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The dietary intake of Laminaria, a brown seaweed, and breast cancer prevention

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Abstract

Based on epidemiological and biological data, Laminaria, a brown kelp seaweed, is proposed as an important factor contributing to the relatively low breast cancer rates reported in Japan. Several possible mechanisms for the influence of Laminaria on breast cancer are proposed: Laminaria is a source of nondigestible fiber, thereby increasing fecal bulk and decreasing bowel transit time; it changes the posthepatic metabolism of sterols; it contains an antibiotic substance that may influence fecal ecology; it contains 1-3 beta glucan, which alters enzymatic activity of fecal flora; and it stimulates the host-mediated immune response. It is suggested that Laminaria may play a role in preventing either the initiation of breast cancer or its promotion by endogenous physiological factors.

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... Die von Teas durchgeführte Pilotstudie [4,5] konnte auch für westliche Frauen bestätigen, was in Japan als tumorprotektiver E ekt bei Brustkrebs schon lange beobachtet wird: Es scheint die Symbiose von Soja und Meeresalgen in der japanischen Ernährung zu sein, die tumorprotektiv wirkt. Der phytoöstrogene Umbau von Soja konnte durch die Meeresalge Wakame so stimuliert werden, dass Soja eine 3-fach e ektivere Wirkung in der Produktion protektiver Phytoöstrogene entfaltet. ...
... Soja sowie die kombinierte Zufuhr von Soja und Meeresalgen beein ussten die Metabolisierung von 17β-Östradiol (2-OHE-Metabolisierung) und die 2:16-Ratio im Vergleich zu Placebo signikant bzw. hochsigni kant positiv [4,5], was auf einen möglichen chemoprotektiven E ekt hinweist. ...
Article
Die Kombination von Soja und Meeresalgen in der Ernährung scheint für Frauen in Japan eine tumorprotektive Wirkung hinsichtlich des Mammakarzinoms zu haben. Der Frage, ob dies auch für die Brustkrebsprävention bei europäischen Frauen gilt, sind zwei klinische Studien nachgegangen.
... Brown algae are a traditional foodstuff of East Asians, and an epidemiological study (1) has shown that the consumption of brown sea algae is associated with a low risk of breast cancer. Brown alga powders or extracts have been reported to suppress chemical-induced carcinogenesis in animals (2 -5) . ...
... The difference in T max might be due to the effects of different doses of fucoxanthin on the capacity of intestinal hydrolytic activity. An epidemiological study (1) has shown that the consumption of brown sea algae is associated with a low risk of breast cancer. Administration of fucoxanthin derived from brown sea algae also showed anti-carcinogenic activity (7,8) ; for example, our previous study (8) demonstrated that ad libitum administration of 0·5 % fucoxanthin-containing drinking water for 4 weeks suppressed azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci, which is a pre-neoplastic marker for colon cancer. ...
Article
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The pharmacokinetics of dietary fucoxanthin, one of the xanthophylls in brown sea algae, is little understood. In the present study, mice were orally administered fucoxanthin, and the distribution and accumulation of fucoxanthin and its metabolites fucoxanthinol and amarouciaxanthin A were measured in the plasma, erythrocytes, liver, lung, kidney, heart, spleen and adipose tissue. In a single oral administration of 160 nmol fucoxanthin, fucoxanthinol and amarouciaxanthin A were detectable in all specimens tested in the present study, but fucoxanthin was not. The time at maximum concentration (Tmax) of these metabolites in adipose tissue was 24 h, while the Tmax in the others was 4 h. The area under the curve to infinity (AUCinfinity) of fucoxanthinol in the liver was the highest value (4680 nmol/g x h) among the tissues tested in the present study, while the AUCinfinity of amarouciaxanthin A in adipose tissue was the highest value (4630 nmol/g x h). In daily oral administration of 160 nmol fucoxanthin for 1 week, fucoxanthin was also detectable in the tissues even at a low concentration. The amount of fucoxanthinol was 123 nmol/g in the heart and 85.2 nmol/g in the liver. Amarouciaxanthin A in the adipose tissue was distributed at a concentration of 97.5 nmol/g. These results demonstrate that dietary fucoxanthin accumulates in the heart and liver as fucoxanthinol and in adipose tissue as amarouciaxanthin A.
... As for the relationship of seaweed consumption to carcinogenesis, several reports have suggested a preventive effect against cancer occurrence (Teas, 1983;Kang et al., 2012;Teas et al., 2013). This was the case of several epidemiological studies showing preventive effects of seaweeds against colorectal carcinogenesis (Hoshiyama et al., 1993;Tokudome et al., 2001), as well as experimental studies in rats (Teas et al., 1984;Yamamoto and Maruyama, 1985). ...
... This was the case of several epidemiological studies showing preventive effects of seaweeds against colorectal carcinogenesis (Hoshiyama et al., 1993;Tokudome et al., 2001), as well as experimental studies in rats (Teas et al., 1984;Yamamoto and Maruyama, 1985). Proposed mechanisms for such effects include inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Maruyama et al., 2003;Suzuki et al., 2004), or the modulation of natural killer cell activity (Teas, 1983). ...
Chapter
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Seaweeds are rich in various bioactive molecules, which may have a potential in promoting health in humans. These include fiber, antioxidants, minerals, and omega 3 fatty acids. Seaweeds are considered as part of a healthy diet, especially in Eastern Asia. In some epidemiological studies, the lower incidence of chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and their risk factors in this part of the world has been related to healthier diet profile associated with seaweed consumption. The majority of data concerning seaweeds and human health has been generated in in vitro and animal studies. Clinical evidence exists in some areas but is rather scarce and needs to be confirmed in larger intervention studies. This chapter will review the knowledge regarding the different human health potentials of seaweeds: cardiovascular diseases and related risk factors, obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes, osteoporosis, gut health, cancer, as well as neuroprotective effects of seaweeds.
... Β-glucan is a non-starch polysaccharide composed of β-D-glucose monomer units holding a glycosidic linkage at β (1→3), (1→4), and/or (1→6), either in a branched or in an unbranched manner [5]. A vast amount of literature asserts that the intake of β-glucan is associated with prebiotic effects and various beneficial health outcomes such as reduction in glycemic index and serum cholesterol; control of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and hypertension; immune-enhancing properties; antimicrobial (antibacterial, antiviral) properties; and wound healing activities, among others [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. Consequently, research studies on β-glucan have continued to grow since the 1950s when studies on these biomolecules began to be published (see Figure 1). ...
... Fungal β-glucans are made of straight β (1 → 3) glucan with short-branched chains connected through β (1→6) [29][30][31]. Bacterial β-glucans (e.g., those from Agribacterium biobaris) have straight and unbranched β (1 → 3)-D-glucan backbones [32], while seaweed β-glucans (such as those found in brown kelp, luminaria) are species-dependent and may contain straight chain β (1 → 3) residues or the straight chain backbone together with high levels of β (1 → 6) branches [6,12]. The chemical structures of β-glucan from different sources are shown in Figure 3. linear β-1,3 backbone with no branches; (B) β-glucan from cereals, or lichens; linear β-1,3 or β-1,4 backbone with no branches; (C) β-glucan from some seaweeds (e.g. ...
Article
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glucan is a strongly hydrophilic non-starchy polysaccharide, which, when incorporated in food, is renowned for its ability to alter functional characteristics such as viscosity, rheology, texture, and sensory properties of the food product. The functional properties of β-glucans are directly linked to their origin/source, molecular weight, and structural features. The molecular weight and structural/conformational features are in turn influenced by method of extraction and modification of the β-glucan. For example, whereas physical modification techniques influence only the spatial structures, modification by chemical agents, enzyme hydrolysis, mechanical treatment, and irradiation affect both spatial conformation and primary structures of β-glucan. Consequently, β-glucan can be modified (via one or more of the aforementioned techniques) into forms that have desired morphological, rheological, and (bio)functional properties. This review describes how various modification techniques affect the structure, properties, and applications of β-glucans in the food industry.
... b-1,3-glucan) and floridean starch (Han, Lee, & Sung, 1999; Lahaye et al., 1993; Mabeau & Fleurence, 1993 ). However, in recent years researchers have also focussed on the nutritional value of proteins from edible seaweeds (Chan et al., 1997), the fermentation of soluble fibre from dulse producing short-chain fatty acids (Lahaye et al., 1993) as well as the anticarcinogenic effects of dietary kelp and other seaweeds against mammary (Maruyama, Watanabe, & Yamamoto, 1991; Teas, 1983; Teas, Harbison, & Gelman, 1984; Yamamoto, Maruyama, & Moriguchi, 1987) and intestinal carcinogenesis (Reddy, Numoto, & Choi, 1985; Yamamoto & Maruyama, 1985). One of the mechanisms thought to contribute to the inhibitory effect of dietary kelp against chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis is the enhancement of antioxidant enzyme activity (i.e. ...
Article
Palmaria palmata (dulse) is traditionally consumed as a snack food and garnish; but, little is known about its potential as a source of antioxidants. A 1-butanol soluble fraction extracted from dulse exhibited OH scavenging activity ± EDTA (non-site and site specific activity) in a deoxyribose assay. EC50 concentrations of dulse extract to quench DPPH and ABTS+ free radicals were 12.5 and 29.5 mg/ml. Dulse extract inhibited (p < 0.05) conjugated diene production in a linoleic acid emulsion at 24, 48 and 52 h, 38 °C; and inhibited (p = 0.044) thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production at 52 h. One milligram dulse extract exhibited reducing activity = 9.68 μg l-ascorbic acid and total polyphenol content = 10.3 μg gallic acid; the dulse extract did not chelate transition metal ions. The antioxidant activity of the dulse extract was associated with aqueous/alcohol-soluble compounds characterized by phenolic functional groups with reducing activity.
... g, durum wheat 0.5-0.6 g, and rice 0.13 g [16] . Other sources of βglucan include some types of seaweed [17] and various species of mushrooms such as Reishi, Shiitake, and Maitake [18]. ...
Article
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Despite the lack of international agreement regarding the definition and classification of fiber, there is established evidence on the role of dietary fibers in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Beta glucan (β-glucan) is a soluble fiber readily available from oat and barley grains that has been gaining interest due to its multiple functional and bioactive properties. Its beneficial role in insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity is being continuously documented. The fermentability of β-glucans and their ability to form highly viscous solutions in the human gut may constitute the basis of their health benefits. Consequently, the applicability of β-glucan as a food ingredient is being widely considered with the dual purposes of increasing the fiber content of food products and enhancing their health properties. Therefore, this paper explores the role of β-glucans in the prevention and treatment of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, their underlying mechanisms of action, and their potential in food applications.
