Article

Transient involvement of signal recognition particle and its receptor in the microsomal membrane prior to protein translocation

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Abstract

We have shown that neither the signal recognition particle (SRP) nor the SRP receptor is directly involved in the maintenance of a ribosome-membrane junction for the translocation of secretory proteins. We found that the purified SRP receptor releases the signal-sequence-induced and SRP-mediated elongation arrest of synthesis by displacing SRP from the ribosome. This SRP displacement was not accompanied by binding of the SRP receptor to the ribosome. Using intact microsomal membranes as a source of the SRP receptor, we found that both SRP displacement and binding of the elongation-arrested ribosome to the membrane can occur at 0 degrees C, by a mechanism that is independent of chain elongation.

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... Subsequent to signal sequence recognition in the cytosol, the resulting complex is targeted to the cytoplasmic face of the ER membrane via the interaction of SRP with its membrane bound receptor (Gilmore et al., 1982a,b;Meyer et al., 1982). Upon binding to the SRP receptor (SR), SRP dissociates from both the signal se-quence and the ribosome, allowing the engagement of the ribosome with the translocon, a protein apparatus in the membrane that forms a pore through which the nascent polypeptide moves across the lipid bilayer (Gilmore and Blobel, 1983;Simon and Blobel, 1992;Gtrlich and Rapoport, 1993;Crowley et al., 1994). Thus, SRP and SR are the "initiation factors" of protein translocation mediating both targeting and the formation of the ribosome/translocon junction. ...
... Preparation of rough microsomal membranes, their salt extraction and purification of SRP and SRP receptor were performed as described previously (Gilmore and Blobel, 1983;Walter and Blobel, 1983a,b;Tajima et al., 1986). Immunoblotting was performed using t25I-labeled secondary antibodies as previously described (Tajima et al., 1986). ...
... SRP-Sepharose purified SR (Gilmore and Blobel, 1983;Tajima ct al., 1986) was mixed at 20 nM with 0.3 ~M ot-[a2P]-iabeled GTP at 25"C in 50 mM TEA, pH 7.5, 150 raM KOAc, 5 mM Mg(OAc)2, 1 mM DTT, and 0.5 % Nikkol. Some reactions were supplemented with unlabeled nucleotide to compete for binding with the radiolabeled substrate. ...
Article
The signal recognition particle receptor (SR) is required for the cotranslational targeting of both secretory and membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. During targeting, the SR interacts with the signal recognition particle (SRP) which is bound to the signal sequence of the nascent protein chain. This interaction catalyzes the GTP-dependent transfer of the nascent chain from SRP to the protein translocation apparatus in the ER membrane. The SR is a heterodimeric protein comprised of a 69-kD subunit (SR alpha) and a 30-kD subunit (SR beta) which are associated with the ER membrane in an unknown manner. SR alpha and the 54-kD subunits of SRP (SRP54) each contain related GTPase domains which are required for SR and SRP function. Molecular cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding SR beta revealed that SR beta is a transmembrane protein and, like SR alpha and SRP54, is a member of the GTPase superfamily. Although SR beta defines its own GTPase subfamily, it is distantly related to ARF and Sar1. Using UV cross-linking, we confirm that SR beta binds GTP specifically. Proteolytic digestion experiments show that SR alpha is required for the interaction of SRP with SR. SR alpha appears to be peripherally associated with the ER membrane, and we suggest that SR beta, as an integral membrane protein, mediates the membrane association of SR alpha. The discovery of its guanine nucleotide-binding domain, however, makes it likely that its role is more complex than that of a passive anchor for SR alpha. These findings suggest that a cascade of three directly interacting GTPases functions during protein targeting to the ER membrane.
... In so doing, ribosomes synthesizing proteins destined for transport across the ER are selected for recognition by the SRP receptor (12) (or docking protein [20]). Displacement of SRP from the ribosome occurs upon interaction of the SRP-ribosome complex with the SRP receptor (11) in a reaction that is tightly coupled to the GTPdependent insertion of the signal sequence into the membrane (6). Events which mediate the subsequent transport of the polypeptide across the membrane are less well defined. ...
... Events which mediate the subsequent transport of the polypeptide across the membrane are less well defined. Partially translocated nascent secretory polypeptides cannot be extracted from the microsomal membrane by high salt solutions or EDTA, but are extracted by protein denaturants (11), suggesting that both nascent chain attachment to the membrane and transport of the polypeptide across the bilayer may be mediated by integral membrane proteins. Integral membrane proteins of 35 (38) and 42 kD (26) have been detected by photoatiinity labeling with nascent secretory chains 1. Abbreviations used in this paper: K-RM, salt-extracted microsomal membranes; SRP, signal recognition particle. ...
... We believe that the protease insensitivity of these nascent chains reflects the assembly of a specific intermediate in the protein translocation process. Because SRP is not bound to the nascent polypeptide after insertion of the signal sequence into the membrane (11,38), protection of the detergent-solubilized nascent chains must be mediated by components of the translocation apparatus that are in contact with the nascent chain during transport across the bilayer. The interaction of nascent chains with the membrane-bound signal sequence receptors (26,38) may account both for the initial close juxtaposition of the ribosome with the membrane surface and the observed protection of the nascent chain from protease digestion after detergent solubilization of the membrane. ...
Article
We have used proteinase K as a probe to detect cytoplasmically and luminally exposed segments of nascent polypeptides undergoing transport across mammalian microsomal membranes. A series of translocation intermediates consisting of discrete-sized nascent chains was prepared by including microsomal membranes in cell-free translations of mRNAs lacking termination codons. The truncated mRNAs were derived from preprolactin and the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus and encoded nascent chains ranging between 64 and 200 amino acid residues long. Partially translocated nascent chains of 100 amino acid residues or less were insensitive to protease digestion from the external surface of the membrane while longer nascent chains were susceptible to digestion by externally added protease. We conclude that the increased protease sensitivity of larger nascent chains is due to the exposure of a segment of the nascent polypeptide on the cytoplasmic face of the membrane. In contrast, low molecular weight nascent chains were remarkably resistant to protease digestion even after detergent solubilization of the membrane. The protease resistant behaviour of detergent solubilized nascent chains could be abolished by release of the polypeptide from the ribosome or by the addition of protein denaturants. We propose that the protease resistance of partially translocated nascent chains can be ascribed to components of the translocation apparatus that remain bound to the nascent chain after detergent solubilization of the membrane.
... This recognition causes high affinity binding of SRP to the ribosome (21) and an arrest of polypeptide chain elongation (20). The interaction of SRP with its receptor (docking protein) (12,6) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane then causes SRP displacement and a concomitant release of the elongation arrest (7). The actual process of protein translocation across the membrane appears to proceed without the need of SRP or its receptor (7), but details are unclear as yet. ...
... The interaction of SRP with its receptor (docking protein) (12,6) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane then causes SRP displacement and a concomitant release of the elongation arrest (7). The actual process of protein translocation across the membrane appears to proceed without the need of SRP or its receptor (7), but details are unclear as yet. ...
... The displacement of the signal sequence from SRP by the SRP receptor provides further evidence for the transient nature of the signal sequence-SRP interaction and for the formarion of the translocation complex in the absence of chain elongation (7). It may also be assumed that a drastic conformational change in the SRP occurs upon docking. ...
Article
We have studied the interaction between the signal sequence of nascent preprolactin and the signal recognition particle (SRP) during the initial events in protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. A new method of affinity labeling was used, whereby lysine residues, carrying the photoreactive group 4-(3-trifluoromethyldiazirino) benzoic acid in their side chains, are incorporated into a protein by means of modified lysyl-tRNA, and cross-linking to the interacting component is induced by irradiation. SRP interacts through its Mr 54,000 polypeptide component with the signal sequences of nascent preprolactin chains containing about 70 residues, and with decreasing affinity with longer chains as well; it causes inhibition of elongation. Binding of SRP is reversible and requires the nascent chain to be bound to a functional ribosome. SRP cross-linked to the signal sequence still inhibits elongation but does not prevent it completely. We conclude that SRP does not block the exit site of the polypeptide chain on the ribosome. The SRP receptor of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane displaces the signal sequence from SRP and, even if SRP is cross-linked, releases elongation arrest.
... To this day, fundamental questions regarding the mechanism(s) of ribosome association and dissociation from the ER remain largely unanswered. What is known, and for which there is robust experimental support (Figure 1), is that the signal recognition particle (SRP) pathway can direct free ribosomes engaged in the translation of secretory protein-encoding messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) to the ER (Blobel, 2000;Blobel and Dobberstein, 1975;Gilmore and Blobel, 1983;Lingappa and Blobel, 1980;Walter et al., 1981;Walter and Blobel, 1981a,b;Walter and Johnson, 1994). These insights derive from in vitro experimental systems where a cell-free lysate (e.g. ...
... thereby establish the (a) molecular mechanism for the trafficking of ribosomes from the cytosol to the ER (Blobel, 2000;Blobel and Dobberstein, 1975;Gilmore and Blobel, 1983;Walter et al., 1981;Walter and Blobel, 1981a,b;Walter and Johnson, 1994). With the identification of SRP pathway function in ribosome association with the ER, it was widely accepted that ribosome dissociation likely accompanied translation termination, depicted in Figure 1. ...
Chapter
Proteome expression is the integrated output of gene transcription, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) stability, mRNA translation and protein stability, and varies between cells, tissues and organs. Proteome expression is dynamic and can be readily modified in response to stress, cell cycle progression, pathogenic infection and malignant transformation. With recent advances in single molecule optical imaging and high‐resolution genomic analyses, increased attention has turned to the spatiotemporal regulation of proteome expression at the subcellular level. With this interest has come a reinvestigation of a fundamental question in cell biology – the subcellular organisation of mRNA transcriptome expression. Although it is widely accepted that eukaryotic cells partition proteome expression, with soluble proteins being synthesised on cytoplasmic ribosomes and secretory/integral membrane proteins on endoplasmic reticulum (ER)‐bound ribosomes, recent data indicate a far broader role for the ER in proteome expression. Key Concepts • Ribosomes, the cellular machines that perform protein synthesis, are present in the two primary protein synthesis compartments of the eukaryotic cell, the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). • mRNAs are largely partitioned between the cytosol and the ER on the basis of their encoded gene product, with cytosolic protein‐encoding mRNAs being translated by cytoplasmic ribosomes and secretory/membrane protein‐encoding mRNAs undergoing translation on ER‐bound ribosomes. • The mechanisms governing mRNA and ribosome partitioning between the cytosol and ER compartments are largely unknown. • Recent studies have revealed that ER‐bound ribosomes are broadly engaged in the translation of the mRNA transcriptome. • A role for the ER in the expression of the cellular proteome can now be considered.
... with the SRP receptor causes SRP displacement from the ribosome with the concomitant release of the elongation arrest (13), thereby allowing the initiation of nascent chain transport across the membrane bilayer. In addition to the mechanism discussed above, a limited number of membrane proteins including cytochrome b5 and M13 preprocoat protein have been shown to posttranslationally insert into microsomal membranes in an SRP and SRP-receptor independent manner (2,53). ...
... Canine pancreas rough microsomns (RM), salt-washed microsomes (K-RM), and SRP were extracted and purified as described previously (13,49). The unit definition of these reagents are those defined previously (49). ...
