inductive effectiveness of small cell numbers.
Article
Thymidine kinase-deficient OTT6050 mouse teratocarcinoma cells were fused with hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient Fu5AH rat hepatoma cells by means of inactivated Sendai virus. The resulting hybrid cells, which were selected in hypoxanthine/aminopterin/thymidine medium, retained almost all of the mouse chromosomes and various numbers of rat chromosomes, and showed many chromosomal rearrangements. The hybrid cells, as well as both parental lines, formed tumors after subcutaneous injection into athymic nude mice. Single rat--mouse hybrid cells from a clonally established subline were transplanted into C57BL6/J mouse blastocysts carrying many genetic markers suitable for the detection of hybrid cell-derived tissue contributions. From 144 blastocysts, each of which was injected with a hybrid cell and then surgically transferred to the uterus of a pseudopregnant foster mother, 62 adult mice developed without any visible coat mosaicism. However, three of these mice showed internal hybrid-cell participation in their livers and a limited number of organs of endomesodermal origin. A tumor classifiable as hemangio endothelioma was found in the liver, the only mosaic tissue, of one of the chimeric mice. Nine different rat-specific enzyme variants were detected in the mosaic organs. A considerable number of variations concerning the presence and quantitative activity of the foreign gene products probably resulted from chromosomal segregation, tissue-specific gene activity, or dosage compensation during differentiation in vivo. Our results demonstrate that cultured malignant rat--mouse hybrid cells differentiate normally and become functionally integrated during development. The appearacne in vivo of certain rat-specific gene products that are not found in the hybrid cells under conditions in vitro indicates differential gene expression of the introduced xenogeneic chromosomes.
Article
Publisher Summary The important role of cell surface molecules in regulating developmental processes has been assumed, but experimental evidence has been scarce. Immunological methods offer, perhaps, the best approach to the study of such molecules and this chapter summarizes the results obtained so far and offers some suggestions for future experimentation. It also describes several xenogeneic, allogeneic, and syngeneic antisera, with the common property that they all react with some or all stages of early mouse development. These antisera cross-react most notably with teratocarcinoma stem cells and sperm and with various other cell types as well. Probably all antisera described in the chapter are polyspecific and their range of specificities partially overlapped. None of these antisera react with embryos alone, with the possible exception that some are raised by syngeneic immunization with embryos. Activation of the embryonic genome occurs very early in mouse development, possibly immediately after fertilization and certainly after two divisions. It is, therefore, possible to study the activity of developmental genes in a very simple structure that is composed of only a few cells and in which gene activity directs basic events such as the separation of the embryo into its embryonic part.
Article
The analysis of the antigenic structure of murine spermatozoa has been hampered by the lack of a convenient objective serological assay. Spermatozoa, in common with other cells, are capable of concentrating 86rubidium. Antibody mediated complement dependent cytotoxicity of murine spermatozoa has been quantitated by measuring release of 86rubidium from pre-labeled spermatozoa. We have used this assay to study the murine T/t locus.
Article
Teratocarcinoma stem cells maintained in the undifferentiated state express a carbohydrate-binding component that recognizes oligomannosyl residues. This cell surface molecule is detected by a rosetta assay in which the stem cells form rosettes with glutaraldehyde-fixed trypsinized rabbit erythrocytes. Addition of simple sugars to the assay mixture has little effect, but rosette formation is inhibited by a series of mannose-rich glycoproteins (yeast invertase, yeast mannans and horseradish peroxidase). Periodate oxidation eliminates the inhibitory activity of invertase whereas pronase digestion has little effect, indicating that carbohydrate moieties are essential for inhibition. Invertase and its glycopeptide derivatives also inhibit the reaggregation of dispersed stem cells and promote the dissociation of preformed aggregates. These results suggest that intercellular adhesion of teratocarcinoma stem cels may be the consequence of the interaction of a lectin-like component detected in the rosette assay with a complementary oligosaccharide receptor on adjacent cells.