... Although it is not considered a common part of Western diets, people in Western societies regularly ingest alginates and carrageenans derived from macroalgae as a component of foods, and therapeutic macroalgae preparations such as kelp are used as natural mineral supplements, especially for their iodine content.1,2 Commonly used dietary seaweeds include Undaria pinnatifida (wakame),7 Porphyra species (nori),8 Laminaria species (kelp, kombu),9 Palmaria palmata (dulse),10 and Fucus vesiculosus (bladder wrack).11 ...
Article
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Isolated fucoidans from brown marine algae have been shown to have a range of immune-modulating effects. This exploratory study aimed to determine whether a seaweed nutrient complex containing a blend of extracts from three different species of brown algae plus nutrients is safe to administer and has biological potential as an immune modulator. The study was undertaken as an open-label combined Phase I and II study. Participants (n = 10) were randomized to receive the study medication at either a 100 mg (n = 5) or 1000 mg (n = 5) dose over 4 weeks. The primary outcome measurement was in vivo changes in lymphocyte subsets. The secondary outcome measures were ex vivo changes in T-lymphocyte (CD4 and CD8) activation, phagocytosis of granulocytes and monocytes, T helper 1/T helper 2 cytokines, and serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity. The preparation was found to be safe over the 4 weeks at both doses tested. There were no clinically relevant changes to blood measurements of hemopoietic, hepatic, or renal function. Immunomodulatory measurements showed no dose response between the two doses. The combined results from the two doses demonstrated a significant increase in cytotoxic T cell numbers and phagocytic capacity in monocytes, and a significant decrease in levels of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin 6. A separate analysis of the 100 mg dose (n = 5) alone showed a significant linear component over time (P < 0.05) for phagocytosis by both granulocytes and monocytes. The seaweed nutrient complex was safe to use when taken orally over 4 weeks. The preparation was demonstrated to have potential as an immune modulator, and this bioactivity deserves further exploration.
... For example, the seaweed is a good source of fibre which increases faecal bulk and decreases bowel transit time, and it contains anti-bacterial activity that will influence faecal microflora. It also affects sterol metabolism, and it stimulates the host-mediated immune response all of these have the potential to reduce cancer rates (Teas et al. 1982). ...
Article
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This review discusses studies on marine macroalgae that have been investigated for their potential as sources of novel anti-cancer drugs. The review highlights the very large number of studies of crude, partially purified and purified seaweed extracts, collected from many locations, which have shown potential as sources of potent anti-cancer drugs when tested in vitro and/or in vivo. The activity of polysaccharides, polyphenols, proteinaceous molecules, carotenoids, alkaloids, terpenes and others is described here. In some reports, mechanistic studies have identified specific inhibitory activity on a number of key cellular processes including apoptosis pathways, telomerase and tumour angiogenesis. However, despite the potential shown by these studies, translation to clinically useful preparations is almost non-existent. It is hoped this review will serve as a source document and guide for those carrying out research into the potential use of macroalgae as a source of novel anti-cancer agents.
... Of these, Laminaria japonica, a brown alga, is the most important economic seaweed cultured in the temperate seaside areas of the northwest Pacific, including Korea, Japan, and China. Because L. japonica has high nutritional value as a source of minerals, vitamins, and non-caloric dietary fiber, it has been widely used as a health food as well as a traditional Oriental herbal medicine for over a thousand years (20,21). Findings from previous studies have indicated that heteropolysaccharides, such as fucoidans, extracted from L. japonica, have diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anticoagulant and anti-cancer activities, and that they improve lipid metabolism (22)(23)(24)(25)(26). ...
Article
Glycoprotein isolated from Laminaria japonica (LJGP) is known to exhibit significant cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells; however, the mechanisms of its cytoxicity are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated further possible mechanisms by which LJGP exerts its anti-cancer action in cultured human gastric carcinoma AGS cells. LJGP treatment of AGS cells resulted in inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, as determined by MTT assay, fluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry analysis. The increase in apoptosis was associated with up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax expression, down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and IAP family members, and activation of caspase-3 and -9. LJGP treatment markedly down-regulated the activity of telomerase and expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase, a main determinant of telomerase enzymatic activity, with inhibition of Sp1 and c-Myc expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, LJGP treatment also caused a progressive decrease in the expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 without significant changes in the levels of COX-1, which was correlated with a decrease in prostaglandin E2 synthesis. These results provide important new insights into the possible molecular mechanisms of the anti-cancer activity of LJGP.
... In addition to colon cancer prevention, it is suggested that a diet based on Laminaria spp., which is a rich source of laminarin, may be responsible for observation of a lower rate of breast cancer in the Japanese population [151]. Sulfated derivatives of laminarin showed enhanced antitumor activities. ...
Chapter
Algal polysaccharides are obtained from algae. Marine algae contain high amount of polysaccharides including mucopolysaccharides, cell wall–structured, and storage polysaccharides. Polysaccharides content in some seaweed species ranges from 4% to 76% of their total dry weight. Highest polysaccharide contents are found in species such as Ulva, Ascophyllum, Palmaria, and Porphyra. Polysaccharides obtained from algae are critically important for industrial and nutritional purposes. Various industrial applications include their use as thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers, feed, beverages, food, pharmaceuticals, etc. From nutrition point of view, seaweeds are low in calories and lipid content but high in indigestible carbohydrate content which is good for the intestine. Alginates, ulvans, carrageenans, fucoidans, and chitin have numerous industrial, especially pharmaceutical and biomedical, applications with rapidly increasing usage and commercial value.
... • The consumption of yellow, orange and green vegetables, usually steamed, with their abundance of beta-carotene, calcium, selenium and other micronutrients. In addition, cabbages and cruciferous vegetables contain the anti-cancer compounds indole glycosinate; 14,15 • Sea vegetables have been shown to possess significant anti-cancer properties; 10,16,17 • The use of soy products and fermented soy products, containing phytate, protease inhibitors and isoflavones, inhibitors of oncogenes; 18,19 • The consumption of Bancha tea, a variety of green tea, containing a potent anti-cancer compound EGCG; 20 • The abundance of high fibre-containing whole grains and the avoidance of red meat, a known promoter of colon cancer. There has not been a great deal of clinical or scientific evaluation of macrobiotic diets; 21 however, Michio Kushi, the foremost advocate of Macrobiotics has been fairly articulate in publishing the principles, philosophy and application of Macrobiotics to cancer and other health problems. ...
Article
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The preceding articles in this series (not on this website) have elaborated, with reference to a voluminous body of research, the significant protective effects against many cancers afforded by a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, high in fibre, moderately low in fat and alcohol, and as low ingestion as possible from environmental carcinogens, including tobacco. 1 The epidemiological and clinical data also demonstrate the protective and therapeutic effects afforded against many cancers by a variety of nutrients, individually and in combination. These nutrients include the major antioxidant nutrients – vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, selenium – as well as the B-complex vitamins, vitamin D, calcium, certain antioxidant enzymes and certain essential fatty acids.
... Also, Ji & Ji (2014) claim that laminarin can induce apotopsis in LOVO cells through the TRAIL/DR pathway . Moreover, a nondigestible fibre from Laminaria sp. has been reported to be an important factor contributing to the relatively low breast cancer rates reported in Japan (Teas, 1982). ...
Article
Brown algae are rich sources of bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, peptides, omega-3 fatty acids, carotenoids, phenolics, vitamins and minerals. Laminarin is low-molecular-weight polysaccharide and bioactive compound present in brown algae. Laminarin is found in the fronds of Laminaria and Saccharina species. Laminarin, a storage β-glucan, is composed of (1,3)-β-d-glucan and some β-(1,6)-intrachain links. The reported content of laminarin from brown algae is up to levels of 35% on dry basis, which varies depending on species, harvesting season, habitat and method of extraction. Laminarin has many reported biofunctional activities including antitumour, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant and antioxidant activity. Biofunctional activities of laminarin can be enhanced after suitable chemical modifications, sulphation and novel processing techniques. Studies on feeding of laminarin-rich extracts to animals indicate it's suitability as functional ingredient for food applications. This paper reviews the main sources, structure and extraction of laminarin with its biofunctional activities.
... Fungal beta-glucan is a mixture of linear b-(1 / 3) linkage with short branch chains connected through b-(1 / 6) (Han et al., 2008;Manners et al., 1973;Nakashima et al., 2018) while bacterial beta-glucan has linear unbranched chain of b-(1 / 3)-D-glucan backbone (McIntosh et al., 2005). Seaweed/algae beta-glucan is comprised of straight chain of b-(1 / 3)-D-glucan with high levels of b-(1 / 6) branches (Teas, 1982). ...
Chapter
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Beta-glucan is a predominant non-starch polysaccharide composed of linear chains of β-d-glucose linked by β-(1 → 3), (1 → 4), and/or (1 → 6)-D-glycosidic linkage either in branched or unbranched form. The major source of beta-glucan involves cereals, microorganism, mushroom, lichens, and seaweeds. Bioavailability of soluble beta-glucans ranges from 0.5 to 4.9%. Many processing methods like milling, germination, cooking, baking, extrusion roasting, freezing, and others affect the stability, solubility, and viscosity of beta-glucan in a different way. Most of these methods increase the content of soluble beta-glucan content and decrease the molecular weight distribution. Many acute and subchronic toxicity studies indicated that beta-glucans did not cause any adverse effects in animals at considerably higher doses. Beta-glucans provide many health benefits like regulation of blood glucose and insulin level, reduction of cholesterol level, prevention of heart diseases, reduction of obesity and blood pressure and possess antitumor and antiinflammatory activities. It has been recommended by US Food and Drug Administration, ingestion of 3 g per day of beta-glucan alongside low cholesterol diet reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
... United States Patent 6956120 and Japan Patent 2004-329077) and is currently available in the market as a health food supplement. The b-glucans are originally extracted from the common baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cervisiae [6], some types of seaweed [7], and mushrooms such as Basidiomycetes spp. Reishi, Shiitake and Maitake [8,9]. ...