Article
The M2 protein of influenza A virus is a small integral membrane protein of 97 residues that is expressed on the surface of virus-infected cells. M2 has an unusual structure as it lacks a cleavable signal sequence yet contains an ectoplasmic amino-terminal domain of 23 residues, a 19 residue hydrophobic transmembrane spanning segment, and a cytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal domain of 55 residues. Oligonucleotide-mediated deletion mutagenesis was used to construct a series of M2 mutants lacking portions of the hydrophobic segment. Membrane integration of the M2 protein was examined by in vitro translation of synthetic mRNA transcripts prepared using bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. After membrane integration, M2 was resistant to alkaline extraction and was converted to an Mr approximately equal to 7,000 membrane-protected fragment after digestion with trypsin. In vitro integration of M2 requires the cotranslational presence of the signal recognition particle. Deletion of as few as two residues from the hydrophobic segment of M2 markedly decreases the efficiency of membrane integration, whereas deletion of six residues completely eliminates integration. M2 proteins containing deletions that eliminate stable membrane anchoring are apparently not recognized by signal recognition particles, as these polypeptides remain sensitive to protease digestion, indicating that in addition they do not have a functional signal sequence. These data thus indicate that the signal sequence that initiates membrane integration of M2 resides within the transmembrane spanning segment of the polypeptide.
... Targeting of the ribosome/nascent-chain/SRP complex to the translocon occurs via an initial interaction between SRP and the ER-localized SRP receptor (SR) (Figure 7; Targeting) [123,247] encoded by SRP101 and SRP102 in yeast [271]. This interaction causes SRP displacement from the signal peptide and a concomitant release of the elongation arrest [121]. The ribosome-SR complex then transfers the nascent chain to Sec61 and translation resumes (Figure 7; Transfer and Recognition) [440]. ...
... Interaction of Sec61 with Sec71 was detected when using SDAD (Figure 2 USB-stick "Dissertation Supp"-for 3D visualization). As can also be seen in Figure 3.1, both the Sec71 TMD and a cytosolic loop (around amino acid [115][116][117][118][119][120][121][122][123][124][125][126][127][128][129][130] are quite close to the TMD4 and the N-terminus (respectively) of Sec61. were removed for clarity. ...
... One approach used fractionation and reconstitution of translocation activity to identify critical components. This approach led to the discovery of signal recognition particle (SRP) ~ and the SRP receptor and to elucidation of the phenomenon of elongation arrest (4,5,12,13,18,19,22,23,25). A second approach involves the use of molecular genetic techniques to prepare plasmids encoding altered proteins which contain domains that direct the translocation process (i.e., signal and stop-transfer sequences) placed in an unusual location. ...
Article
We have studied the translocation of a normally cytoplasmic protein domain across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum in cell-free systems and in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Coding regions for the normally cytoplasmic protein globin were engineered in frame either 3' or 5' to the coding region for the signal sequence of either Escherichia coli b-lactamase or bovine preprolactin, respectively, in SP6 expression plasmids. RNA transcribed from these plasmids was microinjected into oocytes as well as translated in cell-free systems. We demonstrate that both in vivo and in vitro, a previously amino-terminal signal sequence can direct translocation of domains engineered to either side. Moreover, the domain preceding the signal sequence can be as large as that which follows it. While, in general, cell-free systems were found to faithfully reflect translocation events in vivo, our results suggest that a mechanism for clearance of signal peptides after cleavage is present in intact cells that is not reconstituted in cell-free systems.
... During this process, binding of the ribosome to specific receptors in the ER membrane also takes place and conditions are established that in some way enable insertion of the nascent chain into the membrane and translocation to begin. The SRP and its receptor, however, appear to only function during the initial stages of the insertion process since they are present in less than stoichiometric amounts with respect to the number of ribo-somes engaged in translocation (Walter and Blobel, 1980;Gilmore and Blobel, 1983;Gilmore et al., 1982). ...
Article
Ribophorins I and II are two transmembrane glycoproteins that are characteristic of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and are thought to be part of the apparatus that affects the co-translational translocation of polypeptides synthesized on membrane-bound polysomes. A ribophorin I cDNA clone containing a 0.6-kb insert was isolated from a rat liver lambda gtll cDNA library by immunoscreening with specific antibodies. This cDNA was used to isolate a clone (2.3 kb) from a rat brain lambda gtll cDNA library that contains the entire ribophorin I coding sequence. SP6 RNA transcripts of the insert in this clone directed the in vitro synthesis of a polypeptide of the expected size that was immunoprecipitated with anti-ribophorin I antibodies. When synthesized in the presence of microsomes, this polypeptide, like the translation product of the natural ribophorin I mRNA, underwent membrane insertion, signal cleavage, and co-translational glycosylation. The complete amino acid sequence of the polypeptide encoded in the cDNA insert was derived from the nucleotide sequence and found to contain a segment that corresponds to a partial amino terminal sequence of ribophorin I that was obtained by Edman degradation. This confirmed the identity of the cDNA clone and established that ribophorin I contains 583 amino acids and is synthesized with a cleavable amino terminal insertion signal of 22 residues. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of ribophorin I suggested that the polypeptide has a simple transmembrane disposition with a rather hydrophilic carboxy terminal segment of 150 amino acids exposed on the cytoplasmic face of the membrane, and a luminal domain of 414 amino acids containing three potential N-glycosylation sites. Hybridization measurements using the cloned cDNA as a probe showed that ribophorin I mRNA levels increase fourfold 15 h after partial hepatectomy, in confirmation of measurements made by in vitro translation of liver mRNA. Southern blot analysis of rat genomic DNA suggests that there is a single copy of the ribophorin I gene in the haploid rat genome.
... Furthermore, mp30 was eluted from SRP-Sepharose under the same conditions used to elute SRP receptor by increasing the magnesium concentration in the buffer from 5 to 25 mM, while the monovalent cation concentration was adjusted to keep the ionic strength constant. These conditions, originally described by Gilmore et al. (11), appear to be subtle, possibly affecting conformational changes in SRP, and are unlikely to cause elution if binding were due to nonspecific ionic interactions. Nevertheless, we have presently no means to distinguish whether the binding affinity reflects a physiologically meaningful interaction or is merely fortuitous. ...
Article
Signal recognition particle (SRP) and SRP receptor are known to be essential components of the cellular machinery that targets nascent secretory proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. Here we report that the SRP receptor contains, in addition to the previously identified and sequenced 69-kD polypeptide (alpha-subunit, SR alpha), a 30-kD beta-subunit (SR beta). When SRP receptor was purified by SRP-Sepharose affinity chromatography, we observed the co-purification of two other ER membrane proteins. Both proteins are approximately 30 kD in size and are immunologically distinct from each other, as well as from SR alpha and SRP proteins. One of the 30-kD proteins (SR beta) forms a tight complex with SR alpha in detergent solution that is stable to high salt and can be immunoprecipitated with antibodies to either SR alpha or SR beta. Both subunits are present in the ER membrane in equimolar amounts and co-fractionate in constant stoichiometry when rough and smooth liver microsomes are separated on sucrose gradients. We therefore conclude that SR beta is an integral component of SRP receptor. The presence of SR beta was previously masked by proteolytic breakdown products of SR alpha observed by others and by the presence of another 30-kD ER membrane protein (mp30) which co-purifies with SR alpha. Mp30 binds to SRP-Sepharose directly and is present in the ER membrane in several-fold molar excess of SR alpha and SR beta. The affinity of mp30 for SRP suggests that it may serve a yet unknown function in protein translocation.
... In vitro studies suggest that, in mammalian cells, the newly synthesized signal sequence functions to bind the SRP (31). This association apparently inhibits the continued synthesis of the secretory protein until the ribosome encounters the endoplasmic reticulum membrane (9,22). Presumably, the interaction of the signal sequence with the SRP acts to couple the secretion and translation of secretory proteins, preventing their intracytoplasmic accumulation (22). ...
Article
The function of the stable 6S RNA of Escherichia coli is not known. Recently, it was proposed that the 6S RNA is a component of a bacterial signal recognition particle required for protein secretion. To test this proposal, we isolated a mutant that lacks the 6S RNA. Studies of the mutant show that the 6S RNA is not essential for growth or for protein secretion. The gene for the 6S RNA (ssr) maps near serA at 63 min on the E. coli genetic map.
... Concurrently, translation of the nascent polypeptide is inhibited by the translation arrest domain of SRP (24,29,30). The SRP-nascent chainribosome complex is then targeted to the RER membrane via the interaction between the translocation promotion domain of SRP (24) and the SRP receptor (docking protein) on the RER membrane (7,8,9,20). More recently, GTP-dependent binding of the nascent chain to membranes has been demonstrated as a step preceding translocation (3) that most likely represents binding of SRP to its receptor and the concurrent release of the nascent chain from SRP (4). ...
... There is substantial experimental evidence in support of an essential function for both SR and SSR in protein translocation. SR was initially identified as a membrane-bound receptor for SRP and it has been clearly demonstrated that the cytoplasmic domain of the a subunit is required for release of SRP from the ribosome/nascent chain complex, a prerequisite for translocation (Gilmore et al., 1982a,b ;Gilmore and Blobel, 1983 ;Connolly and Gilmore, 1989) . SSR was iden-tified in a series of cross-linking experiments as a protein residing in the immediate vicinity of the signal sequence of the nascent chain during the initial, SRP-dependent targeting event (Wiedmann et al., 1987). ...
Article
Full-text available
Detergent extracts of canine pancreas rough microsomal membranes were depleted of either the signal recognition particle receptor (SR), which mediates the signal recognition particle (SRP)-dependent targeting of the ribosome/nascent chain complex to the membrane, or the signal sequence receptor (SSR), which has been proposed to function as a membrane bound receptor for the newly targeted nascent chain and/or as a component of a multi-protein translocation complex responsible for transfer of the nascent chain across the membrane. Depletion of the two components was performed by chromatography of detergent extracts on immunoaffinity supports. Detergent extracts lacking either SR or SSR were reconstituted and assayed for activity with respect to SR dependent elongation arrest release, nascent chain targeting, ribosome binding, secretory precursor translocation, and membrane protein integration. Depletion of SR resulted in the loss of elongation arrest release activity, nascent chain targeting, secretory protein translocation, and membrane protein integration, although ribosome binding was unaffected. Full activity was restored by addition of immunoaffinity purified SR before reconstitution of the detergent extract. Surprisingly, depletion of SSR was without effect on any of the assayed activities, indicating that SSR is either not required for translocation or is one of a family of functionally redundant components.
... SRP from the signal sequence (Gilmore and Blobel, 1983), translocation ofthe polypeptide across the membrane is proposed to occur through a proteinaceous transport site that is in proximity to at least three different integral membrane proteins that have been identified by cross-linking to nascent polypeptides (Wiedmann et al ., 1987; Krieg et al ., 1989; High et al ., 1991; Kellaris et al., 1991). Translocation of secretory proteins across and integration of membrane proteins into the RER requires GTP in a process that is distinct from elongation of the nascent polypeptide (Connolly and Gilmore, 1986; Hoffman and Gilmore, 1988; Wilson et al ., 1988) . ...
