Article

DNA of bovine herpesvirus 1 in trigeminal ganglia of latently infected calves

American Journal of Veterinary Research (Impact Factor: 1.34). 02/1982; 43(1):36-40.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Twelve calves infected with bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) were killed when in a latent state of infection. Latency was verified 30 days after virus inoculation of the calves by seroconversion, absence of virus shedding, and in 2 calves, by recrudescence of the infection after they were treated with dexamethasone. By in situ hybridization techniques and autoradiography, DNA of BHV-1 was detected in 13 of 23 trigeminal ganglia of latently infected calves. Viral DNA was restricted to the nucleus of nerve cells. Single neurons harboring BHV-1 DNA were observed in 4.9% of the sections (n = 325) of the trigeminal ganglia. The results obtained correspond to those known from herpes simplex virus infections in mice. The implications for the virus-host relationship are discussed.

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    • "As it is commonly accepted that the primary pathogens of BRD are viral agents, the immunity gap (i.e., the time lapse between the regression period of maternally antibodies and the formation of antibodies by vaccination or between vaccination and clinical protection) becomes even more important in BRD. BVD viruses can persist in the cattle population through persistently infected individuals (IPI) (Mcclurkin et al., 1984), and BHV-1 may create lifelong latency after primary infection (Ackermann et al., 1982); it was also reported that BRSV and BCoV may persist within herds (Heckert et al., 1991; Valarcher et al., 2001). Virus clearance between outbreaks (Alenius et al., 1991; Elvander, 1996) and the reintroduction of new viral strains (Larsen et al., 2000) has been reported, and the seasonal incidence of BRD cases is generally higher during autumn and winter (Stott et al., 1980). "
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    DESCRIPTION: Determining maternal antibody decline can be useful for deciding optimal vaccination time. Offspring from vaccinated dams have very low level of antibodies for BHV-1. Maternal antibodies against BVDV and PI-3 virus decline earlier than others. Calves encountered with new infections mostly between 4th and 10th months of age. Re-circulation of respiratory viruses occurs between the months 8 and 12.
    Full-text · Research · Sep 2015
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    • "As it is commonly accepted that the primary pathogens of BRD are viral agents, the immunity gap (i.e., the time lapse between the regression period of maternally antibodies and the formation of antibodies by vaccination or between vaccination and clinical protection) becomes even more important in BRD. BVD viruses can persist in the cattle population through persistently infected individuals (IPI) (Mcclurkin et al., 1984), and BHV-1 may create lifelong latency after primary infection (Ackermann et al., 1982); it was also reported that BRSV and BCoV may persist within herds (Heckert et al., 1991; Valarcher et al., 2001). Virus clearance between outbreaks (Alenius et al., 1991; Elvander, 1996) and the reintroduction of new viral strains (Larsen et al., 2000) has been reported, and the seasonal incidence of BRD cases is generally higher during autumn and winter (Stott et al., 1980). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to reveal infection dynamics of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (PI-3), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV), which are important viral pathogens of respiratory disease complex in ruminants. Through such an analysis, the regression period of maternally derived antibodies and optimum vaccination time in calves can be recommended. A total of 10 farms were grouped as large (4)-, medium (2)- and small (4)- sized enterprises according to their animal population. Newborn calves (n: 94) delivered during a calendar month on the farms were studied. Blood samples were collected from these calves during their 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th months of age. Blood samples were also taken from their dams during the first sampling. Neutralizing antibody titers were detected using the serum neutralization test (SN50). New PI-3 and BVDV infections at the early stages of life were determined in the calves. Maternal antibodies began to decrease in the 2nd month for BRSV, BHV-1 and BAV-3 (97.8%, 25.5% and 91.4%) and in the 3rd month for PI-3, BVDV and BCoV (85.1%, 67% and 93.6%). It was concluded that maternal antibodies begin to decrease after the 1st month and that the possible first exposure of calves to respiratory viruses is after the 2nd month. Therefore, it is recommended that the first vaccination program including prime and booster doses can be applied between 2 and 4 months of age. Furthermore, re-vaccination of animals at 6 months after the booster dose is also suggested.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
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    • "Virus reactivation and shedding provide adequate means for these viruses to be maintained in nature (Rock 1994). Virus reactivation is only occasionally accompanied by clinical signs yet frequently courses with virus shedding and transmission to other animals (Ackermann et al. 1982, Meyer et al. 2001, Vogel et al. 2003). Thus, latent infection plays a pivotal role in the epidemiology and pathogenesis of human and animal alphaherpesviruses (Rock 1994, Jones 1998, Jones et al. 2011). "

    Preview · Article · Nov 2014
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