Article
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The beta-glucans derived from yeast cell walls have been reported for having many immunomodulatory activities in vivo and in vitro. In this study, Aureobasidium-derived soluble branched (1,3-1,6) beta-glucan (Sophy beta-glucan) was checked for natural killer (NK) activity and for the production of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in Leishmania amazonensis infection. The main experiment was performed with a group of female C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, orally supplemented with 5% of Sophy beta-glucan and infected with promastogotes of L. amazonensis (1 x 10(7)) into the footpad. Increase in the footpad thickness with time was observed in BALB/c mice in spite of the oral Sophy beta-glucan supplement, but it was less in C57BL/6 mice. The difference in overall mean footpad thickness between 'infection only' versus 'infection + glucan' groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001). High NK activity in C57BL/6 than BALB/c mice was observed in 'glucan only' group compared to the control group and also in 'infection + glucan' group compared to 'infection only' group. The difference in the NK activity among these groups was significant (P < 0.05). The IFN-gamma level increased at weeks 7 and 8 post-infection in C57BL/6 mice and was significantly high in 'infection + glucan' group compared to the 'infection only' group (P < 0.05). IL-4 levels did not increase up to detectable levels throughout the study. The results led a conclusion that Sophy beta-glucan enhances NK activity and cellular immunity in L. amazonensis-infected mice.
... Fukosantin memiliki kemampuan sebagai anti karsinogenik (Kim et al., 1998), anti peradangan (Kim et al., 2010b), melindungi sel terhadap bahan-bahan berbahaya (misal: H2O2) (Heo et al., 2008) dan penangkal radikal bebas atau sebagai antioksidan (Sachindra et al., 2007;Sukoso et al., 2010). Fukosantin berperan dalam menghambat pertumbuhan sel kanker pada hati (Liu et al., 2009), payudara (Teas, 1983), usus besar (Nakazawa et al., 2009), prostat (Nakazawa et al., 2009), paru-paru (Moreau et al., 2006), kelenjar getah bening (Yamamoto et al., 2011), lambung (Yu et al., 2010) dan sel darah putih atau leukimia (Kim et al., 2010a) melalui pengaruh mekanisme kematian sel terprogram (apoptosis). Fukosantin juga berfungsi sebagai antiobesitas dalam menghambat akumulasi lemak (Miyashita, 2009) dan anti-diabetes (Maeda et al., 2009). ...
... Besides hydrocolloids and fermentation products, which are used as ingredients of cosmetics and as health drinks, seaweeds are potential suppliers of new compounds: antiviral, antibiotic, antitumour, anti-cancer or anti-inflammatory substances are of interest for medical purposes and as new drugs (e.g. Teas, 1983;Stein & Borden, 1984;Mayer & Hamann, 2002Smit, 2004). Natural pesticides, antifouling and agrochemical compounds are attracting interest for agrochemistry (Smit, 2004). ...
Article
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This review about the genus Laminaria sensu lato summarizes the extensive literature that has been published since the overview of the genus given by Kain in 1979. The recent proposal to divide the genus into the two genera Laminaria and Saccharina is acknowledged, but the published data are discussed under a ‘sensu lato’ concept, introduced here. This includes all species which have been considered to be ‘Laminaria’ before the division of the genus. In detail, after an introduction the review covers recent insights into phylogeny and taxonomy, and discusses morphotypes, ecotypes, population genetics and demography. It describes growth and photosynthetic performance of sporophytes with special paragraphs on the regulation of sporogenesis, regulation by endogenous rhythms, nutrient metabolism, storage products, and salinity tolerance. The biology of microstages is discussed separately. The ecology of these kelps is described with a focus on stress defence against abiotic and biotic factors and the role of Laminaria as habitat, its trophic interactions and its competition is discussed. Finally, recent developments in aquaculture are summarized. In conclusion to each section, as a perspective and guide to future research, we draw attention to the remaining gaps in the knowledge about the genus and kelps in general.
... In Korean traditional medicine, S. japonica thallus has been long used to promote post-natal maternal health. Because S. japonica has high nutritional value as a source of minerals, vitamins, and non-caloric dietary fiber, it has been widely used as a health food as well as a traditional Oriental herbal medicine for over a thousand years (Teas, 1982;Phaneuf et al., 1999). Polysaccharides such as alginate, fucoidan, and laminaran isolated from S. japonica have attracted a great deal of attention because of their excellent bioactivities with fewer side-effects. ...
Article
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Anti-inflammatory activity of Saccharina japonica and its active components was evaluated via in vitro inhibitory activities against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. Since the methanolic extract of S. japonica showed strong anti-inflammatory activity, it was fractionated with several solvents. Among the fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated the highest inhibition of LPS-induced NO production (IC50=25.32μg/mL), followed by the CH2Cl2 fraction (IC50=75.86μg/mL). Considering the yield and anti-inflammatory potential together, the CH2Cl2 fraction was selected for chromatographic separation to yield two active porphyrin derivatives, pheophorbide a and pheophytin a, together with an inactive fucoxanthin. In contrast to fucoxanthin, pheophorbide a and pheophytin a showed dose-dependent inhibition against LPS-induced NO production at nontoxic concentrations in RAW 264.7 cells. Both compounds also suppressed the expression of iNOS proteins, while they did not inhibit the COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages. These results indicate that pheophorbide a and pheophytin a are two important candidates of S. japonica as anti-inflammatory agents which can inhibit the production of NO via inhibition of iNOS protein expression. Thus, these compounds hold great promise for use in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.
... Besides colon cancer prevention, it is proposed that a diet based on Laminaria spp. (rich source of laminarin) may be responsible for a lower rate of breast cancer in the Japanese population (Teas, 1982). ...
Chapter
Marine macroalgae are the source of a wide range of compounds that have demonstrated a myriad of potential uses. Sulfated and non-sulfated polysaccharides are some of the major compounds found in these organisms, and they could be applied in many industries due to their diverse potentials. Seaweeds are a valuable source of sulfated polysaccharides, which are distinctive characteristics between taxonomic groups. For instance, brown seaweeds (Phaeophyceae) are known to contain alginate, fucoidan, laminarin, and ascophyllan. Sulfated carbohydrates are raising interest among the scientific community due to their beneficial properties. This chapter discusses these brown seaweed polysaccharides from their discovery, chemical structure, methodologies of extraction to the most important areas in the research, and also possible applications in several industries.
... These polysaccharides are thought to have important biological significance in the evolution of special features of multicellular organisms, including mechanical shear resistance, external tissue damage 1 3 reduction, and enhanced flexibility (Bartsch et al. 2008). They also have various biological and physical features, such as emulsifying, anticoagulant, antitumor, and antiviral effects, enhanced immunity, and roles in maintaining blood pressure (Indergaard and Ostgaard 1991;Teas 1983;Smit 2004;Mayer and Hamann 2005), traits that promote their wide use in food products, drugs, cosmetics, fertilizers, and scientific research (Cunha and Grenha 2016;Tseng 1987;McHugh 2003;De Roeck-Holtzhauer 1991;Thomas 2000). Despite the physiological and economic importance of alginate and fucoidan, information on their biosynthesis pathways in brown algae is scarce: the complete pathways remain unknown, only a few genes have confirmed functions, and regulatory mechanisms have been poorly studied. ...
Article
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Although alginate and fucoidan are unique cellular components and have important biological significance in brown algae, and many possible involved genes are present in brown algal genomes, their functions and regulatory mechanisms have not been fully revealed. Both polysaccharides may play important roles in the evolution of multicellular brown algae, but specific and in-depth studies are still limited. In this study, a functional genomics analysis of alginate and fucoidan biosynthesis routes was conducted in Saccharina, and the key events in these pathways in brown algae were identified. First, genes from different sources, including eukaryotic hosts via endosymbiotic gene transfer and bacteria via horizontal gene transfer, were combined to build a complete pathway framework. Then, a critical event occurred to drive these pathways to have real function: one of the mannose-6-phosphate isomerase homologs that arose by gene duplication subsequently adopted the function of the mannose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase (MGP) gene, which was absent in algal genomes. Further, downstream pathway genes proceeded with gene expansions and complex transcriptional mechanisms, which may be conducive to the synthesis of alginate and fucoidan with diverse structures and contents depending on the developmental stage, tissue structure, and environmental conditions. This study revealed the alginate and fucoidan synthesis pathways and all included genes from separate phylogenetic sources in brown algae. Enzyme assays confirmed the function of key genes and led to the determination of a substitute for the missing MPG. All gene families had constitutively expressed member(s) to maintain the basic synthesis; and the gene function differentiation, enzyme characterization and gene expression regulation differences separated brown algae from other algae lineages and were considered to be the major driving forces for sophisticated system evolution of brown algae.
... Other sources of b-glucan include seaweed like Laminaria sp. (Teas 1983), various species of mushrooms such as Shiitake (Lentinus edodes), Maitake (Grifola frondosa), Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) (Wasser and Weis 1999), Schizophylan (Schizophyllum commune), and SSG (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) (Brochers et al. 1999), and certain fungi (Agaricus subrufesuns). b-glucans are also the structural constituents of some of the pathogenic fungi, Pneumocystis carini (Lebron et al. 2003), Cryptococcus neoformans (Reese et al. 2007), and some bacteria belonging to Rhizobiaceae family (Breedveld and Milleri 1994). ...
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The major hindrance in the development and sustainability of aquaculture industry is the occurrence of various diseases in the farming systems. Today, preventive and management measures are central concern to overcome such outbreak of diseases. Immunostimulants are considered as an effective tool for enhancing immune status of cultured organisms. Among different immunostimulants used in aquaculture practices, β-glucan is one of the promising immunostimulant, which is a homopolysaccharide of glucose molecule linked by the glycoside bond. It forms the major constituents of cell wall of some plants, fungi, bacteria, mushroom, yeast, and seaweeds. Major attention on β-glucan was captivated with the gain in knowledge on its receptors and the mechanism of action. The receptor present inside the animal body recognizes and binds to β-glucan, which in turn renders the animal with high resistance and enhanced immune response. This review highlights β-glucan as an immunostimulant, its effective dosages, and route of administration and furthermore provides an outline on role of β-glucan in enhancing growth, survival, and protection against infectious pathogens pertaining to fishes and shellfishes. Study also summarizes the effect of β-glucan on its receptors, recognition of proteins, immune-related enzymes, immune-related gene expression and their mechanisms of action.
... This type of modulation of the gastrointestinal microbiota by dietary fibers could have a positive impact in the prevention of stomach cancer [162] . This type of benefit from seaweed intake also appears to be related with the consumption of Laminaria/ Saccharina sp., or other brown seaweeds (Undaria pinnatifida) that can help the gastrointestinal system and prevent the initiation of breast cancer or its development by endogenous human factors [163] . This can be due to the iodine content, among other compounds, in brown seaweeds [164,165] . ...