Article
The signal recognition particle (SRP)-mediated translocation of proteins across the RER is a GTP dependent process. Analysis of the primary amino acid sequence of one protein subunit of SRP (SRP54), as well as the alpha subunit of the SRP receptor (SR alpha), has indicated that these proteins contain predicted GTP binding sites. Several point mutations confined to the GTP binding consensus elements of SR alpha were constructed by site specific mutagenesis to define a role for the GTP binding site in SR alpha during protein translocation. The SR alpha mutants were analyzed using an in vitro system wherein SR alpha-deficient microsomal membranes were repopulated with SR alpha by in vitro translation of wild-type or mutant mRNA transcripts. SRP receptors containing SR alpha point mutants were analyzed for their ability to function in protein translocation and to form guanylyl-5'-imidodiphosphate (Gpp[NH]p) stabilized complexes with the SRP. Mutations in SR alpha produced SRP receptors that were either impaired or inactive in protein translocation. These SRP receptors were likewise unable to form Gpp(NH)p stabilized complexes with the SRP. One SR alpha point mutant, Thr 588 to Asn 588, required 50- to 100-fold higher concentrations of GTP relative to the wild-type SR alpha to function in protein translocation. This mutant has provided information on the reaction step in protein translocation that involves the GTP binding site in the alpha subunit of the SRP receptor.
... The SR P-nascent chain-ribosom e-m RN A com plex is targeted specifically to the RER membrane by recognition of the SRPR. This is immediately followed by release of SRP which is recycled back to the cytosolic free pool (Gilmore and Blobel, 1983) and chain growth then continues at the normal rate. Only the mRNA of proteins which cross the RER membrane (e.g. ...
Thesis
The aim of this work was to transfect genetic material encoding the peptide, human calcitonin (hCT) into Caco-2 cells (an intestinal epithelial cell model, Hidalgo et aL, 1989) and to examine secretion, in particular from the basolateral surface. It was expected that information on the intracellular sorting of hCT by the Caco-2 cell model would give valuable insight into peptide processing by GI epithelial cells and have implications for the oral delivery of the peptide. cDNA encoding hCT and a small genomic fragment of the hCT gene, CALC-I were successfully transfected into Caco-2 cells. This was confirmed by resistance of transfected cells to G418, a neomycin analogue. The neomycin gene was a marker for the plasmids with which the cells were transfected, G418 being found to be cytotoxic to parent Caco-2 cells within 14 days. All mammalian expression constructs were also transfected into COS cells. Electroporation of COS cells was validated by transfection of the cells with a plasmid encoding Esherichia coli β-galactosidase. hCT secretion could not be detected in transfected COS cells or Caco-2 cells by immunoprecipitation. However, rat calcitonin (rCT) secretion from the rat medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line, rMTC 6-23 could not be detected by immunoprecipitation using the same method. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) of cell medium and cell lysates subjected to concentration on a Sep-Pak Cig cartridge confirmed secretion of rCT by 6-23 cells. This was found to be 0.32 ± 0.03 ng rCT.mg-1 total cellular protein medium and 0.10 ± 0.01 ng rCT.mg-1 total cell protein for cell lysates. No detectable hCT was found in or secreted from transfected Caco-2 or COS cells. Results are discussed in relation to calcitonin gene expression and suggestions are made as to how one might proceed with the project by examination of gene transcription and subsequent expression of hCT or its precursors in Caco-2 cells.
... SRP and SRP receptor act catalytically in this process; they are not part of the ribosome-membrane junction that mediates the transfer of the protein chain across the lipid bilayer. Rather, they function to bring the ribosome to the correct target membrane and are then released from the ribosome (Gilmore and Blobel, 1983). Interestingly, SRP54 and the a-subunit of the SRP receptor (SRa) both contain a GTPase domain (G-domain ) (Bernstein et al., 1989; Connolly and Gilmore, 1989; Romisch et al., 1989). ...
Article
In mammalian cells, the signal recognition particle (SRP) receptor is required for the targeting of nascent secretory proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. We have identified the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue of the alpha-subunit of the SRP receptor (SR alpha) and characterized its function in vivo. S. cerevisiae SR alpha is a 69-kDa peripheral membrane protein that is 32% identical (54% chemically similar) to its mammalian homologue and, like mammalian SR alpha, is predicted to contain a GTP binding domain. Yeast cells that contain the SR alpha gene (SRP101) under control of the GAL1 promoter show impaired translocation of soluble and membrane proteins across the ER membrane after depletion of SR alpha. The degree of the translocation defect varies for different proteins. The defects are similar to those observed in SRP deficient cells. Disruption of the SRP101 gene results in an approximately sixfold reduction in the growth rate of the cells. Disruption of the gene encoding SRP RNA (SCR1) or both SCR1 and SRP101 resulted in an indistinguishable growth phenotype, indicating that SRP receptor and SRP function in the same pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that the components and the mechanism of the SRP-dependent protein targeting pathway are evolutionarily conserved yet not essential for cell growth. Surprisingly, cells that are grown for a prolonged time in the absence of SRP or SRP receptor no longer show pronounced protein translocation defects. This adaptation is a physiological process and is not due to the accumulation of a suppressor mutation. The degree of this adaptation is strain dependent.
... In addition, it seems likely that the SRP receptor plays a role in translocation, since a subparticle of SRP which is inactive in elongation arrest (see above) nevertheless promotes translocation in the presence of an intact SRP receptor (273)(274)(275)(276). The ribosomes, however, do not appear to be bound to the SRP receptor (103). Instead, they become associated with two integral membrane glycoproteins, ribophorins I and II (56,112), which in turn are probably associated with other membrane proteins. ...
... The SRP-ribosome-nascent protein complex is targeted to the ER membrane via a receptor for SRP in the membrane (88,89,200). When the SRPribosome-nascent protein complex binds to the receptor, SRP dissociates from the complex (87) and the nascent protein is apparently delivered to the translocation complex. Elongation arrest is relieved (184,200,386), and the polypeptide is translocated cotranslationally (386). ...
Article
Full-text available
Bacilli secrete numerous proteins into the environment. Many of the secretory proteins, their export signals, and their processing steps during secretion have been characterized in detail. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms of protein secretion have been relatively poorly characterized. However, several components of the protein secretion machinery have been identified and cloned recently, which is likely to lead to rapid expansion of the knowledge of the protein secretion mechanism in Bacillus species. Comparison of the presently known export components of Bacillus species with those of Escherichia coli suggests that the mechanism of protein translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane is conserved among gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria differences are found in steps preceding and following the translocation process. Many of the secretory proteins of bacilli are produced industrially, but several problems have been encountered in the production of Bacillus heterologous secretory proteins. In the final section we discuss these problems and point out some possibilities to overcome them.
Article
Detergentextractsofcaninepancreasrough microsomal membranes were depletedofeitherthe signalrecognitionparticlereceptor(SR),which medi- atesthesignalrecognitionparticle(SRP)-dependent targetingoftheribosome/nascentchaincomplex to the membrane, or thesignalsequencereceptor(SSR), which has been proposed tofunctionas a membrane bound receptorforthenewly targetednascentchain and/orasa component ofa multi-proteintranslocation complex responsiblefortransferofthenascentchain acrossthemembrane .Depletionofthetwo compo- nentswas performed by chromatography ofdetergent extractson immunoaffinitysupports.Detergentextracts lackingeitherSR or SSR were reconstituted and
Article
The translocation of polypeptides across the endoplasmic reticulum is a vectorial process that occurs probably through a protein channel by a mechanism as yet undetermined. Here, we demonstrate bidirectional movement of a 221 residue nascent polypeptide across microsomal membranes and provide evidence suggesting that the retrograde movement is through the translocation channel. Retrograde movement is observed only when the polypeptide is generated from a truncated transcript; addition of a stop codon after codon 221 confers vectorial movement. Retrograde movement can also be prevented by glycosylation of the nascent polypeptide, as well as by inclusion of 32 additional amino acids that may promote folding of the translocated chain. We propose that the protein translocation channel is a passive pore that does not create a directional bias in polypeptide movement and that vectorial translocation is driven by nascent chain elongation and sustained by posttranslocation events that prevent retrograde movement.
Infection of a clonal rat pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12, with Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus produced successively higher titers of virus in the culture fluid during the 72-h experimental period. In electron microscopical observation, JE virus entered PC12 cells by direct penetration through the plasma membrane at 2 min postinoculation (p.i.) and caused marked cellular hypertrophy and extensive proliferation of the cellular secretory system including rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and Golgi complexes starting 24 h p.i. The proliferating RER of the virally infected cells contained progeny virions and characteristic endoplasmic reticulum vesicles in its cisternae, and the proliferating Golgi complexes contained virions in their saccules. These findings indicated that the proliferation of the cellular secretory system occurred in association with viral replication and maturation in the system. Seventy-two hours p.i., the cellular secretory system of infected PC12 cells showed degenerative changes with vesiculation, disorganization, and dispersion of the Golgi complexes and fragmentation, focal cystic dilation, and dissolution of the RER in the same manner as those seen in the secretory system of JE-virus-infected neurons in the mouse brain. Thus, JE-virus-infected PC12 cells seem to be a suitable neurogenic cell line for the study of the pathogenic mechanism of JE virus. At the same time, the virally infected cells seem to offer an interesting cell model for the study of the morphogenesis of the cellular secretory system.
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The role of the signal sequence in protein export is reviewed, and some difficulties inherent in the conventional picture of how it interacts with other components of the export machinery are pointed out. An alternative model is suggested, which seems to account better for some of the critical experimental findings made so far.
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The rough endoplasmic reticulum is a major site of protein biosynthesis in all eukaryotic cells, serving as the entry point for the secretory pathway and as the initial integration site for the majority of cellular integral membrane proteins. The core components of the protein translocation machinery have been identified, and high-resolution structures of the targeting components and the transport channel have been obtained. Research in this area is now focused on obtaining a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of protein translocation and membrane protein integration.
Chapter
This chapter discusses the hydrophobicity concept and the various hydrophobicity scales that circulate in the literature. It deals with signal sequences and transmembrane segments, thus preparing the ground for a discussion of global models of protein export and membrane protein biogenesis. The concept of a hydrophobic effect, a tendency for nonpolar molecules or parts of molecules in aqueous solution to aggregate to reduce the nonpolar surface area exposed to water, has an immediate intuitive appeal, and it has been a central idea in many attempts to come to grips with the thermodynamics of protein structure. As most of the hydrophobicity scales in the literature agree in broad terms (be they empirical or statistical), most scales will yield similar results in any particular application. The central hydrophobic core is the most outstanding signature of a signal sequence. Proteins can bind to membranes in many ways. One useful distinction is between intrinsic and extrinsic membrane proteins, denoting, respectively, proteins spanning the nonpolar hydrocarbon interior of a membrane and proteins only associated with the (inner or outer) surface of the membrane. A number of characteristic features of start and stop signals are discussed in the chapter along with some interpretations of their possible functional relevance.