Article
Three cell surface components of mouse embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, F9 antigens and the receptors to the lectins FBP and PNA, have been isolated from radiolabeled EC cells by indirect immunoprecipitation. All three were efficiently labeled with fucose, galactose and glucosamine, but scarcely at all with mannose. The high molecular weight glycopeptides characteristic of early embryonic cells were released as the major glycopeptides upon pronase digestion of the three markers. The binding sites to the two lectins are present in the high molecular weight glycopeptides. Furthermore, a close correlation exists between the disappearance of the high molecular weight glycopeptides from differentiating EC cells and the disappearance of the three markers from the surface of these cells. The large glycopeptides from the three markers have the following properties in common. First, they are not mucin-type glycopeptides with short oligosaccharides, glycolipids and acidic mucopolysaccharides, nor are they products of incomplete pronase digestion of conventional complex-type glycopeptides. Second, they do not contain appreciable amounts of Fucα1→2Gal or Fucα1→6GlcNAc linkages. Third, a significant fraction of the glycopeptides have the GlcNAcβ→Gal sequence in their core structure. We propose that the cell surface markers of EC cells have a class of large carbohydrate chains not found in typical surface markers of adult cells such as H-2, la and LETS.
Article
Evidence is presented that both X chromosomes are genetically active in clonal cultures of undifferentiated female mouse teratocarcinoma stem cells derived from a spontaneous ovarian tumour. As the cells differentiate in vitro one of the X chromosomes becomes inactivated.
Article
The mouse teratocarcinoma cell line, F9, has been used in many laboratories as the epitome of the “nullipotent” embryonal carcinoma cell line. However, careful inspection of F9 cultures reveals the presence of small numbers of cells which possess several properties of endoderm, particularly parietal endoderm, and which can be shown to derive from the embryonal carcinoma component. Furthermore, tumors of F9 cells include isolated patches of endoderm-like cells surrounded by a thick secretion resembling Reichert's membrane. The proportion of endoderm-like cells in F9 cultures can be increased to varying degrees by causing the cells to form aggregates and/or maintaining them at high density for several days, although the endoderm-like cells produced in these ways contribute very little to the formation of subcutaneous tumors from the resultant mixed cultures. Differentiated cell types other than endoderm are rarely observed in F9 monolayer or aggregate cultures, even after several weeks. Cloning studies support the view that most, if not all, F9 cells can differentiate, albeit at very low incidence.
Article
Malignant mouse teratocarcinoma cells are, in some cases, able to undergo normal, complete differentiation after injection into blastocysts. Thus far, only three lines—of unrelated origin—have been found (all in this laboratory) to be developmentally totipotent in blastocyst tests. The karyotypes of these lines, and their somatic- and germ-cell derivatives, were investigated by G-banding methods, as a possible clue to their developmental superiority. The first, OTT 6050 (129 strain), is an embryo-derived induced tumor maintained as an ascites transplant line. Its stem cells (from embryoid body “cores”) have 40 chromosomes in the modal class, which comprises two subclasses: one all normal and one with a metacentric chromosome (isochromosome-8). However, mosaic animals from injected blastocysts have only the normal subclass in their teratocarcinomaderived cells; all are of male sex chromosome type. Presence of the Y chromosome was verified after transmission through the germ line of two fertile mosaic males, in their F1 male progeny. The second teratocarcinoma line, 72484-395 (LT strain), is a spontaneous ovarian solid tumor maintained by subcutaneous transplantation. Karyotypes of cells from the tumor, and also of teratocarcinoma-derived cells in mosaic animals, were normal and of female sex chromosome type. Karyotypes of the F1 progeny, from tumor-strain germ cells of a fertile mosaic female, were also normal. The third line, NG 2 (129 strain), is a mutant clonal in vitro line deficient in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase. It originated from an embryo-derived experimental tumor (OTT 5568) that was established in culture (PSA1 line); the culture was then mutagenized and selected for 6-thioguanine resistance. The NG 2 line proved to be quasi-normal, with only two karyotypic anomalies: trisomy of chromosome 6 and female sex chromosome constitution. Thus, developmental totipotency in all three lines, including one maintained in vitro, is accompanied by karyotypic normalcy or near-normalcy. Other culture lines reported to be aneuploid have not yet given evidence of totipotency. Karyotypic normalcy may therefore have predictive value useful in choosing teratocarcinoma lines with relatively high developmental prospects. This is of importance in identifying those mutant lines that would be promising candidates for introduction, via blastocyst injection, of specific mutant genes into mice.