Article
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Seaweeds have been a food source since ancient times (600 BC) and are still widely used in Asia, mainly in traditional Chinese medicine and Japanese folk medicine. Nowadays, seaweed compounds and extracts have been gaining interest from the biomedical and pharmaceutical market sectors. Seaweeds have been referenced as feasible solutions in finding new potential compounds and therapies in prevention, control, and reduction of cancer development due to the multirole of some bioactive components (e.g, phenolic compounds and sulphated polysaccharides). Moreover, seaweeds are rich in important health-promoting molecules [such as poly and highly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and HUFAs), essential amino acids, vitamins, and dietary fibers] and minerals (calcium, iron, iodine, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and fluoride). In this review, the potential therapeutic effects of seaweed in the prevention and treatment of cancer are approached, as well as nutraceutical properties of seaweed to promote cell homeostasis.
... Other sources of β-glucans include yeasts, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mushrooms, such as Maitake and Shiitake, and seaweeds, such as Laminaria sp. [17,18]. The major β-glucans of clinical significance, their structures, and sources are listed in Table 1. ...
Article
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β-Glucans are a group of biologically-active fibers or polysaccharides from natural sources with proven medical significance. β-Glucans are known to have antitumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, anti-allergic, anti-osteoporotic, and immunomodulating activities. β-Glucans are natural bioactive compounds and can be taken orally, as a food supplement, or as part of a daily diet, and are considered safe to use. The medical significance and efficiency of β-glucans are confirmed in vitro, as well as using animal- and human-based clinical studies. However, systematic study on the clinical and physiological significance of β-glucans is scarce. In this review, we not only discuss the clinical and physiological importance of β-glucans, we also compare their biological activities through the existing in vitro and animal-based in vivo studies. This review provides extensive data on the clinical study of β-glucans.
... The worldwide incidence of this cancer has increased steadily in recent years, and attributes to rapid changes in dietary patterns and preferences. Dietary habits influence the risk for colorectal cancer (WCRF/AICR, 2009) and search for preventive food component for tumour genesis process will be effective measure for curing colorectal cancer (Kim et al. 2010 There is a nine fold lower incidence of breast cancer in the Japanese population and an even lower incidence in the Korean population due to seaweeds consumption, as compared to the incidence in the West (Lawson et al. 2001;Teas, 1983 ...
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Seaweeds are a natural renewable resource, they are also a naturally, rich with structurally unique and diverse secondary metabolites. From the point of convenience, seaweeds are grossly grouped as the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta on the basis of their major photosynthetic pigments.
... The worldwide incidence of this cancer has increased steadily in recent years, and attributes to rapid changes in dietary patterns and preferences. Dietary habits influence the risk for colorectal cancer (WCRF/AICR, 2009) and search for preventive food component for tumour genesis process will be effective measure for curing colorectal cancer (Kim et al. 2010 There is a nine fold lower incidence of breast cancer in the Japanese population and an even lower incidence in the Korean population due to seaweeds consumption, as compared to the incidence in the West (Lawson et al. 2001;Teas, 1983 ...
Article
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Abstract: Seaweeds are a natural renewable resource, they are also a naturally, rich with structurally unique and diverse secondary metabolites. From the point of convenience, seaweeds are grossly grouped as the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta on the basis of their major photosynthetic pigments. The seaweeds are a source of chemical diversity including pigments, polysaccharides, organic, and inorganic compounds, some of which find uses as animal fodder, food, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmeceutical. Therapeutically, selected marine macro algae have the potential to be utilized in the treatments of: cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, viral diseases (especially HPV and HIV), cancers, and disorder of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT), hepatic diseases, anti-inflammatory issues, some seaweeds have high levels of calcium carbonate (especially coralline algae) so applicable to treat the osteoporosis and some seaweed are used to make cosmetics which is applicable to treat the skin disease as well as normally used for glowing and taking care of normal skin health. Certain seaweeds have high levels of antioxidants such as poly phenolics, vitamins and fatty acids (especially omega-3 fatty acids) and these inhibit the oxidation of the low-density lipoproteins in the cell membrane. Vitamins from some seaweed act as immune-stimulants and are also known to help in bone development. Some red algae have been shown to have more antihypertensive activity than that reported for both brown and green algae. Some seaweed also has been reported for having anti-coagulating and anti-hemorrhagic activities. Due to presence of high micronutrients and minerals in some specific seaweed, diet supplement with that particular seaweeds increase haemoglobins in blood and directly reduce anaemia. Some seaweed composed cosmetics find place as herbal skin care product in market. The aim of this review is to accumulate in brief, the therapeutics and medicinal uses of seaweed on the mentioned diseases.
... In addition, it is a major structural component of the cell walls of yeast, fungi and some bacteria. Various species of mushrooms such as Reishi, Shiitake, and Maitake [2] and certain kinds of seaweeds [3] are other sources of β-glucans. In barley and oat, β-glucan is mostly concentrated in the cell walls of the internal aleurone, sub-aleurone and endosperm tissues. ...
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(1,3;1,4)-β-D-glucan is a soluble fiber, which is readily available in oat, barley and wheat grains that have been gaining interest due to its multiple bioactive and functional properties. In vitro and In vivo studies in animals and humans have proven and documented its beneficial role in reducing the risks of coronary heart disease, maintain insulin resistance, immune modulating properties and control dyslipidemia, hypertension and obesity. The fermentability of (1,3;1,4)-β-D-glucans and its ability to create very viscous solutions in the human gut brings these great health benefits. The viscosity of (1,3;1,4)-β-D-glucan depends on the physicochemical properties such as molecular weight, solubility, and concentration. The extraction conditions influence the rheology, viscosity, and molecular weight of (1,3;1,4)-β-D-glucan. Physicochemical properties of (1,3;1,4)-β-D-glucan are strongly affected by the genetic attributes and environmental condition. Members of the cellulose synthases (CesA) and cellulose synthase-like (Csl) genes superfamily responsible for the (1,3;1,4)-β-D-glucan synthesis. (1,3;1,4)-β-D-glucan as a food ingredient is broadly taken into consideration since its dual activity to increase the content of food products and to enrich their health properties. The wide range of effectiveness reported is explained by the properties of the β-glucan in the diets used, as well as the dose. This review provides comprehensive overview of the β-glucan including properties, applications, health benefits and recent advances of (1,3;1,4)-β-D-glucan research in several aspects.
... Otherwise known as raw material for alginate, brown seaweed has been known as a source of Iodine [10], fucoxanthin pigment [11], dietary fiber [12], vegetables [13] and biofuel [14] as well as feed [15]. Bioactive extracts of brown seaweed had been researched as source of PUFA [16], anti-obesity [17], anticancer [18][19], antitumor [20], antioxidant [21], and anti-bacterial [22]. The use of brown seaweed as food should fulfil food quality standards. ...
Conference Paper
Seaweed tea Sargassum cristaefolium has been used by some people in Talongo, Madura, East Java. This tea is a leaf of Sargassum cristaefolium, soaked in CaCO3 and dried in the sun. This study compared the characteristics of Sargassum cristaefolium tea and the usually dried Sargassum cristaefolium. Observations were on brewing water conditions, contents of polyphenol reinforced IC50 and LCMS tests, proximate, fiber, contamination of metal and microbial, amino acid and fatty acid profiles. The results showed proximate, fiber, contamination of metal and microbial contamination, the profile of amino acid and fatty acid of brown seaweed tea Sargassum cristaefolium were lowered than the usual dry form but for polyphenol content. Both of these had a coral smell, although brewing drink tea resembles with tea from commercial tea leaves. It should be adding a flavouring agent to reduce the coral smell of this product.
... [24] Also, it is known that 1,3-β-D-glucan can alter the fecal flora enzymatic activity, and it can stimulate the immune response. [25] Fatty Acids Content Seaweeds are not generally rich in lipids. However, many researchers have reported high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) which have many health benefits. ...
Article
The three seaweeds (Halimeda tuna, Codium bursa and Cystoseira barbata) and one seagrass (Cymodocea nodosa) were collected from the Coast of Montenegro, Gulf of Boka Kotorska and their chemical analysis was performed. In seagrass C. nodosa, three phenolic compounds were identified (diosmetin 7‐ sulphate, caphtaric and coutaric acid). The content of β‐glucan, fatty acids, sterols and micro‐ and macro‐elements were investigated among all samples. The highest content of β‐glucan was detected in C. nodosa seagrass (13.04 ± 0.42 g/100 g). The highest polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) level, was reported in C. barbata, the brown alga (7.157 mg/g), which also had the significant sterol content (fucosterol, 21.76 ± 0.1 μg/g). Green algae, C. bursa and H. tuna, had shown the highest level of sterols (β‐sitosterol, 95.21 ± 0.16 μg/g and 73.90 ± 0.08 μg/g, respectively). H. tuna had the highest content of calcium (Ca) in amount of 55125 μg/g. In C. bursa, C. barbata and C. nodosa, the Na/K ratio was low (0.43, 0.46 and 0.69, respectively).
... While sea vegetables contain measurable amounts of polyphenols like carotenoids and flavonoids, they also contain other phyto-nutrient antioxidants that have been shown to possess antioxidant properties 11 . Coupled with measurable amounts of antioxidant vitamins (like vitamins C and E) and antioxidant minerals (like manganese and zinc), sea vegetables are expected to reduce the risk of oxidative stress and many types of cardiovascular problems that are associated with poor antioxidant intake. ...
... (c) Preventive and anticancer effect: The viscous fibre of kelp has several direct and indirect anticancer effects (Salyers et al., 1978). Based on both epidemiological and biological data, Laminaria is thought to be a factor contributing to the relatively low breast cancer rates reported in Japan (Teas, 1983). Possible mechanisms proposed by the author include: (1) kelp's nondigestible fibre increases faecal bulk and reduces bowel transit time; (2) kelp changes the post-hepatic metabolism of sterols, having an overall antilipaemic action, lowering cholesterol ; (3) it contains an antibiotic substance, possibly brominated polyphenolic compounds, which positively influence faecal ecology and favours beneficial microflora ; and (4) it contains laminarin (1–3 beta glucan) which alters the enzymatic activity of faecal flora. ...
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The herbal mixtures, Essiac and Flor-Essence, are sold as nutritional supplements and used by patients to treat chronic conditions, particularly cancer. Evidence of anticancer activity for the herbal teas is limited to anecdotal reports recorded for some 40 years in Canada. Individual case reports suggest that the tea improves quality of life, alleviates pain, and in some cases, impacts cancer progression among cancer patients. Experimental studies with individual herbs have shown evidence of biological activity including antioxidant, antioestrogenic, immunostimulant, antitumour, and antiocholeretic actions. However, research that demonstrates these positive effects in the experimental setting has not been translated to the clinical arena. Currently, no clinical studies of Essiac or Flor-essence are published, but a clinical study is being planned at the British Columbia Cancer Agency by the University of Texas-Center for Alternative Medicine (UT-CAM) and Tzu-Chi Institute for Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
... β-Glucan derived from mushrooms alleviates respiratory tract infection [13]. Dietary intake of β-glucan from brown algae prevents human breast cancer [14]. One of β-glucan, laminarin is a storage glucan existed in brown algae [15]. ...