Article
The signal-sequence receptor (SSR) has previously been shown to be a component of the environment which nascent polypeptides meet on passage through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. We report here on the primary structure of the SSR as deduced from cDNA clones and from direct protein sequencing. The glycoprotein is synthesized with a cleavable amino-terminal signal sequence and contains only one classical membrane-spanning segment. Its insertion into the ER membrane during biosynthesis depends on the function of the signal-recognition particle. SSR shows a remarkable charge distribution with the amino terminus being highly negatively charged, and the cytoplasmic carboxyl terminus positively charged. The SSR can be phosphorylated in its cytoplasmic tail both in intact cells and in a cell-free system, suggesting a regulation of its function. The localization of the protein in the ER membrane was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy.
Article
The kinetics of the signal recognition particle(SRP)-mediated process of protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane was studied by mathematical modeling and complementary experiments. The following results were obtained. 1.(1) A model according to which SRP directs the ribosome, rather than the mRNA, to the membrane is supported by experiments designed to discriminate between the two alternatives.2.(2) This model describes both steady-state and synchronized translation experiments and makes a number of predictions.3.(3) The interaction between a nascent protein and SRP may be described by two parameters: (i) a binding constant which can be attributed to the structure of the signal peptide, and (ii) the size of the “SRP-window”, i.e. the distance between the first and the last site on the polypeptide chain that can interact with SRP. For preprolactin a binding constant of 1 to 2.5 nmol−1l was estimated. Modeling of the synchronized synthesis of ovalbumin indicates that it has a much weaker binding constant than preprolactin (~0.25 nmol−11) although we cannot exclude the possibility that the SRP-window may be also smaller.4.(4) A better understanding of the molecular effects of SRP on translation and translocation through the rough endoplasmic reticulum membrane has been achieved. Inhibition of the steady-state rate of translation by SRP requires a stoichiometric interaction of SRP with ribosomes carrying nascent polypeptide chains and will occur only when ribosomes are piled up back to the initiation site. Translocation, on the other hand, requires only the catalytic action of SRP and is determined by the local concentration of protein-synthesizing ribosomes accumulated at the site(s) of SRP interaction. As a consequence, translational inhibition by SRP may sometimes fail to occur, depending either on the type of protein or on experimental conditions, such as a high mRNA concentration, even if translocation can be demonstrated.5.(5) A rough extrapolation to the conditions in vivo indicates that all synthesized polypeptide chains destined for translocation across or integration into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane are indeed quantitatively translocated and that no translational inhibition occurs.
Article
In mammals, newly synthesized proteins destined for secretion are translocated cotranslationally into the lumen of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). Once inside, these nascent polypeptide chains are bound by a lumenal ER protein called BiP (Immunoglobulin Binding Protein) or Grp 78 (Glucose Regulated Protein 78). It is hypothesized that this binding is necessary to protect the nascent chains until they are properly folded or assembled with other subunits. When the proteins are folded and assembled, they are released from BiP by a process that is dependent on ATP hydrolysis. Since ATP is synthesized mainly in the mitochondria, we hypothesized that there must be an ATP transporter in the ER which would allow the protein mediated transport of ATP from the cytosol into the ER lumen. We studied the transport of ATP in vitro and found that ATP enters the lumen of the ER in a saturable manner with a Kmapp~3μM. ATP transport is dependent on time, protein, and vesicle integrity, it is also inhibited by the general anion transport inhibitor, 4,4' diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonic acid stilbene (DIDS). We also found that the transport was inhibited by membrane impermeable protein modifying agents such as N-ethlymaleamide (NEM) and Pronase when added to intact ER vesicles. These results suggest that the transport is mediated by a protein with an active cytoplasmic face. Using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to BiP and Grp94 (another resident ER protein) and U.V. crosslinking, we demonstrated that after transport of ATPα32P into intact vesicles, radiolabeled BiP and Grp94 could be immunoprecipitated. We also found that labeling of lumenal proteins with ATP is dependent on the transport of ATP. Finally using ATP labeled with 35S, we concluded that BiP was able to bind intact ATP and we confirmed earlier work that BiP was thiophosphorylated while Grp94 is not. The second area of study involves processes that occur further along the secretory pathway in the Golgi apparatus. It was known from previous work that the nucleotide sugar substrates necessary for the synthesis of the linkage region, UDP-xylose (UDP-Xyl), UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal) and UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) were transported into the Golgi apparatus from the cytosol via protein mediated transporters. In order to eventually purify one of these transporter proteins, we wanted to reconstitute their activities. We were able to reconstitute the activities that exhibited kinetic parameters and inhibitor sensitivities very similar to those seen in intact Golgi vesicles. In the case of UDP-xylose it was necessary to prepare the liposomes using endogenous Golgi lipids in order to get transport activity similar to that seen in the intact Golgi vesicles. This suggested a specific lipid requirement for the UDP-xylose transporter. These transporters seem to be antiporters, whereby the nucleotide sugar enters the lumen of the Golgi coupled to the equimolar exit of the corresponding nucleoside monophosphate (Hirschberg, C.B. and Snider, M.D. 1987). We also showed that we could reproduce the hypothesized antiporter system in the reconstituted proteoliposomes by preloading the proteoliposomes with the putative antiporter molecule UMP. The rationale for developing the reconstituted system is eventually to use this system to purify one of these nucleotide sugar translocators. In the last set of studies, I have shown that this reconstituted system can be used to monitor the purification of the UDP-galactose translocator. Using column chromatography we were able to purify this membrane translocator protein 45,000 fold from a rat liver homogenate.
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Looking at the variety of the thousands of different polypeptides that have been focused on in the research on the endoplasmic reticulum from the last five decades taught us one humble lesson: no one size fits all. Cells use an impressive array of components to enable the safe transport of protein cargo from the cytosolic ribosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum. Safety during the transit is warranted by the interplay of cytosolic chaperones, membrane receptors, and protein translocases that together form functional networks and serve as protein targeting and translocation routes. While two targeting routes to the endoplasmic reticulum, SRP (signal recognition particle) and GET (guided entry of tail-anchored proteins), prefer targeting determinants at the N- and C-terminus of the cargo polypeptide, respectively, the recently discovered SND (SRP-independent) route seems to preferentially cater for cargos with non-generic targeting signals that are less hydrophobic or more distant from the termini. With an emphasis on targeting routes and protein translocases, we will discuss those functional networks that drive efficient protein topogenesis and shed light on their redundant and dynamic nature in health and disease.
Article
Protein export across the endoplasmic reticulum occurs via co-and post-translational pathways. The former requires a protein known as signal recognition particle (SRP), while the latter depends on the free ribosome concentration in the cytoplasm. Both these processes involve a complex network of many interlinked reactions which contain multitiered feedback loops that regulate the actual mode of translocation. The complexity is such that in order to understand fully the effects of pertubations and mutations on these systems, a detailed representation of the numerous pathways is necessary. The emphasis of this paper is on the development and analysis of a mathematical model highlighting these two pathways.
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Eucaryotic cells are highly compartimentalized ; indeed there are at least 10 to 12 membrane types forming different domains or microdomains (Palade, 1983). Cell membranes surround and limit distinct organelles which are either well individualized i.e. Chloroplasts, mitochondria or nucleus ; or organized as a reticulum i.e. endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth), golgi network ; or defined as vesicles with various functions i.e., endosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes, or storage and secretion vesicles. In addition the plasma membrane limits the cell itself and isolates it from the external medium.
Article
The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a type II glycoprotein oriented in the plasma membrane with its amino terminus in the cytoplasm and its carboxy terminus external to the cell. We have previously shown that the membrane insertion of HN protein requires signal recognition particle SRP, occurs cotranslationally, and utilizes the same GTP-dependent step that has been described for secretory proteins, type I proteins, and multispanning proteins (C. Wilson, R. Gilmore, and T. Morrison, Mol. Cell. Biol. 7:1386-1392, 1987; C. Wilson, T. Connolly, T. Morrison, and R. Gilmore, J. Cell Biol. 107:69-77, 1988). The role of the amino-terminal cytoplasmic domain in the faithful membrane insertion of this type II protein was explored by characterizing the membrane integration of a mutant lacking 23 of the 26 amino acids of the cytoplasmic domain. The mutant protein was able to interact with SRP, resulting in translation inhibition, membrane targeting, and membrane translocation, but the efficiency of translocation was considerably lower than for the wild-type HN protein. In addition, a significant proportion of the mutant protein synthesized in the presence of SRP and microsomal membranes was associated with the membrane in an EDTA- and alkali-insensitive manner yet integrated into membranes with its carboxy-terminal domain on the cytoplasmic side of membrane vesicles. Membrane-integrated molecules with this reverse orientation were not detected when the mutant protein was synthesized in the absence of SRP or a functional SRP receptor. Truncated mRNAs encoding amino-terminal segments of the wild-type and mutant proteins were translated to prepare ribosomes bearing arrested nascent chains. The arrested mutant nascent chain, in contrast to the wild-type nascent chain, was also able to insert into membranes in a GTP- and SRP-independent manner. Results suggest that the cytoplasmic domain plays a role in the proper membrane insertion of this type II glycoprotein.
Article
The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of paramyxoviruses is likely in the unusual class of glycoproteins with the amino terminus cytoplasmic and the carboxy terminus lumenal or external to the cell. The properties of the membrane insertion of the HN protein of Newcastle disease virus, a prototype paramyxovirus, were explored in wheat germ extracts containing microsomal membranes. HN protein was inserted into membranes cotranslationally, resulting in a glycosylated protein completely resistant to trypsin and proteinase K digestion. No detectable posttranslation insertion occurred. Insertion required signal recognition particle. Signal recognition particle in the absence of membranes inhibited HN protein synthesis. Comparisons of the trypsin digestion products of the HN protein made in the cell-free system with newly synthesized HN protein from infected cells showed that the cell-free product was in a conformation different from that of the pulse-labeled protein in infected cells. First, trypsin digestion of intact membranes from infected cells reduced the size of the 74,000-dalton HN protein by approximately 1,000 daltons, whereas trypsin digestion of HN protein made in the cell-free system had no effect on the size of the protein. Second, trypsin digestion of Triton X-100-permeabilized membranes isolated from infected cells resulted in a 67,000-dalton trypsin resistant HN protein fragment. A trypsin-resistant core of comparable size was not present in the digestion products of in-vitro-synthesized HN protein. Evidence is presented that the newly synthesized HN protein in infected cels contain intramolecular disulfide bonds not present in the cell-free product.
Article
A full-length cDNA of the M1 double-stranded RNA killer preprotoxin coding region successfully directed the synthesis of secreted K1 toxin when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae from a plasmid vector. Three protein species immunoreactive with antitoxin antiserum were detected intracellularly in transformants harboring this killer cDNA plasmid. These toxin precursor species were characterized by using secretory-defective hosts, by comparative electrophoretic mobilities, and by tunicamycin susceptibility. Such studies indicate that these three protein species represent intermediates generated by signal cleavage of the preprotoxin and its subsequent glycosylation and provide evidence that these events occur posttranslationally.