Article
The patterns of protein synthesis in teratocarcinoma stem cells (embryonal carcinoma cells) and in mouse embryos at various stages of preimplantation development were studied using SDS-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis with autoradiography. Significant differences were observed in comparisons of embryonal carcinoma cells with isolated inner cell masses (ICMs) or with embryonic cells at earlier stages of development. However, no such differences in the overall pattern of protein synthesis were found when the embryonal carcinoma cells were compared with the embryonic ectoderm (that portion of the ICM which remains after endoderm differentiation). Both synthesize at least one prominent 55,000-dalton protein that is not detected in embryonic cells at earlier stages of development. This protein can thus be used as a biochemical marker of ectoderm formation during embryonic development. The pattern of protein synthesis common to embryonal carcinoma cells and embryonic ectoderm is not shared by other cultured cell types.
Article
Viable hybrid cells have been isolated following fusion of Friend erythroleukemia cells and undifferentiated teratocarcinoma cells. The hybrids formed between near-diploid parental cells resembled Friend cells in the ability to grow in suspension and to synthesize hemoglobin in the presence of the chemical inducers dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ouabain. Erythropoietin (EPO) was effective in inducing hemoglobin synthesis in some of the hybrid cell lines. The hemoglobins synthesized by the hybrids were of the adult forms, but were quantitatively different from those hemoglobins synthesized by the parental Friend cells, suggesting that the fusion event modulated the expression of the hemoglobin chain genes.
Article
Clonal lines of embryonal carcinoma cells have been established in culture from four independently-derived transplantable teratocarcinomas of mice: three from strain C3H and one from strain 129/Sv. Cells from all lines retain the capacity to differentiate into a variety of tissue types both in tumors formed following the injection of cells into syngeneic animals and in vitro under appropriate culture conditions. Analysis of their G-banded chromosomes indicated that the four lines have near-diploid but not absolutely normal karyo-types. The same chromosomal abnormalities were often present in more than one line. Tetraploid embryonal carcinoma cells made by Colcemid or cytochalasin B treatment were also pluripotential in spite of chromosomal instability. Hybrid cells were readily obtained between diploid or tetraploid embryonal carcinoma cells and mouse 3T3 fibroblasts. Hybrid cells failed to differentiate and were contact inhibited like the 3T3 parent.
Article
We studied the developmental capacities of the primary ectoderm and endoderm of 6-day embryos of hybrids between strains 129/Sv-SIJ C P and A/He mice by grafting these germ layers into the testes of adult mice for 30 days. Grafts of embryonic ectoderm gave rise to teratocarcinomas composed of undifferentiated embryonal cells and derivatives of all three germ layers including respiratory and alimentary epithelium. Grafts of extraembryonic ectoderm gave rise to invasive trophoblastic giant cells. Grafts of endoderm did not develop.
Article
The differentiation in vitro of clonal pluripotent teratocarcinoma cells is reported. The first stage of this process is the formation of simple embryoid bodies which are identical to those found in animals bearing intraperitoneal teratocarcinomas. They consist of an inner core of embryonal carcinoma cells surrounded by a layer of endodermal cells which produce Reichert's membrane. The endodermal cells become apparent shortly after the embryonal carcinoma cells have formed aggregates which are loosely attached to the substratum. One clonal teratocarcinoma line was found to produce complex cystic embryoid bodies in vitro. Following formation of the endodermal cells, extensive differentiation to a wide variety of cell types occurs. There are similarities between the process of embryoid body formation and the early events of differentiation of the mouse embryo.
Article
Malignant mouse teratocarcinoma (or embryonal carcinoma) cells with a normal modal chromosome number were taken from the "cores" of embryoid bodies grown only in vivo as an ascites tumor for 8 years, and were injected into blastocysts bearing many genetic markers, in order to test the developmental capacities, genetic constitution, and reversibility of malignancy of the core cells. Ninety-three live normal pre- and postnatal animals were obtained. Of 14 thus far analyzed, three were cellular genetic mosaics with substantial contributions of tumor-derived cells in many developmentally unrelated tissues, including some never seen in the solid tumors that form in transplant hosts. The tissues functioned normally and synthesized their specific products (e.g., immunoglobulins, adult hemoglobin, liver proteins) coded for by strain-type alleles at known loci. In addition, a tumor-contributed color gene, steel, not previously known to be present in the carcinoma cells, was detected from the coat phenotype. Cells derived from the carcinoma, which is of X/Y sex chromosome constitution, also contributed to the germ line and formed reproductively functional sperms, some of which transmitted the steel gene to the progeny. Thus, after almost 200 transplant generations as a highly malignant tumor, embryoid body core cells appear to be developmentally totipotent and able to express, in an orderly sequence in differentiation of somatic and germ-line tissues, many genes hitherto silent in the tumor of origin. This experimental system of "cycling" teratocarcinoma core cells through mice, in conjunction with experimental mutagenesis of those cells, may therefore provide a new and useful tool for biochemical, developmental, and genetic analyses of mammalian differentiation. The results also furnish an unequivocal example in animals of a non-mutational basis for transformation to malignancy and of reversal to normalcy. The origin of this tumor from a disorganized embryo suggests that malignancies of some other, more specialized, stem cells might arise comparably through tissue disorganization, leading to developmental aberrations of gene expression rather than changes in gene structure.