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Ovarian cancer (OC) is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and leads to the high mortality rate reported in the United States. Standard treatment for OC includes maximal cytoreductive surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy. However, relapse due to chemoresistance is common in advanced OC patients. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new anticancer drugs to suppress OC progression. Recently, the anticancer effects of laminarin, a beta-1,3-glucan derived from brown algae, have been reported in hepatocellular carcinoma, colon cancer, leukemia, and melanoma. However, its effects in OC are not reported. We confirmed that laminarin decreases cell growth and cell cycle progression of OC cells through the regulation of intracellular signaling. Moreover, laminarin induced cell death through DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species generation, induction of apoptotic signals and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, regulation of calcium levels, and alteration of the ER-mitochondria axis. Laminarin was not cytotoxic in a zebrafish model, while in a zebrafish xenograft model, it inhibited OC cell growth. These results suggest that laminarin may be successfully used as a novel OC suppressor.
... Most of the effects of arachidonic acid are attributable to its conversion by oxygenases to prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and other bioactive products [25][26][27][28]. Arachidonic acid bioactivity is an undue reliance on oxygenase inhibitors in invoking a biological role for the supposed "products" of oxygenase metabolism. ...
... β-1,3-D-Glucan (beta-D-glucan; BDG) is a heterogeneous group of natural polysaccharide of Dglucose monomers linked by (1,3)-β-glycosidic bonds (Stier et al. ,2014). It occurs most commonly as a dietary fiber in cellulose of plants, the bran of cereal grains (especially oat and barley), the cell wall of baker's yeast, certain fungi, mushrooms (such as shiitake and maitake) and bacteria (Teas ,1983;Wasser et al. ,1999;Charalampopoulos et al. ,2002;Holtekjølen et al., 2006;Sikora et al. ,2013;Kusmiati and Dhewantara ,2016). β-1,3-D-Glucan (BDG) is added to foods as supplements on the assumption that this will contribute to health benefits (Holtekjølen et al., 2006, Novak andVetvicka, 2008). ...
Article
The present work was planned to study the effects of E110 (sunset yellow) as a common synthetic in Egypt and E100 (curcumin) as a natural food-drug colorants on the testis of the male mouse. The plan of work was designed to cover six parameters: histopathological, cytochemical (involving DNA and total proteins), testis weight, sperm parameters (i.e., sperm abnormalities and sperm motility), and measuring testosterone levels in blood sera. The mice were divided into three groups, ten per each. The first group remained as controls, whilst the second orally given sunset yellow-E110 (30 mg/kg b.wt/day) as SY-group and the third one E100 'CU-group' also gavage 37 mg/kg b.wt., both fed on their acceptable daily intake (ADI) dosages for 60 days. The results detected that SY revealed distinct alterations in the desired parameters, particularly histological changes in structure of seminiferous tubules such as vacuolation, necrosis and multinucleate cells. Whilst, the cytochemical DNA and proteinic profiles of the SY-treatment mice exhibited severe damage in the DNA and total protein configurations. However, such deteriorations in the spermatogenic epithelia were also approved with changes in the other criteria after administration with E110. From such alterations, the E110 recorded a highly significant increase (P< 0.0001) in the abnormalities of sperm morphology and motility. Moreover, the testosterone levels in sera of male mice indicated the significant differences among groups. The molecular protocol manifested SY (E110) - induced DNA polymorphic changes in confrontation with control by primer OPC07, whilst CU (E100) kept on the control pattern. In conclusion, the present study explored the possibility of using the applied six parameters to assessment and differentiate between the two food flavours indicating that E100 (CU) is more biosafe than the synthetic additive E110 (SY).
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To test the potential in vivo antitumor effect of dietary seaweed, we induced mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley rats with the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Twenty-one-day-old rats (n = 108) were divided into two groups. Controls were fed a standard semipurified diet, and experimental rats received the control diet with 5% Laminaria, a brown seaweed, replacing 5% alphacel . At 55 days of age, each rat received 5 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene intragastrically. Rats were palpated for mammary tumors and weighed weekly for 26 weeks. Complete autopsies were then done on all rats. The seaweed diet did not alter weight gain or weights of body organs at autopsy. Experimental rats had a significant delay in the time to tumor (p = 0.007); median time until tumor was 19 weeks in experimental rats and 11 weeks in control animals. Among mammary adenocarcinoma tumor-bearing animals, experimental rats had fewer adenocarcinomas/individual (p less than 0.05). There was also an overall 13% reduction in the number of experimental rats with histologically confirmed adenocarcinomas (76% among the control rats compared to 63% among the experimental rats). Components of Laminaria which might account for the observed difference in mammary tumor growth are varied and include the sulfated polysaccharide fucoidan . Rats in the top row of cages had a significant (p = 0.01) delay in time to tumor compared to rats in the lower four rows. In each row, the seaweed-fed rats had a longer time to tumor than did the control rats.
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The effect of dietary Laminaria angustata (brown seaweed) on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced intestinal carcinogenesis was studied in male F344 rats. Five-week old rats were fed semipurified diets containing 0 and 10% seaweed. When the rats were 7 weeks old, all except the vehicle-treated groups received weekly subcutaneous injections of AOM in normal saline for two weeks (20 mg/kg body wt/week). All animals were fed the experimental diets until the termination of the experiment, which was 28 weeks after the last AOM injection. The incidence (percent of animals with tumors) and multiplicity (tumors/animal) of small intestinal tumors did not differ significantly between the control and seaweed groups. The incidence and multiplicity of colon adenomas along with the size of colon tumors were increased in rats fed the seaweed diet compared with those fed the control diet. Dietary seaweed had no major effect on the concentration of fecal bile acids; however, the concentration of fecal cholesterol and total neutral sterols was decreased in the seaweed group. These results suggest that dietary seaweed increases the risk for colon tumors.
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This review deals with the pharmacology of nonstarch polysaccharides, namely fucoidans and chitosans, isolated from marine organisms. The work summarizes information from the international literature on the antitumor activities of native polysaccharides and their derivatives. The structures and physicochemical properties of these polysaccharides are described and the molecular mechanisms of their antitumor and antimetastatic effects are discussed. Keywordsfucoidans-chitosans-antitumor drugs
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β-glucans are glucose polymers (polysaccharides) of high mo- lecular weight naturally present in the cell wall of various living organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, fungus and plants (mainly cereals like barley and oat). β-glucans are GRAS and are currently used as texturing agents by the food industry. Furthermore, scien- tific evidence suggest that, depending on their physicochemical structure and source, their intake would be associated with health promoting effect such as the decrease of plasma cholesterol and the improvement of the glycemic index of the β-glucan- containing foodstuffs. Accordingly, a health claim related with the intake of cereal β-glucans and plasma cholesterol improvement has been accepted by the FDA in U.S.A. and by the EFSA in the E.U. For this reason, β-glucans are increasingly used in the world for the development of functional foods. However, the effect of yeast β-glucans on immune system stimulation is still discussed. Key words: β-glucans, Immune function, Resistance to infections, Blood cholesterol, Blood glucose.
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Does walking outdoors have the same breast cancer protective effect as walking on a treadmill indoors, away from natural light, in a typical gym atmosphere? Is the ambient exposure to sunlight important in stress and breast cancer risk reduction? Our basic premise is that the breast cancer protective mechanisms of exercise depend on context of exercise, not just on the number of repetitive muscular contractions completed over a specific period of time, and that a more pleasant and peaceful environment will decrease perceived stress and enhance immunity, theoretically leading to more positive mood and more effective cancer surveillance. A more relaxed walking atmosphere may decrease physiological consequences of stress, such as high cortisol, melatonin, and norepinephrine (as measured by alpha amylase). Revisions to the original endpoints include adding a questionnaire to assess mood changes, and replacing blood samples with salivary hormone measurements of cortisol, alpha amylase, and melatonin.
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The herbal mixtures, Essiac™ and Flor-Essence™, are sold as nutritional supplements and used by patients to treat chronic conditions, particularly cancer. Evidence of anticancer activity for the herbal teas is limited to anecdotal reports recorded for some 40 years in Canada. Individual case reports suggest that the tea improves quality of life, alleviates pain, and in some cases, impacts cancer progression among cancer patients. Experimental studies with individual herbs have shown evidence of biological activity including antioxidant, antioestrogenic, immunostimulant, antitumour, and antiocholeretic actions. However, research that demonstrates these positive effects in the experimental setting has not been translated to the clinical arena. Currently, no clinical studies of Essiac™ or Flor-essence™ are published, but a clinical study is being planned at the British Columbia Cancer Agency by the University of Texas-Center for Alternative Medicine (UT-CAM) and Tzu-Chi Institute for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Were one to believe the popular press an eventual shortage of food can be solved by tapping the inexhaustible supplies of the ocean. This fallacy has been exposed frequently, yet, the ocean can provide reasonable and sustainable quantities of food. The question may be raised whether among the edible reserves humans can consume algae which abound. Many myths surround consumption of algae and, particularly in the Western world, algae constitute a quite modest part of the human diet. Not so in the Orient where algal harvests exceed the million tons in both China and Japan. The paper examines whether algae could safely occupy a larger place on the European menu.
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The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the fucoxanthin (FUCO) alone and in combination with glucosamine hydrochloride (GAH) on carrageenan/kaolin-induced inflammatory arthritis model in rats and to explore its underlying mechanisms. Joint swelling, muscle weight ratio (%), histopathological examination and scoring, and proteoglycan degradation were examined. Pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis (TNF-α) levels, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS) protein expression and nitric oxide (NO) level in knee synovial tissue extract were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blotting analysis, and Griess reagent assay, respectively. FUCO and FUCO + GAH not only may significantly reduce degrees of knee joint swelling and prevent against muscle atrophy, but also may significantly attenuate inflammation in synovial tissue, cartilage erosion, and proteoglycan loss. The efficacies of FUCO + GAH were stronger than that of GAH or FUCO. FUCO alone and FUCO + GAH can significantly inhibit upregulation of COX-2 and iNOS protein expressions, decrease of IL-1β and TNF-α levels, and reduce NO production in knee synovial tissue extract. These results indicated that FUCO is an effective anti-arthritis agent through an antiinflammation mechanism. FUCO may enhance therapeutic effect of GAH on rat arthritis through mechanism of antiinflammation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The seaweed Laminaria japonica has been investigated in a laboratory research for its medical significance and LJP has been purified now. The objective of present study was to look at effect of LJP on structural, phenotypic and functional maturation of murine BMDCs. The structural maturation of BMDCs induced by LJP was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM); The phenotypic maturation of BMDCs was studied by flow cytometry(FCM) and functional maturation of BMDCs was analyzed by FITC-dextran, acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We hereby proved that LJP markedly induced maturation of BMDCs with the data of decreased the number of lysosomes, upregulated expression of CD80, CD83, CD86, CD40 and MHC II key membrane molecules on BMDCs, downregulated phagocytosis, enriched production of IL-12 and TNF-α secreted by BMDCs. Therefore it should be concluded that LJP was with strong ability to induce maturation of BMDCs. Our data provided direct evidence to suggest that LJP could be considered as an immune stimulant in improving immune handicapped situation and as a useful adjuvant in vaccine designing.