Article
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases the risk and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have revealed marked changes in the composition of the microbiome and the metabolome and their potential influence in renal disease and CVD via the accumulation of microbial-derived uremic toxins. However, the effect of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) on the gut microbiome and circulating metabolites is unknown. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to UUO and sham-operated control groups. Renal histology, colonic microbiota, and plasma metabolites were examined two weeks later. We employed 16S rRNA sequence and untargeted metabolomic analyses to explore the changes in colonic microbiota and plasma metabolites and their relationship with tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF). The UUO rats exhibited tubular atrophy and dilatation, interstitial fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration in the obstructed kidney. UUO rats showed significant colonic enrichment and depletion of genera. Significant differences were identified in 219 plasma metabolites involved in lipid, amino acid, and bile acid metabolism, which were consistent with gut microbiota-related metabolism. Interestingly, tryptophan and its metabolites kynurenine, 5-hydroxytryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, which were linked with TIF, correlated with nine specific genera. Plasma tryptophan level was positively correlated with Clostridium IV,Turicibacter, Pseudomonas and Lactobacillales, and negatively correlated with Oscillibacter, Blautia, and Intestinimonas, which possess the genes encoding tryptophan synthase (K16187), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (K00463) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (K00453) and their corresponding enzymes (EC:1.13.11.52 and EC:1.13.11.11) that exacerbate TIF. In conclusion, UUO results in profound changes in the gut microbiome and circulating metabolites, events that contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammation and TIF.
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Secretion is the cellular process present in every organism that delivers soluble proteins and cargoes to the extracellular space. In eukaryotes, conventional protein secretion (CPS) is the traffi cking route that secretory proteins undertake when are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus (GA), and subsequently to the plasma membrane (PM) via secretory vesicles or secretory granules. This book chapter recalls the fundamental steps in cell biology research contributing to the elucidation of CPS; it describes the most prominent examples of conventionally secreted proteins in eukaryotic cells and the molecular mechanisms necessary to regulate each step of this process.
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The membrane-bound ribosomes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) are engaged in the synthesis of secretory proteins, resident lumenal proteins of the exocytic and endocytic membrane systems, and the majority of cellular integral membrane proteins. The information responsible for the selective delivery of ribosomes to the RER is contained in an amino terminal signal sequence. Ribosomes synthesizing proteins with RER-specific signal sequences are subsequently targeted to a membrane-bound translocation site or “translocon.” The translocon is a multicomponent protein assembly that mediates the unidirectional transport of proteins or protein domains across the RER membrane. Transport of nascent polypeptide chains across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane has been proposed to occur through a proteinaceous transport site or channel (Gilmore and Blobel 1985; Simon and Blobel 1991) that may consist of several integral membrane proteins which have been identified by cross-linking to nascent polypeptides (Krieg et al. 1989; High et al. 1991; Kellaris et al. 1991; Görlich et al. 1992). Upon entry into the RER lumen, the nascent polypeptide undergoes modifications and folding reactions that result in the assembly of a mature protein. The focus of this article will be upon the roles of signal recognition particle (SRP) and SRP receptors, two multisubunit GTP-binding proteins that mediate the initial phases of the protein translocation reaction.
Chapter
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a major site of protein translocation in eukaryotic cells. Secretory proteins, lysosomal enzymes, lumenal proteins of the ER, plasma membrane proteins, integral ER membrane proteins, to name a few classes which have been studied extensively, are all translocated across or inserted into the ER membrane. Signals contained in the protein sequence target the protein to the ER and determine whether or not it is integrated in the membrane. The present review summarizes our current knowledge on some aspects of these problems, with special emphasis on the work carried out in our laboratory.
Article
In higher eukaryotes, most secretory and membrane proteins are synthesised by ribosomes which are attached to the membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). This allows the proteins to be translocated across that membrane already during their synthesis. The ribosomes are directed to the RER membrane by a cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particle, the signal recognition particle (SRP). SRP fulfills its task by virtue of three distinguishable activities: the binding of a signal sequence which, being part of the nascent polypeptide to be translocated, is exposed on the surface of a translating ribosome; the retardation of any further elongation; and the SRP-receptor-mediated binding of the complex of ribosome, nascent polypetide and SRP to the RER membrane which results in the detachment of SRP from the signal sequence and the ribosome and the insertion of the nascent polypeptide into the membrane. Evidence is accumulating that SRP is not restricted to eukaryotes: SRP-related particles and SRP-receptor-related molecules are found ubiquitously and may function in protein translocation in every living organism. This review focusses on the mammalian SRP. A brief discussion of its overall structure is followed by a detailed description of the structures of its RNA and protein constituents and the requirements for their assembly into the particle. Homologues of SRP components from organisms other than mammals are mentioned to emphasize the components' conserved or less conserved features. Subsequently, the functions of each of the SRP constitutents are discussed. This sets the stage for a presentation of a model for the mechanism by which SRP cyclically assembles and disassembles with translating ribosomes and the RER membrane. It may be expected that similar mechanisms are used by SRP homologues in organisms other than mammals. However, the mammalian SRP-mediated translocation mechanism may not be conserved in its entirety in organisms like Escherichia coli whose SRP lack components required for the function of the mammalian SRP. Possible translocation pathways involving the rudimentary SRP are discussed in view of the existence of alternative, chaperone-mediated translocation pathways with which they may intersect. The concluding two sections deal with open questions in two areas of SRP research. One formulates basic questions regarding the little-investigated biogenesis of SRP. The other gives an outlook over the insights into the mechanisms of each of the known activities of the SRP that are to be expected in the short and medium-term future.
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In mammalian cells, the signal recognition particle (SRP) and the SRP receptor are required for the targeting of nascent secretory proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. Homologues of SRP and SRP receptor subunits have recently been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their functions have been characterized in vivo. Surprisingly, in S. cerevisiae, neither SRP nor SRP receptor are essential for cell growth, though cells deficient in these components grow poorly. Cells that lack both SRP and SRP receptor show identical growth rates to those in which either component alone is missing, indicating that SRP and SRP receptor function in the same pathway in vivo. Yeast cells depleted of SRP or SRP receptor show impaired translocation of soluble and membrane proteins across the ER membrane. Interestingly, the degree of the translocation defect varies for different proteins. These results indicate that proteins can bypass the SRP/SRP receptor mediated targeting pathway to the ER membrane, and that there is, in yeast, an alternate targeting pathway. Together with the recent identification of SRP and SRP receptor homologues in procaryotes and archeae, these results suggest that the structural components and mechanisms of the SRP-dependent protein targeting pathway are evolutionarily conserved.
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GTP has been shown to be required for the translocation of nascent secretory and membrane proteins into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To date, three components known to be involved in protein translocation, the 54 kDa sub-unit of SRP (SRP54) and both the alpha and the beta subunits of the SRP receptor (SRa and SRβ) have been shown to be GTPases. Here, we briefly review what is known about the role of GTP in protein translocation, and we present a speculative model that incorporates these findings.
Chapter
It is now generally accepted that most proteins destined for export contain NH2 terminal signal peptides that are cleaved during or immediately following their synthesis. Ever since the formulation of signal hypothesis by Blobel and Dobberstein (1), the role of signal sequence in protein export has been a topic of intensive studies, especially in recent years. The rapid pace of research in this area can be attributed to two major advances in the field: 1) the sequences of precursor proteins can be readily deduced by the cloning and DNA sequencing of genes encoding exported proteins in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells; and 2) molecular genetics and recombinant DNA technology are used to modify the signal sequences of exported proteins.
Article
This chapter discusses the application of the signal hypothesis to the incorporation of integral membrane proteins. Signal hypothesis is a proposed explanation of the biosynthesis of secreted polypeptides. It has become increasingly clear that much of the knowledge may be extended to membrane proteins inserted into the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) membrane. There exists strong evidence that the basic process of translocation across the membrane is the same for both types of polypeptides: the signals for initiation of the process are the same, and the constituents of the transport machinery are identical. Most of the details on the mechanism of translocation are studied on secretory proteins. Translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and the cytoplasmic membrane in bacteria has turned out to be very similar. According to the signal hypothesis, the polypeptide chain would cross the hydrophobic phospholipid bilayer through a protein channel. During or shortly after completion of the protein, an enzyme, called “signal peptidase,” which is located at the luminal side of the endoplasmic reticulum, cleaves off the signal peptide. When the ribosome has reached the stop codon on the mRNA, the translation complex disintegrates, the pore in the membrane disappears, and the ribosome becomes free again.
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While the major features of the intracellular route traveled by the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins of influenza virus were established more than a decade ago by a synthesis of studies of virus morphogenesis with investigations of the secretory pathway in mammalian cells, our understanding of the biosynthesis of these viral envelope glycoproteins has expanded dramatically during the past 5 years. This progress has depended in part on the availability of detailed information on the structure of the HA and NA glycoproteins, and on the ability to express cloned genes encoding these polypeptides. These advances rest on a foundation of more than half a century of investigation of the nature of the surface antigens of a virus that remains one of the uncontrolled pathogens of man.
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In human cells, one-third of all polypeptides enter the secretory pathway at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The specificity and efficiency of this process are guaranteed by targeting of mRNAs and/or polypeptides to the ER membrane. Cytosolic SRP and its receptor in the ER membrane facilitate the cotranslational targeting of most ribosome-nascent precursor polypeptide chain (RNC) complexes together with the respective mRNAs to the Sec61 complex in the ER membrane. Alternatively, fully synthesized precursor polypeptides are targeted to the ER membrane post-translationally by either the TRC, SND, or PEX19/3 pathway. Furthermore, there is targeting of mRNAs to the ER membrane, which does not involve SRP but involves mRNA- or RNC-binding proteins on the ER surface, such as RRBP1 or KTN1. Traditionally, the targeting reactions were studied in cell-free or cellular assays, which focus on a single precursor polypeptide and allow the conclusion of whether a certain precursor can use a certain pathway. Recently, cellular approaches such as proximity-based ribosome profiling or quantitative proteomics were employed to address the question of which precursors use certain pathways under physiological conditions. Here, we combined siRNA-mediated depletion of putative mRNA receptors in HeLa cells with label-free quantitative proteomics and differential protein abundance analysis to characterize RRBP1- or KTN1-involving precursors and to identify possible genetic interactions between the various targeting pathways. Furthermore, we discuss the possible implications on the so-called TIGER domains and critically discuss the pros and cons of this experimental approach.
Article
Cells of specialized secretory organs expand their secretory pathways to accommodate the increased protein load necessary for their function. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the Golgi apparatus and the secretory vesicles, expand not only the membrane components but also the protein machinery required for increased protein production and transport. Increased protein load causes an ER stress response akin to the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). Recent work has implicated several bZip transcription factors in the regulation of protein components of the early secretory pathway necessary to alleviate this stress. Here, we highlight eight bZip transcription factors in regulating secretory pathway component genes. These include components of the three canonical branches of the UPR-ATF4, XBP1, and ATF6, as well as the five members of the Creb3 family of transcription factors.We review findings from both invertebrate and vertebrate model systems suggesting that all of these proteins increase secretory capacity in response to increased protein load. Finally, we propose that the Creb3 family of factors may have a dual role in secretory cell differentiation by also regulating the pathways necessary for cell cycle exit during terminal differentiation.