Article
A definitive test for developmental totipotency of mouse malignant teratocarcinoma cells was conducted by cloning singly injected cells in genetically marked blastocysts. Totipotency was conclusively shown in an adult mosaic female whose tumor-strain cells had made substantial contributions to all of the wide range of its somatic tissues analyzed; the clonally propagated cell lineage had therefore differentiated in numerous normal directions. The test cells were from "cores" of embryoid bodies of a euploid, chromosomally male (X/Y), ascites tumor grown only in vivo by transplantation for 8 years. The capacity of cells from the same source to differentiate, in a phenotypic male, into reproductively functional sperms, has been shown in our previous experiments [(1975) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 72, 3585-3589]. Cells from this transplant line therefore provide material suitable for projected somatic and germ-line genetic analyses of mammalian differentiation based on "cycling" of mutation-carrying tumor cells through developing embryos. In some animals obtained from single-cell injections tumor-derived cells were sporadically distributed in developmentally unrelated tissues. These cases can be accounted for by delayed and haphazard cellular integration, and by a marked degree of sustained cellular developmental flexibility in early mammalian development, irrespective of certain classical "germ-layer" designations. All mosaic mice obtained have thus far been free of teratomas. In one case, the injected stem cell contributed only to the pancreas and gave rise to a malignancy resembling pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The high modal frequency of euploidy in these individually tested cells thus tends to indicate that a near-normal chromosome complement is sufficient for total restoration of orderly gene expression in a normal embryonic environment; it may also be necessary for teratoma stem-cell proliferation to be terminated there.
Article
The presence of the F9 antigen and of four other antigens related to the T/t locus of the mouse was investigated by immunofluorescence on preimplantation embryos. In morulae heterozygous for any of these t haplotypes, both the appropriate t antigen and the F9 antigen are expressed. The F9 antigen segregates among the progeny of crosses producing embryos homozygous for some (tw32 and tw5) but not for other haplotypes. It is concluded that (i) whatever the time of action of a t haplotype, its corresponding antigen is expressed during cleavage and (ii) the F9 antigen is specified by a gene(s) in the region of the T/t locus.
Article
Progress has been made in defining cell surface components specified by the T/t locus in the mouse, both in their expression on sperm and, in the one case studied, on normal embryonic cells and teratocarcinoma. Some striking analogies between this putative embryonic cell recognition system and the adult major histocompatibility complex are presented.
Article
ANALYSIS of early mammalian development is complicated by technical difficulties. The initial processes of cellular determination and differentiation in the mouse embryo take place in small populations of cells1,2, and major embryogenic events occur after uterine implantation when the embryo is largely inaccessible. Recent work, however, suggests that murine teratocarcinomas may provide a convenient model for studying mammalian development3-6. These are transplantable tumours of germ cell or embryonic cell origin3-6, typically consisting of a variety of differentiated tissues and undifferentiated stem cells. The stem cells, called embryonal carcinoma, resemble cells of early embryos in morphological, biochemical and cell surface properties, and in developmental potential3-6. They can be propagated in tissue culture to provide sufficient material for biochemical analysis. After inoculation into histocompatible adult hosts they form differentiated teratocarcinomas. They also differentiate in vitro7,8 where the first stages of their differentiation seem to parallel normal embryonic development. We show here that embryonal carcinoma cells can participate in normal embryogenesis, thus providing further evidence for the validity of the use of these cultures as a model of normal embryonic development.