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ß-glucans are glucose polymers (polysaccharides) of high molecular weight naturally present in the cell wall of various living organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, fungus and plants (mainly cereals like barley and oat). ß-glucans are GRAS and are currently used as texturing agents by the food industry. Furthermore, scientific evidence suggest that, depending on their physicochemical structure and source, their intake would be associated with health promoting effect such as the decrease of plasma cholesterol and the improvement of the glycemic index of the ß-glucan-containing foodstuffs. Accordingly, a health claim related with the intake of cereal ß-glucans and plasma cholesterol improvement has been accepted by the FDA in U.S.A. and by the EFSA in the E.U. For this reason, ß-glucans are increasingly used in the world for the development of functional foods. However, the effect of yeast ß-glucans on immune system stimulation is still discussed.
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This study assesses the consumption of seaweed by Koreans using a survey questionnaire. 1,218 subjects were surveyed. Those individuals were divided into inland and coastal regions. Statistical analyses were conducted using the SAS package (ver 9.1). The results of this study are summarized as follows: Of the survey respondents 46.5% were male and 53.5% were female. Inland and coastal residents were divided nearly equally (50.4% and 49.6% respectively). Overall slightly more respondents reported a dislike of seaweeds (52.8% vs 47.2%) and the major reason for their dislike was the smell. With respect to gender and age preference, more females liked seaweed than males (p
Chapter
The term ‘focus’ was originally used in a non-specific sense to describe the higher algae [1]. This has led to misleading accounts in the literature whereby several distinct genera have been referenced under the same term. A considerable amount of the botanical confusion can be traced to one of the commercial uses of these algae, viz : the production of kelp, which is the residue obtained after drying and incineration [2]. Since different botanical sources have been used to produce kelp over three centuries, in attempts to obtain higher yields of iodine, bromine, potassium and sodium salts, it is not surprising that taxonomic difficulties have arisen [3]. Accordingly, this monograph includes those products which have been used medicinally, but excludes the Rhodophyta (red seaweeds) and the lichen Cetraria islandicus, commonly referred to as Iceland moss but which has been known as fucus in Europe [4].
Chapter
Understanding the effect of removing ingredients from products in favour of healthier ones can be detrimental to product integrity and consumer acceptability in terms of shelf life, structure, taste and appearance. Reformulation of fast-moving consumer goods (FMCGs) into healthier, and therefore aligned to public health and political ambitions, has its own challenges and it is apparent that a structured framework would further utilise the benefits to industrial bodies and provide a basis for best practise amongst practitioners. Reformulating by adding in ‘healthy’ products can cause issues with neophobia of foods; here discussed is the inclusion of seaweeds into salad and pesto products. We discuss some other work completed with Scottish food and drink businesses using mixture designs, removing fat and sugar from common food products, and the reduction of allergens.
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β-Glucans are polysaccharides generally obtained from the cell wall of bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and aleurone layer of cereals. β-Glucans are polymers, with β-1,3 glucose as core linear structure, but they differ in their main branch length, linkages, and branching patterns, giving rise to high and low-molecular-weight β-glucans. They are well-known cell response modifiers with immune-modulating, nutraceutical, and health beneficial effects, including anticancer and pro-apoptotic properties. β-Glucan extracts have shown positive responses in controlling tumor cell proliferation and activation of the immune system. The immunomodulatory action of β-glucans enhances the host's antitumor defense against cancer. In consonance with the above, many studies have shown that β-glucan treatment leads to the induction of apoptotic death of cancer cells. The ability of β-glucans to stimulate apoptotic pathways or, the proteins involved in apoptosis prompting a new domain in cancer therapy. β-glucan can be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer. However, there is a need to legitimize the β-glucan type, as most of the studies include β-glucan from different sources having different physicochemical properties. The body of literature presented here focuses on the effects of β-glucan on immunomodulation, proliferation, cell death, and the possible mechanisms and pathways involved in these processes.
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MARTINEZ Nadal et al. (1964, 1965) reported the presence of antibiotic substances in extracts of the brown alga, Sargassum natans, as well as the red alga, Chondria littoralis, and the green alga, Cymopolia barbata. Among the organisms affected in vitro by these substances was Salmonella gallinarum, the causative agent of fowl typhoid. The studies presented in this report were undertaken to determine whether the inclusion of Sargassum natans in the diet of chicks would affect the outcome of an infection with S. gallinarum. MATERIALS AND METHODS The chicks used in these studies were White Plymouth Rocks obtained from a commercial hatchery. The diet used was based on soybean meal and corn. The composition is presented in Table 1. Two lots of 20 chicks each were fed each diet. In the first experiment the diets were fed from the day of hatching, and in the second experiment they were fed from . . .
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The close relationship between bowel cancer and other non-infective diseases of the bowel, such as benign tumor, divert ocular disease, and appendicitis, indicates that these conditions may have a common or related etiology. Their close association with the refined diet characteristic of economic development suggests that the removal of dietary fiber may be a causative factor. These diseases are all rare in every community examined which exists on a high residue diet, and common in every country where a low residue diet has been adopted. Dietary fiber has been shown to regulate the speed of transit, bulk, and consistency of stools, and together with other dietary factors is probably also responsible for the changes which have been demonstrated in the bacterial flora of feces. It seems likely that carcinogens produced by the action of an abnormal bacterial flora when held for a prolonged period in a concentrated form in contact with the bowel mucosa may account for the high incidence of these diseases in economically developed countries.
Article
Analysis of total As and some As components (As (III), As (V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) in sea foods [Hijiki (Hizikia fusiforme), Konbu (Laminaria japonica), dried shrimp and flat fish (Kareius bicoloratus)] and in urine after ingestion of these foods were carried out by the following methods: the BAL chelate method (As (III), As (V) and MMAA), the ECD-GC method (DMAA) and the wet digestion with Ni2+ and graphite furnace atomic absorption method (total As).Most of As (more than 90%) in aqueous extracts of Konbu, shrimp and flat fish exists in unidentified bound forms with organic compounds, i. e., not as inorganic or methylated arsenic. A large portion of As (more than 80%) in Hijiki is present as inorganic arsenate and arsenite (60% and 20%, respectively) or as substances releasing inorganic arsenicals in acid media.Excretion patterns of As in urine after ingestion of these sea foods were as follows: in the case of Hijiki, a large part of As (more than 40% of total excreted As) is excreted as DMAA, while in the case of Konbu, DMAA accounted for most of the excreted arsenic.On the other hand, in the case of shrimp and flat fish, over 50% of As is excreted as unidentified bound forms with organic compound (s). The As in these foods, except for Hijiki, is rapidly excreted in urine (within 40hr after eating), but prolonged excretion is observed in the case of Hijiki. This may be due to the high inorganic As content in Hijiki.The As excretion ratios of Hijiki, shrimp and flat fish in urine are 51%, 47.4% and 24.2%. These values suggest that other As components may be incorporated in the body and/or excreted by other routes (in the feces and by expiration).Furthermore, As components in shrimp were fractionated. An As-containing fraction from dried shrimp appears to be an arseno-oligopeptide, since the fraction gave a positive ninhydrin reaction and yielded arsenobetaine upon acid hydrolysis.
Article
A review of the biological properties of seaweed is presented and the role of seaweed as a breast cancer anticarcinogen is suggested. Proposed mechanisms of action are: reduction of plasma cholesterol, binding of biliary steriods, inhibition of carcinogenic fecal flora, binding of pollutants, stimulation of the immune system, and the protective effects of beta-sitosterols. In an experiment using sarcoma-180 in mice, seaweed extract appeared to have an antitumor effect. Thus it is suggested that breast cancer may be prevented and that this dietary habit among the Japanese could be an important factor in understanding the lower breast cancer rates reported in Japan.
Article
Les variations de la teneur en acide alginique de quatre espéces de Laminariales (Laminaria longicruris, L. digiiata, L, saccharina et Alaria esculenta) de deux régions de l estuaire maritime du Saint-Laurent (Québec) sont analysees pour trois annés en fonctjon des Saisons, des modes d exposition. de la taille et de la region anatomique de Talgue. Une breve anaJyse des variations saisonnieres du pourcentage de mannitol est fournie pour L. digitata et L. longicruris afm de verifier l'existence d'une correlation avec les variations saisonnieres des pourcentages d'ucide alginique.
Article
89 samples (82 species) of marine algae of French Atlantic coast have been investigated in vitro for their potential antimitotic properties, by vegetable tissue culture technique (inhibition of Helian-thus tuberosus growth). For each sample, three extracts, prepared with Et20, then EtOH 99 %, then H20, have been tested. Some of the most interesting extracts have also been examinated in vitro by "Heliantbus tuberosus test-disc", by crown-gall tissue culture technique, and for their cytotoxicity on KB-cells and for their antimetabolite properties. Results
Article
152 samples (91 species) of marine algae of French Atlantic coast have been investigated for their antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) activity. For each sample, three extracts, prepared with Et20, then EtOH 99 %, then H20, were tested. The largest proportion of active species occurs in Cystoseiraceae, Bonnemaisoniaceae and Rhodomelaceae.
Article
Survival rates for patients with breast cancer have been reported to be higher in Japan than in the United States. It has also been reported that histologic features associated with more favorable survival are more frequent in Tokyo than in the United States. In this report data are presented on the question of whether differences in breast cancer histology could account for the differences in survival rate between Tokyo and two western areas–Boston, USA, and Glamorgan, Wales. Intraductal carcinoma was found to be most frequent in Tokyo and least frequent in Boston, but survival differences between the two cities were found when non-invasive cases were excluded. Low (relatively malignant) nuclear grade was observed most often in Glamorgan; there was little difference in frequency of this characteristic between Boston and Tokyo. Since nuclear-grade specific survival ratios were highest in Tokyo, this histologic feature also does not account for the better survival experience of Japanese patients. Tumors of medullary histologic type and those with high degrees of lymphoid infiltration were most frequent in Japan and least frequent in Boston. However, the relationships of histologic type and lymphoid infiltrate to survival were not consistent in the three areas, and the higher survival ratio of the Japanese patients could not be related to these characteristics.