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We have photolyzed cell-free translation systems synthesizing beta-lactamase with 254-nm ultraviolet light. In the presence of canine rough microsomes (RM), incomplete chains of beta-lactamase became enriched relative to the full-length molecule in pellet fractions obtained following photolysis and alkaline carbonate extraction. In addition, high molecular weight aggregates were present on SDS-polyacrylamide gels and occurred only when translocation-competent microsomal membranes were used in translation mixtures. The incomplete chains and high molecular weight aggregates were not obtained when RM were inactivated by reaction with N-ethylmaleimide. The incomplete chains did not bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose, indicating that they had not sedimented as a result of being covalently cross-linked to membrane glycoproteins. Both photolysis and alkaline carbonate extraction were required to produce the results. Nascent peptides that were not exposed to alkaline carbonate following photolysis did not appear as high molecular weight bands on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The high molecular weight aggregates therefore represent denatured protein complexes that contain nascent peptides and microsomal translocon proteins. The results suggest that the translocon is a large proteinaceous complex and that at least a portion of it, when denatured, migrates at a molecular mass of approximately 205 kDa.
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A soluble ribonuclease inhibitor from the human placenta has been purified 4000-fold by a combination of ion exchange and affinity chromatography. The inhibitor has been isolated in 45% yield (about 2 mg/placenta) as a protein that is homogeneous by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. In common with the inhibitors of pancreatic ribonuclease from other tissues that have been studied earlier, the placental inhibitor is an acidic protein of molecular weight near 50,000; it forms a 1:1 complex with bovine pancreatic RNase A and is a noncompetitive inhibitor of the pancreatic enzyme, with a Ki of 3 X 10(-10) M. The amino acid composition of the protein has been determined. The protein contains 30 half-cystine plus cysteine residues determined as cysteic acid after performic acid oxidation. At pH 8.6 the nondenatured protein alkylated with iodoacetic acid in the presence of free thiol has 8 free sulfhydryl groups. The inhibitor is irreversibly inactivated by sulfhydryl reagents and also by removal of free thiol from solutions of the protein. Inactivation by sulfhydryl reagents causes the dissociation of the RNase - inhibitor complex into active RNase and inactive inhibitor.
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Hybrid molecules containing DNA sequences complementary to bovine pituitary mRNA were constructed in the Pst I site of pBR322 by the dC . dG tailing technique. Recombinant plasmids containing bovine prolactin (bPRL) sequences were amplified in bacteria and identified by hybridization to purified [32P]bPRL cDNA sequences. Nucleotide sequence analysis was performed on the inserts from two of the positive clones. One clone, pBPRL72, contained a 982-base pair insert that included 67 nucleotides of the 5'-untranslated region, the complete coding region of the preprolactin protein (690 nucleotides), and the entire 3'-untranslated region (150 nucleotides) of bPRL mRNA. The nucleotide sequence analysis of clone pBPRL72 predicted the sequence of a 30-amino acid signal peptide and confirmed the published amino acid sequence of the protein with one exception. A comparison of the pBPRL72 cDNA sequence with a second bPRL clone, pBPRL4, revealed four silent nucleotide differences. Three of the base changes occurred in the third position of amino acid codons, and one occurred in the 3'-noncoding region. The sequence polymorphism suggests the existence of alleles or multiple loci for bPRL that do not alter the protein structure.
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Yeast secretory mutants sec53 and sec59 define a posttranslational stage in the penetration of glycoprotein precursors into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the previous report we showed that at the restrictive temperature (37 degrees C) these mutants accumulate enzymatically inactive and incompletely glycosylated forms of the secretory enzyme invertase and the vacuolar enzyme carboxypeptidase Y. Cell fractionation experiments reveal that these precursor forms remain firmly bound to the ER membrane. However, upon return to the permissive temperature (24 degrees C), the invertase precursors are glycosylated, become partially active, and are secreted. Thermoreversible conversion does not require protein synthesis, but does require energy. In contrast to the effect of these mutations, inhibition of oligosaccharide synthesis with tunicamycin at 37 degrees C causes irreversible accumulation of unglycosylated invertase. The effect of the drug is exaggerated by high temperature since unglycosylated invertase synthesized in the presence of tunicamycin at 25 degrees C is secreted. A portion of the invertase polypeptide accumulated at 37 degrees C is preserved when membranes from sec53 and sec59 are treated with trypsin. In the presence of Triton X-100 or saponin, the invertase is degraded completely. The protected fragment appears to represent a portion of the invertase polypeptide that is embedded in or firmly associated with the ER membrane. This association may develop early during the synthesis of invertase, so that in the absence of translocation, some of the completed polypeptide chain remains exposed on the cytoplasmic surface of the ER.
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Previous reports have shown that rough microsomes treated with high salt (Warren and Dobberstein, 1978, Nature, 273:569-571) or proteases (Walter et al., 1979, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, U. S. A., 76:1,795) are unable to vectorially translocate nascent proteins. Readdition of the high salt or protease extracts restored activity to such inactive rough microsomes. A detailed study was carried out to determine how this factor interacts with the rough microsomal membrane. Proteolytic cleavage was found to be necessary but not sufficient to remove this factor from the membrane. A subsequent treatment with high salt had to be carried out. Endogenous (pancreatic) protease could effect the required cleavage, but low levels of trypsin, clostripain, or elastase were far more efficient. Several proteases were not effective. The minimum level of salt (after proteolysis) required to solubilize the active factor was approximately 200 mM KCl. Salt extracts prepared by treatment with one of the effective proteases were capable of restoring activity to inactive microsomes produced by treatment with one of the others.
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The ability of canine pancreatic signal peptidase to remove the signal peptide portion of presecretory proteins in a translocation-independent assay is shown to require phospholipid. Sodium deoxycholate extracts of canine pancreatic rough microsomes containing both signal peptidase and phospholipid were delipidated by gel filtration chromatography on Sepharose CL-6B equilibrated with 0.2% deoxycholate. Column fractions were assayed for signal peptidase activity both with and without the addition of ethanol-extracted soybean phospholipid at a final concentration of 1.0 mg/ml. A peak of signal peptidase activity was detected only when the fractions were assayed with added phospholipid. Phospholipid assays demonstrated that the peak of signal peptidase activity was cleanly separated from phospholipid. The ratio of protein to phospholipid in the deoxycholate extract of rough microsomes was 1.76 while that of the most active signal peptidase fractions ranged from 46.1 to 138. The peak of signal peptidase activity exhibited an apparent Stokes radius of 55 A. Highly purified preparations of phosphatidylcholine were most effective in restoring activity to delipidated signal peptidase. Phosphatidylinositol was much less effective. Phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, sphingomyelin, and lysophosphatidylcholine were all ineffective.
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The vectorial translocation of nascent proteins through the membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum has been shown to require a specific membrane-bound protein whose cytoplasmic domain can be proteolytically cleaved and isolated as an active peptide of mol wt 60,000 (Meyer and Dobberstein, 1980, J. Cell Biol. 87:503-508). Rabbit antibodies raised against this peptide were used to further characterize the membrane-bound molecule. Immunoprecipitation of solubilized, radiolabeled rough microsomal proteins yielded a single polypeptide of mol wt 72,000, representing the membrane-bound protein from which the 60,000-mol wt peptide was proteolytically derived. The antibody could also be used to remove exclusively the 60,000-mol wt peptide, and thus the translocation activity, from elastase digests tested in a reconstituted system. Moreover, immunoprecipitation of elastase extracts alkylated with [14C] N-ethylmaleimide selected a single species of mol wt 60,000. Immunoprecipitation of in vivo radiolabeled proteins from the appropriate cell type yielded the 72,000-mol wt membrane protein irrespective of the duration of labeling, or if followed by a chase. Subsequent treatment with protease generated the 60,000-mol wt fragment. In addition, the antibody could be used to visualize reticular structures in intact cells which correspond to endoplasmic reticulum at the ultrastructural level. It is thus clear that one membrane component required in the vectorial translocation of nascent secretory (and membrane) proteins is a peptide of mol wt 72,000.
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Emergence of the signal sequence of nascent secretory proteins from the large ribosomal subunit, translocation is stopped by a cytoplasmic protein complex. A specific membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum, the 'docking protein', releases this block and allows further synthesis to be directly coupled to transfer across the membrane.
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When rough microsomes are subjected to limited proteolysis and high salt, a soluble fraction can be separated from the membrane. Neither fraction alone is capable of vectorially translocating nascent peptides. When the soluble extract is recombined with the residual membrane fraction, translocating activity is restored. Standard biochemical techniques were used to identify and characterize the active component derived by treating rough microsomes with elastase and high salt. The active factor is a peptide fragment with an apparent molecular weight of 60,000. It represents the cytoplasmic domain of a larger membrane protein. The fragment is basic and has at least one accessible sulfhydryl group. These characteristics facilitated its purification and identification as a membrane component required for translocation of nascent peptides across microsomal membranes.
Article
Salt-extracted microsomal membranes (K-RM) contain an activity that is capable of releasing the signal recognition particle (SRP)-mediated elongation arrest of the synthesis of secretory polypeptides (Walter, P., and G. Blobel, 1981, J. Cell Biol., 91:557-561). This arrest-releasing activity was shown to be a function of an integral microsomal membrane protein, termed the SRP receptor (Gilmore, R., P. Walter, and G. Blobel, 1982, J. Cell Biol., 95:470-477). We attempted to solubilize the arrest-releasing activity of the SRP receptor by mild protease digestion of K-RM using either trypsin or elastase. We found, however, that neither a trypsin, nor an elastase "solubilized" supernatant fraction exhibited the arrest-releasing activity. Only when either the trypsin- or elastase-derived supernatant fraction was combined with the trypsinized membrane fraction, which by itself was also inactive, was the arrest-releasing activity restored. Release of the elongation arrest was followed by the translocation of the secretory protein across the microsomal membrane and the removal of the signal peptide. Thus, although we have been unable to proteolytically sever the arrest-releasing activity from K-RM and thereby to uncouple the release of the elongation arrest from the process of chain translocation, we have been able to proteolytically dissect and reconstitute the arrest-releasing activity. Furthermore, we found that the arrest-releasing activity of the SRP receptor can be inactivated by alkylation of K-RM with N-ethylmaleimide.
Article
An 11S protein composed of six polypeptide chains was previously purified from a salt extract of dog pancreas microsomal membranes and shown to be required for translocation of nascent secretory protein across the microsomal membrane (Wistar and Blobel 1980 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 77:7112-7116). This 11S protein, termed signal recognition protein (SRP), has been shown here (a) to inhibit translation in the wheat germ cell-free system selectively of mRNA for secretory protein (bovine preprolactin) but not of mRNA for cytoplasmic protein (alpha and beta chain of rabbit globin); (b) to bind with relatively low affinity (apparent KD less than 5 x 10(-5)) to monomeric wheat germ ribosomes; and (c) to bind selectively and with 6,000-fold higher affinity (apparent KD less than 8 x 10(-9)) to wheat germ ribosomes engaged in the synthesis of secretory protein but not to those engaged in the synthesis of cytoplasmic protein. Low- and high-affinity binding as well as the selective translation-inhibitory effect were abolished after modification of SRP by N-ethyl maleimide. High-affinity binding and the selective translation-inhibitory effect of SRP were largely abolished when the leucine (Leu) analogue beta-hydroxy leucine was incorporated into the nascent secretory polypeptide.