Article
A cell-surface antigen common to mouse primitive teratocarcinoma cells, morulae, and sperm has been shown by serological methods to be specified by a wild-type T-locus gene whose mutant form is lethal in homozygotes at the morula stage.
Article
1. The review considers information from mammalian embryology relevant to X-chromosome inactivation, and from X-inactivation relevant to mammalian embryology.2. Properties of the inactive-X, by which it may be recognized are: sex chromatin, heteropycnosis, late replication and the absence of gene product. Each of these has advantages and disadvantages in particular circumstances. In some species the X carries constitutive heterochromatin, which must be distinguished from the facultative region.3. The time of X-chromosome inactivation can be estimated from the time of appearance of sex chromatin or late replication, or inferred from the appearance of heterozygotes for X-linked genes or of experimental chimaeras. The estimated time varies with species, and in the mouse and rabbit is near the time of increase in RNA synthesis.4. Whereas in eutherian mammals either the maternally or the paternally derived X may be inactivated in different cell lines, in marsupials the paternal X is always the inactive one.5. During development various factors act to distort the patterns produced by random X-inactivation. These factors include cell selection, transfer of gene product, and migration and mingling of cells.6. There is no clear evidence that X-chromosome inactivation is not complete.7. In female germ cells both X-chromosomes appear to be active. In male ones both X and Y appear inactive during most of spermatogenesis, although probably in early stages all X chromosomes present are active.8. The active and inactive X-chromosomes may be differentiated by presence or absence of some non-histone protein or other polyanionic substance.9. If the genes concerned in synthesis or attachment of this substance are on the X-chromosome then the differentiation will be self-maintaining.10. The initiation of the differentiation requires either the attachment of different X-chromosomes to different sites, or some interaction of X-linked and autosomal genes, concerned in inducing or repressing activity. Some possible models are discussed.
Article
Embryonic synchronous and asynchronous cells were successfully transplanted into preimplanted mouse blastocysts. At 15–17 days of fetal development, 19% (32/167), 15% (20/130) and 3% (4/117) of the fetuses expressed chimaerism of the ocular pigmentation when transplanted cells were 0, 48, and 96 hours asynchronous respectively. At birth and during postnatal development, 15% (23/153) and 13% (14/111) of the young expressed chimaerism of ocular pigmentation, coat color, and/or functional germ lines when transplanted cells were 0 and 48 hours asynchronous respectively. Five animals from synchronous and two animals from asynchronous cell transplants were chimaeric in functional germ lines but resembled recipient blastocysts in phenotype color. One overtly chimaeric male had progeny with color phenotype of the albino donor cells only. This report provides evidence that transplanted asynchronous as well as synchronous embryonic cells do participate in the final structure of the embryo. In addition, the results of these studies suggest that the micrurgy and transplantation of the cells does not affect substantially subsequent development of the recipient blastocysts.
Article
It has previously been shown that retinoic acid induces multiple phenotypic changes in cultures of F9 teratocarcinoma stem cells. In this paper we demonstrate that these retinoid-generated cells can be converted to yet another cell type by compounds that elevate cAMP concentrations. The phenotype of the new cell type is characterized by the synthesis of plasminogen activator, laminin and type IV collagen, and by very low levels of alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase. The secretion of plasminogen activator and type IV collagen, and low levels of alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase, have been previously shown to be properties of parietal endoderm, an extraembryonic cell which is generated early in mouse embryonesis. We show here that parietal endoderm also synthesizes laminin. The cell type generated by retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP treatment is therefore indistinguishable from definitive parietal endoderm. Analysis of the final phenotype indicates that it is not dependent upon the continued presence of either compound, and that cAMP agents are active only on cells that have been treated with retinoic acid.
Article
Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we have identified two noncollagenous basement membrane (BM) glycopolypeptides which are synthesized by the mouse teratocarcinoma-derived parietal yolk sac (PYS) cell line. These glycopolypeptides have molecular weights of about 200,000 and isoelectric points of about 5.6. Polypeptides with identical parameters are synthesized by the parietal entodermal cells of mouse embryos and are found in Reichert's membrane. Pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells (ECC) synthesize considerable amounts of the two polypeptides, whereas the yield from nullipotent ECC is negligible. The treatment of nullipotent F9 cells with retinoic acid, which induces entodermal differentiation, activates the synthesis of these polypeptides. These results indicate that the two polypeptides can be used as markers of parietal entoderm differentiation.