Article
Young male Wistar rats were fed with chows containing marketed Hizikia preparation. Hizikia-arsenic could be absorbed at the rate comparable to arsenic trioxide, and accumulated primarily in blood. Intake and excretion of arsenic from Hizikia-diet reached a steady state within 4 days of administration as was the case of arsenic trioxide. Biological half-life in blood and urine was also essentially the same in the 2 groups. Rats kept for 3 weeks on the chows containing up to 20% Hizikia did not show significant growth retardation as compared with the controls, while those on 50% Hizikia-diet were markedly emaciated. In 1 38-week feeding experiment, 4 groups of rats were given 20% Hizikia-diets made from various Hizikia preparations (final arsenic concentrations; 9, 16, 21 and 21 ppm, respectively). For positive controls, 2 groups were given arsenic trioxide diets (24 and 50 ppm as arsenic). Growth retardation was minimum both in Hizikia and arsenic groups with no relation to the arsenic dose. Changes in hematology, blood biochemistry and pathology of major organs and skin were also essentially negative in all groups.The maximum no-effect level observed in the present study was compared with the possible amount of arsenic taken via seaweed in mankind.
Article
The traditional Japanese diet changed dramatically between 1950 and 1975: the intake of milk (15 fold), meat, poultry and eggs (7.5 fold) and fat (6 fold) has increased, while that of barley (), potatoes () and rice (0.7) has decreased. This westernization is more pronounced in the younger generation, rich people, non-farmers and city dwellers. However, the quantities of western foods consumed in Japan are still much less than those in the U.S. or Europe. The quality of the nutrients is also very different: amylopectin, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and indigestible polysaccharides are abundant in the Japanese diet.During this period, Japanese became taller and heavier. Breast, colon and lung cancers increased 2–3 fold, but those of the stomach (0.6) and uterus (0.3) decreased. As life expectancy has been extended (male 12, female 14 years), the number of patients in the same age group increased. Areas of longevity containing many centenarians (888 in 1977) were studied, in order to determine beneficial effects of westernization such as a decrease in apoplexia resulting from increased fat intake. More than the average amounts of animal proteins and vegetables were consumed in these areas. Among the Japanese, those in Okinawa were found to have the lowest total energy, sugar and salt, and the smallest physique, but had healthy longevity and the highest centenarian rate.
Article
Breast cancer is still relatively infrequent in Japan. However, both mortality and morbidity rates have sharply increased in recent years, especially in ages 45–59. The risk was noted to be 8.5 times higher in women of high socioeconomic strata eating meat daily compared with women of low socioeconomic strata who do not eat meat daily, when 142,857 women aged 40 years were followed for 10 years. A high positive correlation was found between per capita fat intake and adjusted death rates of breast cancer in different districts of Japan. It was estimated that the breast cancer death rate will rise to the U.S. level when Japanese dietary fat intake approaches present day U.S. levels. The close correlation with fat intake was noted to come mainly from the consumption of pork and animal fat. The ratio of recent increase in breast cancer death rates was also found to be under the combined influence of animal fat and AF2, a highly mutagenic food additive widely used in Japan from 1965 to 1975 and shown to produce mammary carcinoma in rats. A series of case-control studies reveals the higher risk of breast cancer with the increase in body size especially in postmenopausal women. The recent breast cancer increase could therefore be a reflection of the fact that women in Japan are becoming heavier, especially after age 30.
Article
Biliary excreted steroid hormones are metabolized by the intestinal flora. The metabolic pathways of deoxycorticosterone and progesterone, including the bacterial species involved, have been established. The pathways for other biliary steroids are unknown. Information on the biological activities of the metabolites is lacking, but methods for their investigation are now available. Evidence suggests that the formation of the metabolites is influenced by dietary habits, and that, in some cases, it may be controlled by suppression of the responsible bacteria.
Article
Polysaccharides with structures resembling components of dietary fiber were fermented by a number of species of anaerobic bacteria from the human colon. Some strains also fermented glycoprotein mucins. The strains that fermented the widest range of polysaccharide substrates were in the two genera Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium. Polysaccharide degrading enzymes from several Bacteroides species have been studied, and in most cases the enzyme activities were cell bound rather than extracellular. In all cases, the polysaccharide degrading enzymes were inducible rather than constitutive. Thus the metabolic activity of the flora could be altered considerably by the amount and type of fiber in the diet, even though the composition of the flora itself remained unchanged. The products of enzyme action included monosaccharides and oligosaccharides of varying chain lengths.
Article
Although potent antimicrobial agents may effect rapid and significant changes in fecal microflora, changes in diet or dietary supplements usually produce modest changes by comparison. It may be, however, that even such minor changes may result in significant changes in metabolic activity, particularly in terms of production of possible carcinogens or cocarcinogens. It is clear that significant changes may occur in metabolic activity without major qualitative or quantitative changes in the fecal microflora. Other research that might help explain the epidemiological observations of the association between diet and colon cancer would be studies of the flora at different levels of the gastrointestinal tract (particularly the cecum and small bowel), studies of the mucosa-associated flora at different levels, and long-term dietary studies.
Article
This study reports the internal structure of the Japanese dietary life on the basis of statistical analysis about the amount of consumption of major foods which are observed in households respectively. A new concept, "food consumption structure", is introduced through the matrix of correlation coefficient among major foods. In the dietary life, there is a synergistic or antagonistic relation in each combination of major foods. Multiple factor analysis is also calculated through the matrix and indicates grouping major foods into traditional, modern and intermediate categories. This information should be made available to improve the nutritional situation.
Article
Dietary fiber refers to all foods ingested by a monogastric animal that reach the large intestine essentially unchanged. For man, this process involves a wider variety of plants whose storage carbohydrates and cell walls are resistant to the digestive enzymes of the small intestine and its accessory organs. The new chemical methods available to solubilize and characterize these materials have by no means found their final form, but they do permit a general classification. The old term 'crude fiber', officially in use since 1887, measures only cellulose and lignin, and badly underestimates total dietary fiber. This term should be dropped now. Since all dietary fibers reach the cecum, the colon represents the digestive organ most intimately affected by the amounts and types of dietary fiber ingested. Its effect is best studied in omnivorous animals, with sacculated colons; pigs and baboons are both good. In some populations very large intakes of dietary fiber are associated with very high frequencies of sigmoid volvulus. Appendicitis, the disease thought most closely linked to the intake of low fiber diets, has been decreasing steadily in incidence in the USA and in Europe over the past two decades, for unclear reasons. Most epidemiologists today believe that colonic cancer is associated with high intakes of beef and of saturated fats rather than of low levels of dietary fiber, but the two features often coexist. In comparing the diet of one country to that of others, one is dealing with imprecise data; thus, although there seems little reason to doubt that large populations excreting stools greater than 250 g in daily bulk have less appendicitis, colonic polyps, diverticulosis, and cancer than is found in countries where the stool bulk is less than 150 g, within each country it has been difficult to establish that those who eat less fiber have more of the disorders in question.
Article
An almost purified antitumor polysaccharide fraction (SFPP) was obtained by fractional precipitation with ethanol from hot-water extract of Sargassum fulvellum. The fraction showed remarkable tumor-inhibiting effect against sarcoma-180 implanted subcutaneously in mice. The results of chemical and physical analyses suggested that the active substance may be either a sulphated peptidoglycuronoglycan or a sulphated glycuronoglycan.
Article
None dialyzable polysaccharide fraction (F-1) and dialyzable one (F-2) were isolated by separation through a Dia filter and precipitation with ethanol from Sargassum thunbergii. F-1 was highly effective against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, transplanted intraperitoneally into mice, but F-2 was almost ineffective. The antitumor active substances were suggested to be acid polysaccharides.
Article
The records of the two main referral centres for the western and central Arctic were reviewed for Eskimo patients with cancer diagnosed between 1949 and 1974 inclusive. To these were added the records for the past 6 years of patients from the eastern Arctic, giving the toatal of 180 histologically proved cases of malignant disease. Athe data were analysed for prevalence, relative frequency, geographic distribution and changes with time of the various neoplasms. Salivary gland and renal neoplasms have in recent years been displaced by cancer of the lung and uterine cervix as the most common malignant tumours in Canadian Eskimos. The prevalence of lung cancer in Eskimo women, particularly of the central Artic, is striking. Cancer of the nasopharynx kept the same relative position during early and late years of the survey period. Breast cancer is still uncommon in Eskimos. Lactation rather than gestation history appeared to be an important protective factor. Cases of cervical cancer outnumbered those of breast cancer by 18 to 4, in sharp contrast to the relative proportions of these tumours in all Canadian women.
Article
The geographical variations in the incidence of breast cancer seem to be correlated with variation in the fat content of the diet. There is also strong evidence for a direct role for œstrogens in the ætiology of breast cancer. We have already postulated that gut bacteria can produce œstrogens from the biliary steroids present in the colon. Since the amount of biliary steroid found in fæces is correlated with the amount of fat in the diet, this could explain the relation between the amount of dietary fat and the incidence of breast cancer. Gut bacteria have been shown to be able to produce steroidal oestrogens from bile-acids and cholesterol derivatives in vitro.
Article
The toxicity and carcinogenicity of 6 food additives, safrole; alginic acid; polyoxyethylene-(20)-sorbitan monostearate (Tween® 60); 6-ethoxy-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline (Santoquin®); 1,3,5-trimethyl-2,4,6-tris-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)benzene (Ionox® 330); 2,4-bis-(4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenoxy)-6-(n-octylthio)-1,3,5-triazine (RA-858) were tested by 4 consecutive subcutaneous injections in infant Swiss albino mice, aged 1, 7, 14, and 21 days. Doses of safrole, alginic acid, Tween 60, or Santoquin in excess of 1 mg on day 1 of life were acutely toxic; Ionox and RA-858 were nontoxic at doses of 10 mg. Surviving mice were sacrificed at 1 year. After a total dosage of 6.6 mg safrole, a low incidence of multiple pulmonary adenomas, 6%, and pulmonary adenocarcinomas, 10%, and a high incidence of hepatomas, 58%, developed in 31 male mice alive at weaning, in contrast with a zero incidence of multiple pulmonary adenomas and pulmonary adenocarcinomas, and a 5–6% incidence of hepatomas in uninjected and solvent-injected controls, based, respectively, on 36 and 78 males alive at weaning. In groups tested with alginic acid and RA-858, tumor incidences fell within control ranges; carcinogenicity data for Santoquin and Ionox were equivocal. These results confirm the practical utility of neonates for carcinogenicity testing in that remote tumors develop rapidly following restricted parenteral administration of relatively small quantites of test materials.