Article
The signal recognition particle (SRP)-mediated elongation arrest of the synthesis of nascent secretory proteins can be released by salt-extracted rough microsomal membranes (Walter, P., and G. Blobel, 1981, J. Cell Biol, 91:557-561). Both the arrest-releasing activity and the signal peptidase activity were solubilized from rough microsomal membranes using the nonionic detergent Nikkol in conjunction with 250 mM KOAc. Chromatography of this extract on SRP-Sepharose separated the arrest-releasing activity from the signal peptidase activity. Further purification of the arrest-releasing activity using sucrose gradient centrifugation allowed the identification of a 72,000-dalton polypeptide as the protein responsible for the activity. Based upon its affinity for SRP, we refer to the 72,000-dalton protein as the SRP receptor. A 60,000-dalton protein fragment (Meyer, D. I., and B. Dobberstein, 1980, J. Cell Biol., 87:503-508) that had been shown previously to reconstitute the translocation activity of protease-digested membranes, was shown here by peptide mapping and immunological criteria to be derived from the SRP receptor. Findings that are in part similar, and in part different from these reported here and in our preceding paper were made independently (Meyer, D. I., E. Krause, and B. Dobberstein, 1982, Nature (Lond.). 297:647-650) and the term "docking protein" was proposed for the SRP receptor. A lower membrane content of both SRP and the SRP receptor than that of membrane bound ribosomes suggests that the SRP-SRP receptor interaction may exist transiently during the formation of a ribosome-membrane junction and during translocation.
Article
Rat liver rough microsomes (RM) contain two integral membrane proteins which are not found in smooth microsomes (SM) and appear to be related to the presence of ribosome-binding sites. These proteins, of molecular weight 65,000 and 63,000, were designated ribophorins I and II, respectively. They were not released from the microsomal membranes by alkali or acid treatment, or when the ribosomes were detached by incubation with puromycin in a high salt medium. The anionic detergent sodium deoxycholate caused solubilization of the ribophorins, but neutral detergents led to their recovery with the sedimentable ribosomes. Ribosomal aggregates containing both ribophorins, but few other membrane proteins, were obtained from RM treated with the nonionic detergent Kyro EOB (2.5 X10(-2) M) in a low ionic strength medium. Sedimentation patterns produced by these aggregates resembled those of large polysomes but were not affected by RNase treatment. The aggregates, however, were dispersed by mild trypsinization (10 microgram trypsin for 30 min at 0 degrees C), incubation with deoxycholate, or in a medium of high salt concentration. These treatments led to a concomitant degradation or release of the ribophorins. It was estimated, from the staining intensity of protein bands in acrylamide gels, that in the Kyro EOB aggregates there were one to two molecules of each ribophorin per ribosome. Sedimentable complexes without ribosomes containing both ribophorins could also be obtained by dissolving RM previously stripped of ribosomes by puromycin-KCl using cholate, a milder detergent than DOC. Electron microscope examination of the residue obtained from RM treated with Kyro EOB showed that the rapidly sedimenting polysome-like aggregates containing the ribophorins consisted of groups of tightly packed ribosomes which were associated with remnants of the microsomal membranes.
Article
The vectorial translocation of nascent proteins through the membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum has been shown to require a specific membrane-bound protein whose cytoplasmic domain can be proteolytically cleaved and isolated as an active peptide of mol wt 60,000 (Meyer and Dobberstein, 1980, J. Cell Biol. 87:503-508). Rabbit antibodies raised against this peptide were used to further characterize the membrane-bound molecule. Immunoprecipitation of solubilized, radiolabeled rough microsomal proteins yielded a single polypeptide of mol wt 72,000, representing the membrane-bound protein from which the 60,000-mol wt peptide was proteolytically derived. The antibody could also be used to remove exclusively the 60,000-mol wt peptide, and thus the translocation activity, from elastase digests tested in a reconstituted system. Moreover, immunoprecipitation of elastase extracts alkylated with [14C] N-ethylmaleimide selected a single species of mol wt 60,000. Immunoprecipitation of in vivo radiolabeled proteins from the appropriate cell type yielded the 72,000-mol wt membrane protein irrespective of the duration of labeling, or if followed by a chase. Subsequent treatment with protease generated the 60,000-mol wt fragment. In addition, the antibody could be used to visualize reticular structures in intact cells which correspond to endoplasmic reticulum at the ultrastructural level. It is thus clear that one membrane component required in the vectorial translocation of nascent secretory (and membrane) proteins is a peptide of mol wt 72,000.
Article
Two proteins (ribophorins I and II), which are integral components of rough microsomal membranes and appear to be related to the bound ribosomes, were shown to be exposed on the surface of rat liver rough microsomes (RM) and to be in close proximity to the bound ribosomes. Both proteins were labeled when intact RM were incubated with a lactoperoxidase iodinating system, but only ribophorin I was digested during mild trypsinization of intact RM. Ribophorin II (63,000 daltons) was only proteolyzed when the luminal face of the microsomal vesicles was made accessible to trypsin by the addition of sublytical detergent concentrations. Only 30--40% of the bound ribosomes were released during trypsinization on intact RM, but ribosome release was almost complete in the presence of low detergent concentrations. Very low glutaraldehyde concentrations (0.005--0.02%) led to the preferential cross-linking of large ribosomal subunits of bound ribosomes to the microsomal membranes. This cross-linking prevented the release of subunits caused by puromycin in media of high ionic strength, but not the incorporation of [3H]puromycin into nascent polypeptide chains. SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis of cross-linked samples a preferential reduction in the intensity of the bands representing the ribophorins and the formation of aggregates which did not penetrate into the gels. At low methyl-4-mercaptobutyrimidate (MMB) concentrations (0.26 mg/ml) only 30% of the ribosomes were cross-linked to the microsomal membranes, as shown by the puromycin-KCl test, but membranes could still be solubilized with 1% DOC. This allowed the isolation of the ribophorins together with the sedimentable ribosomes, as was shown by electrophoresis of the sediments after disruption of the cross-links by reduction. Experiments with RM which contained only inactive ribosomes showed that the presence of nascent chains was not necessary for the reversible cross-linking of ribosomes to the membranes. These observations suggest that ribophorins are in close proximity to the bound ribosomes, as may be expected from components of the ribosome-binding sites.
Article
A simple method is described for converting a standard rabbit reticulocyte cell-free extract (lysate) into an mRNA-dependent protein synthesis system. The lysate is preincubated with CaCl2 and micrococcal nuclease, and then excess ethyleneglycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N′-tetraacetic acid is added to chelate the Ca2+ and inactivate the nuclease. Lysates treated in this way have negligible endogenous amino acid incorporation activity, but 75% of the activity of the original lysate can be recovered by the addition of globin mRNA. The efficiency utilisation of added mRNA and the sensitivity of the system are both very high. No residual nuclease activity could be detected, and the tRNA is functionally unimpaired. Several different species of mRNA have been shown to be translated efficiently into full-sized products of the expected molecular weight up to about 200 000, and there is no detectable accumulation of incomplete protein products. The efficient translation of RNA from two plant viruses (tobacco mosaic virus and cowpea mosaic virus) required heterologous tRNA.
Article
The ability of microsomal membranes to translocate nascent presecretory proteins across their lipid bilayer into the intravesicular space was investigated by using trypsin as a proteolytic probe. We found that under defined conditions trypsin is able to dissect the translocation activity of microsomal membranes into components that can be separated into two fractions, one soluble and the other membrane bound. The trypsinized membrane fraction has lost its translocation activity. Addition of the trypsin-generated soluble fraction, however, results in reconstitution of translocation activity. These results are compatible with the notion proposed in the signal hypothesis that the translocation activity of the microsomal membrane resides in transmembrane protein(s). We propose that trypsin effects solubilization from the membrane of cytosol-exposed domain(s) involved in recognition of the signal sequence or ribosome or both, leaving behind membrane-integrated domain(s) that provide the environment for the passage of the nascent chain across the membrane. Signal peptidase activity was unaffected by trypsinization of microsomal vesicles consistent with a localization of the active site of this enzyme on the cisternal side of the vesicles.
Article
Major translation products of bovine pituitary RNA in a wheat germ cell-free system were identified as larger forms (prehormones) of growth hormone and prolactin containing amino-terminal extensions of 26 or 27 and 30 amino acid residues, respectively. However, translation of bovine pituitary RNA in the wheat germ cell-free system in the presence of microsomal membranes prepared from canine pancreas or bovine pituitary yielded products that were of the same size as authentic growth hormone and prolactin; by partial amino-terminal sequence analysis they were shown to contain the correct unique amino-terminal sequence of prolactin and the two correct amino termini of authentic growth hormone; moreover, they were found to be segregated within the microsomal vesicles in that they were largely inaccessible to degradation by proteolytic enzymes. When microsomal membranes were present after rather than during translation, prehormones were neither cleaved nor segregated. These results strongly suggest that the synthesis and segregation of the authentic hormone observed in the presence of membranes proceeds via a nascent prehormone rather than a completed prehormone.
Article
Two proteins (ribophorins I and II), which are integral components of rough microsomal membranes and appear to be related to the bound ribosomes, were shown to be exposed on the surface of rat liver rough microsomes (RM) and to be in close proximity to the bound ribosomes. Both proteins were labeled when intact RM were incubated with a lactoperoxidase iodinating system, but only ribophorin I was digested during mild trypsinization of intact RM. Ribophorin II (63,000 daltons) was only proteolyzed when the luminal face of the microsomal vesicles was made accessible to trypsin by the addition of sublytical detergent concentrations. Only 30--40% of the bound ribosomes were released during trypsinization on intact RM, but ribosome release was almost complete in the presence of low detergent concentrations. Very low glutaraldehyde concentrations (0.005--0.02%) led to the preferential cross-linking of large ribosomal subunits of bound ribosomes to the microsomal membranes. This cross-linking prevented the release of subunits caused by puromycin in media of high ionic strength, but not the incorporation of [3H]puromycin into nascent polypeptide chains. SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis of cross-linked samples a preferential reduction in the intensity of the bands representing the ribophorins and the formation of aggregates which did not penetrate into the gels. At low methyl-4-mercaptobutyrimidate (MMB) concentrations (0.26 mg/ml) only 30% of the ribosomes were cross-linked to the microsomal membranes, as shown by the puromycin-KCl test, but membranes could still be solubilized with 1% DOC. This allowed the isolation of the ribophorins together with the sedimentable ribosomes, as was shown by electrophoresis of the sediments after disruption of the cross-links by reduction. Experiments with RM which contained only inactive ribosomes showed that the presence of nascent chains was not necessary for the reversible cross-linking of ribosomes to the membranes. These observations suggest that ribophorins are in close proximity to the bound ribosomes, as may be expected from components of the ribosome-binding sites.
Article
Canine pancreas was fractionated into free ribosomes and rough microsomes. Detached ribosomes were prepared by treatment of rough microsomes with detergent. Poly(A)-containing mRNA was extracted from rough microsomes. The biosynthesis of canine pancreatic secretory proteins was studied by comparing proteins synthesized in vitro by translation of mRNA or by completion of nascent chains present in free ribosomes, rough microsomes, and detached ribosomes with proteins synthesized in tissue slices using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate and subsequent autoradiography. The banding pattern of authentic secreted proteins synthesized in tissue slices was largely congruent with that obtained from the translation products of rough microsomes indicating that the bulk of the mRNA engaged with rough microsomes codes for secretory proteins. The banding pattern of translation products from mRNA in the absence of microsomal membranes was not congruent with that of authentic secretory proteins. Primary translation products for trypsinogen and the other serine protease zymogens using mRNA appeared to be larger in molecular weight than authentic proteins by 1000–2000 and are thus designated ‘presecretory’ proteins. The banding pattern from the translation products of free ribosomes, which are essentially devoid of membranes, was similar to that of ‘presecretory’ proteins. Translation of mRNA in the presence of microsomal membranes yielded a banding pattern for serine protease zymogens congruent with that of the translation products of rough microsomes, and these products were resistant to posttranslational proteolysis, indicating that segregation and processing of these polypeptide chains had taken place during translation in vitro.