Article
In searching for tumor inhibiting substances from natural sources, the authors became interested in the fact that some seaweeds such as Sargassum, Laminaria and other have, from old times, been used as a decoction for cancer in Chinese herb medicine. Until now, a polysaccharide derived from Laminaria cloustoni and some fractions of Sargassum tortile and of Sargassum hemiphyllum ('Yoremoku' and 'Isomoku' in Japanese respectively) have been shown to inhibit moderately the growth of transplanted tumors. This study was initiated to seek for more effective substances from some other species of such common seaweeds. Sargassum fulvellum ('Hondawara') was collected from a foreshore of the Inland Sea of Japan, and three species of Laminariae such as Laminaria angustata, Laminaria angustata var. longissima and Laminaria japonica 'Mitsuishihonbu', 'Nagakonbu' and 'Makonbu' respectively) were commercially obtained in Tokyo. The dried seaweed fronds were extracted with boiling water for 4 hr. Then extracts were dialyzed through Visking tube (size 24/32) against deionized water for 2 or 3 days until chloride test became negative. Each non dialyzable solution was evaporated, then lyophilized. Antitumor assay was made by the conventional method of observing the effect on the growth of subcutaneously implanted sarcoma 180 solid tumor in mice for 5 wk. Extract of Sargassum fulvellum was injected intraperitoneally in doses of 100 mg/kg daily for 10 days starting after the implantation. However, those of Laminariae were injected in doses of 100 mg/kg every other day for 10 days because of their toxicity. All the mice were sacrificed at the end of 5 weeks after tumor implantation, and tumors were extirpated and weighed to determine the inhibition ratio. Three of the four samples tested were found to be highly effective. When extracts of Sargassum fulvellum, Laminaria angustata and Laminaria angustata var. longissima were given, inhibition ratios showed 89.4%, 94.8% and 92.3% respectively, and the tumor underwent complete regression in more than half of the mice of each treated group. Besides this experiment antitumor activity on leukemia P 388 of the three samples was tested using mice of CDF1 strain. Although the activity was not so high as that on sarcoma 180 tumor, promising data were obtained. Because of the certain advantages of Sargassum fulvellum, further study will first be concentrated on fractionation and purification of the polysaccharide with antitumor activities from this plant.
Article
The influence of feeding spinach or wakame on the turnover of cholesterol was studied in rats with a high plasma cholesterol level. The half-lives of cholesterol were estimated by measuring the faecal excretion of [3H] cholesterol injected intraperitoneally, and were found to be 28.2, 15.2 and 20.5 days, respectively, for rats fed the control sucrose diet, that supplemented with 5% spinach powder and that supplemented with 5% wakame powder. It is suggested from the analysis of faecal cholesterol metabolites that spinach stimulated the intestinal microflora to form more coprostanol from cholesterol, while wakame suppressed the reabsorption of cholesterol in the enterohepatic circulation.
Article
The effect of dietary wheat bran, alfalfa, pectin and un- degraded carrageenan at a level of 15% on the composition of fecal bile acids and neutral sterols and on the plasma and liver cholesterol levels was studied in Fischer female rats fed a semi-purified diet based on soybean protein, cornstarch, dextrose and corn oil. The diets differed not only in type of fiber but also in amount of fiber. Plasma cholesterol levels were reduced in rats fed pectin or carrageenan diet but were not altered by the addition of wheat bran or alfalfa to the diet. Liver cholesterol levels were compara ble in all groups. Diets containing wheat bran, alfalfa and carrageenan caused a significant increase in feces ./eight. The concentration (mg/g dry feces) of fecal bile acids, particularly hyodeoxycholic acid, /8-muricholic acid, deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, and of neutral sterols, mainly coprostanol, was lower in rats fed wheat bran compared to those fed a con trol diet, but the daily output of these constituents was the same in both groups. Alfalfa had no effect on the concentration of fecal bile acids, but the daily excretion of deoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid and 12-ketolitho- cholic acid was increased compared to the control diet. Addition of pectin to the diet increased the concentration and daily output of fecal neutral sterols and bile acids compared to that of control diet. Carrageenan mark edly increased the concentration and daily output of fecal cholesterol, deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, as well as the daily output of total bile acids. It is concluded that the plasma cholesterol-lowering effect and fecal bile acid and neutral sterol excretion vary with type and amount of fiber. J. Nutr. 110: 1247-1254, 1980.
Article
Nutrition is related to the development of cancer in three ways: (1) food additives or contaminants may act as carcinogens, cocarcinogens, or both; (2) nutrient deficiencies may lead to biochemical alterations that promote neoplastic processes; and (3) changes in the intake of selected macronutrients may produce metabolic and biochemical abnormalities, either directly or indirectly, which increase the risk for cancer. Specific carcinogens play a minor role as initiators in the relationship between nutrition and the development of cancer. This chapter covers six types of cancer: large bowel cancer, colon carcinogenesis, stomach cancer, cancer of the upper alimentary and respiratory tract, cancer of the pancreas, and breast cancer. In four of these—breast, large bowel, stomach, and head and neck—the epidemiologic evidence is overwhelming that nutritional factors have a major etiological role. Dietary factors are also implicated in the etiologies of the two remaining types of cancer—pancreas and prostate—but the epidemiologic evidence is not overwhelming. The chapter also presents an evaluation of the status of the relationship between nutrition and cancer in man, discusses the use of animal models to determine if the etiological factors established for man can be modified in an experimental setting, and makes recommendations for additional research and possible preventive measures.
Article
The role of intestinal bacterial flora in display of the effect of degraded carrageenan was investigated by feeding 9 germfree and 12 conventional female Wistar rats on diet containing 10% carrageenan for 63 days. Animals were sacrificed 7, 20, 35, and 63 days after the start of feeding and histological changes induced by carrageenan were studied. The germfree rats showed mucosal lesions, such as macrophage aggregates, erosion, and squamous metaplasia of the large intestine, and these lesions were more extensive than those in the conventional rats. Therefore, it was concluded that bacterial flora are not essential for display of the biological effects of degraded carrageenan.
Article
BALB/c mice were immunized with grass pollen extract (GPE), GPE conjugated to sodium alginate (Conjuvac) or GPE absorbed to aluminium hydroxide gel (alum). Conjuvac was a more potent immunogen than the other two preparations of GPE when anti-GPE IgG antibody levels were compared. In contrast, the highest IgE antibody titres in the Conjuvac treated mice, were some sixteen-fold lower than the highest titres in the mice immunized with GPE in alum. The suppressive effects of Conjuvac on IgE antibody titres were also studied. Mice were immunized with 1 microgram dinitrophenyl (DNP)-GPE in alum and the anti-DNP and anti-GPE IgE antibody titres determined. After 4 and 5 weeks, the mice were injected with GPE or Conjuvac. The Conjuvac and the GPE failed to reduce the ongoing primary anti-GPE IgE responses but both suppressed the secondary responses by up to eight-fold. The suppression was not dose-related however. The ongoing primary and secondary anti-DNP IgE titres were suppressed in a dose-related manner by up to sixty-four fold by Conjuvac but GPE treatment was much less suppressive. We went on to investigate the suppressive properties of DNR-alginate (DNP-alg) conjugates. In these experiments mice were immunized with 1 microgram DNP-ovalbumin (DNP-OA) mixed with alum. After 4 and 5 weeks, the mice were injected with a dose of 6--600 micrograms DNP-alg with an average hapten density of 2 or 10 per alginate molecule. After a further 8 weeks a second injection of 1 microgram DNP-OA was given. All dose levels of both DNP-alg conjugates suppressed the continuing primary as well as the secondary anti-DNP IgE responses. It is concluded that alginate has properties similar to those of known T-cell adjuvants and that Conjuvac may prove useful in the immunotherapy of atopic allergy.
Article
The BJC is owned by Cancer Research UK, a charity dedicated to understanding the causes, prevention and treatment of cancer and to making sure that the best new treatments reach patients in the clinic as quickly as possible. The journal reflects these aims. It was founded more than fifty years ago and, from the start, its far-sighted mission was to encourage communication of the very best cancer research from laboratories and clinics in all countries. The breadth of its coverage, its editorial independence and it consistent high standards, have made BJC one of the world's premier general cancer journals. Its increasing popularity is reflected by a steadily rising impact factor.
Article
The data indicate that these algin products are free from any deleterious substances which adversely affect health when fed at levels which are at least 10 times higher than when used in foods or pharmaceutical products. The difficulties experienced with feeding the higher levels seem to be due, at least in greater part, to the physical texture imparted to the diets fed. This should not be a problem in the commercial use of the product. The data indicate that the three algin products which were tested are wholesome.
The Effects of Dietary Sargussum natans and Ascophyllum nodosum on Salmonella gullinaria In-fection in Chicks
  • Kim
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Kim, CS: "The Effects of Dietary Sargussum natans and Ascophyllum nodosum on Salmonella gullinaria In-fection in Chicks." Proceedings of the Seventh International Seaweed Symposium. New York: Wiley and Sons, 1972, pp. 558-561.
Current Concepts: Dietary Fiber and Human Health
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Mendelof, AI: "Current Concepts: Dietary Fiber and Human Health." N Engl J Med 297, 811-814, 1977.
D: The Role of Algae and Plankton in Medicine
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Schwimmer, M, and Schwimmer, D: The Role of Algae and Plankton in Medicine. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1955.
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Fortner, HJ: The Limit Eater. Hawaii: University of Hawaii, 1978.
EH: An Ethnobotanical Study of Some Edible Hawaiian Seaweeds. Hawaii: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden
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Abbott, IA, and Williamson, EH: An Ethnobotanical Study of Some Edible Hawaiian Seaweeds. Hawaii: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, 1974.
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Nisizawa, K: "Pharmaceutical Studies on Marine Algae in Japan." In Hoppe, HA, Levring, T, and Tanaka, Y (eds): Marine Algae in Pharmaceutical Science. New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1979. 32. Baslow, MH: Marine Pharmacology. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co., 1969.
Colon Cancer Connection: Beef Bran, Bile and Bacteria
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Goldin, G, and Gorbach, SL: "Colon Cancer Connection: Beef Bran, Bile and Bacteria." Viewpt Dig Dis 10(3), 1978.