Article
Rat liver rough microsomes (RM) contain two integral membrane proteins which are not found in smooth microsomes (SM) and appear to be related to the presence of ribosome-binding sites. These proteins, of molecular weight 65,000 and 63,000, were designated ribophorins I and II, respectively. They were not released from the microsomal membranes by alkali or acid treatment, or when the ribosomes were detached by incubation with puromycin in a high salt medium. The anionic detergent sodium deoxycholate caused solubilization of the ribophorins, but neutral detergents led to their recovery with the sedimentable ribosomes. Ribosomal aggregates containing both ribophorins, but few other membrane proteins, were obtained from RM treated with the nonionic detergent Kyro EOB (2.5 X10(-2) M) in a low ionic strength medium. Sedimentation patterns produced by these aggregates resembled those of large polysomes but were not affected by RNase treatment. The aggregates, however, were dispersed by mild trypsinization (10 microgram trypsin for 30 min at 0 degrees C), incubation with deoxycholate, or in a medium of high salt concentration. These treatments led to a concomitant degradation or release of the ribophorins. It was estimated, from the staining intensity of protein bands in acrylamide gels, that in the Kyro EOB aggregates there were one to two molecules of each ribophorin per ribosome. Sedimentable complexes without ribosomes containing both ribophorins could also be obtained by dissolving RM previously stripped of ribosomes by puromycin-KCl using cholate, a milder detergent than DOC. Electron microscope examination of the residue obtained from RM treated with Kyro EOB showed that the rapidly sedimenting polysome-like aggregates containing the ribophorins consisted of groups of tightly packed ribosomes which were associated with remnants of the microsomal membranes.
Article
Fractionation of MOPC 41 DL-1 tumors revealed that the mRNA for the light chain of immunoglobulin is localized exclusively in membrane-bound ribosomes. It was shown that the translation product of isolated light chain mRNA in a heterologous protein-synthesizing system in vitro is larger than the authentic secreted light chain; this confirms similar results from several laboratories. The synthesis in vitro of a precursor protein of the light chain is not an artifact of translation in a heterologous system, because it was shown that detached polysomes, isolated from detergent-treated rough microsomes, not only contain nascent light chains which have already been proteolytically processed in vivo but also contain unprocessed nascent light chains. In vitro completion of these nascent light chains thus resulted in the synthesis of some chains having the same mol wt as the authentic secreted light chains, because of completion of in vivo proteolytically processed chains and of other chains which, due to the completion of unprocessed chains, have the same mol wt as the precursor of the light chain. In contrast, completion of the nascent light chains contained in rough microsomes resulted in the synthesis of only processed light chains. Taken together, these results indicate that the processing activity is present in isolated rough microsomes, that it is localized in the membrane moiety of rough microsomes, and, therefore, that it was most likely solubilized during detergent treatment used for the isolation of detached polysomes. Furthermore, these results established that processing in vivo takes place before completion of the nascent chain. The data also indicate that in vitro processing of nascent chains by rough microsomes is dependent on ribosome binding to the membrane. If the latter process is interfered with by aurintricarboxylic acid, rough microsomes also synthesize some unprocessed chains. The data presented in this paper have been interpreted in the light of a recently proposed hypothesis. This hypothesis, referred to as the signal hypothesis, is described in greater detail in the Discussion section.
Article
Reticulocyte polyribosomes with labeled nascent chains were subjected to low-temperature proteolytic digestion by four different enzymes. Approximately 50% of the radioactive material in the nascent chain was digested by each of these enzymes, but the hydrodynamic integrity of the ribosome was maintained. Disruption of the ribosome, however, led to the complete proteolysis of the nascent chain. Pulse experiments showed that the most recently synthesized part of the chain was resistant to proteolysis, presumably because it is shielded by the ribosome. The resistant fractions were characterized by Sephadex column fractionation and were found to contain approximately 30 to 35 amino acid residues. These experiments suggest that the site for adding amino acids may be in the interior of the ribosome.
Article
Rough microsomes were incubated in an in vitro amino acid-incorporating system for labeling the nascent polypeptide chains on the membrane-bound ribosomes. Sucrose density gradient analysis showed that ribosomes did not detach from the membranes during incorporation in vitro. Trypsin and chymotrypsin treatment of microsomes at 0 degrees led to the detachment of ribosomes from the membranes; furthermore, trypsin produced the dissociation of released, messenger RNA-free ribosomes into subunits. Electron microscopic observations indicated that the membranes remained as closed vesicles. In contrast to the situation with free polysomes, nascent chains contained in rough microsomes were extensively protected from proteolytic attach. By separating the microsomal membranes from the released subunits after proteolysis, it was found that nascent chains are split into two size classes of fragments when the ribosomes are detached. These were shown by column chromatography on Sephadex G-50 to be: (a) small (39 amino acid residues) ribosome-associated fragments and (b) a mixture of larger membrane-associated fragments excluded from the column. The small fragments correspond to the carboxy-terminal segments which are protected by the large subunits of free polysomes. The larger fragments associated with the microsomal membranes depend for their protection on membrane integrity. These fragments are completely digested if the microsomes are subjected to proteolysis in the presence of detergents. These results indicate that when the nascent polypeptides growing in the large subunits of membrane-bound ribosomes emerge from the ribosomes they enter directly into a close association with the microsomal membrane.
Article
Free ribosomes containing nascent polypeptide chains labeled in vitro were submitted to proteolysis at 0 degrees by a mixture of trypsin and chymotrypsin. Sucrose gradient analysis showed that polysome patterns are retained even after 24 hr of proteolysis in the cold, while messenger RNA-free ribosomes (generated progressively during in vitro incorporation) are, within 2 hr, completely dissociated into subunits by trypsin. Although ribosomes and subunits are not extensively degraded into smaller fragments during low temperature proteolysis, changes in the acrylamide gel electrophoresis pattern showed that most ribosomal proteins are accessible to and are partially degraded by the proteases. Ribosome-bound nascent polypeptides are partially resistant to proteolysis at 0 degrees , although they are totally digested at 37 degrees or when the ribosomal subunit structure is disrupted by other means. Radioactivity incorporated into nascent chains during incubation times shorter than 3 min was mostly resistant to digestion at 0 degrees . A larger fraction of the initial radioactivity became degraded in ribosomes which incorporated for longer times. In these ribosomes, the amount of radioactivity which was resistant to proteolysis was constant and independent of the initial value, which reflects the labeled length of the nascent chains. These results suggest that the growing end of the nascent polypeptide is resistant to digestion and is protected from proteolytic attack by the ribosomal structure. A pulse and chase experiment confirmed this suggestion, showing that the protected segment is located at the carboxy-terminal end of the nascent chain. The protected segment was contained in the large ribosomal subunit and had a length of approximately 39 amino acid residues, as estimated by chromatography on Sephadex G-50.
Article
In addition to its previously characterized, six different polypeptide components, signal recognition protein--which functions in protein translocation across and integration into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane--contains a 7S RNA molecule. The RNA is closely identified with the small cytoplasmic 7SL RNA and is required for both structural and functional properties of signal recognition protein--which we therefore rename signal recognition particle.
Article
Signal recognition particle (SRP) is a ribonucleoprotein consisting of six distinct polypeptides and one molecule of small cytoplasmic 7SL-RNA. The particle was previously shown to function in protein translocation across and protein integration into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Polypeptide specific antibodies were raised in rabbits against the 72,000-, 68,000-, and 54,000-mol-wt polypeptide of SRP. All three antibodies are shown to neutralize SRP activity in vitro. A solid phase radioimmune assay is described and used to follow SRP in various cell fractions. The partitioning of SRP is shown to be dependent on the ionic conditions of the fractionation. Under conditions approximating physiological ionic strength, SRP is found to be about equally distributed between a membrane associated (38%) and a free (15%) or ribosome associated (47%) state. Furthermore, it is shown that greater than 75% of the total cellular 7SL-RNA is associated with SRP polypeptide in these fractions. Thus it is likely that the major--if not the only--cellular function of 7SL-RNA is as a part of SRP.
Article
The signal recognition particle (SRP)-mediated elongation arrest of the synthesis of nascent secretory proteins can be released by salt-extracted rough microsomal membranes (Walter, P., and G. Blobel, 1981, J. Cell Biol, 91:557-561). Both the arrest-releasing activity and the signal peptidase activity were solubilized from rough microsomal membranes using the nonionic detergent Nikkol in conjunction with 250 mM KOAc. Chromatography of this extract on SRP-Sepharose separated the arrest-releasing activity from the signal peptidase activity. Further purification of the arrest-releasing activity using sucrose gradient centrifugation allowed the identification of a 72,000-dalton polypeptide as the protein responsible for the activity. Based upon its affinity for SRP, we refer to the 72,000-dalton protein as the SRP receptor. A 60,000-dalton protein fragment (Meyer, D. I., and B. Dobberstein, 1980, J. Cell Biol., 87:503-508) that had been shown previously to reconstitute the translocation activity of protease-digested membranes, was shown here by peptide mapping and immunological criteria to be derived from the SRP receptor. Findings that are in part similar, and in part different from these reported here and in our preceding paper were made independently (Meyer, D. I., E. Krause, and B. Dobberstein, 1982, Nature (Lond.). 297:647-650) and the term "docking protein" was proposed for the SRP receptor. A lower membrane content of both SRP and the SRP receptor than that of membrane bound ribosomes suggests that the SRP-SRP receptor interaction may exist transiently during the formation of a ribosome-membrane junction and during translocation.
Article
Salt-extracted microsomal membranes (K-RM) contain an activity that is capable of releasing the signal recognition particle (SRP)-mediated elongation arrest of the synthesis of secretory polypeptides (Walter, P., and G. Blobel, 1981, J. Cell Biol., 91:557-561). This arrest-releasing activity was shown to be a function of an integral microsomal membrane protein, termed the SRP receptor (Gilmore, R., P. Walter, and G. Blobel, 1982, J. Cell Biol., 95:470-477). We attempted to solubilize the arrest-releasing activity of the SRP receptor by mild protease digestion of K-RM using either trypsin or elastase. We found, however, that neither a trypsin, nor an elastase "solubilized" supernatant fraction exhibited the arrest-releasing activity. Only when either the trypsin- or elastase-derived supernatant fraction was combined with the trypsinized membrane fraction, which by itself was also inactive, was the arrest-releasing activity restored. Release of the elongation arrest was followed by the translocation of the secretory protein across the microsomal membrane and the removal of the signal peptide. Thus, although we have been unable to proteolytically sever the arrest-releasing activity from K-RM and thereby to uncouple the release of the elongation arrest from the process of chain translocation, we have been able to proteolytically dissect and reconstitute the arrest-releasing activity. Furthermore, we found that the arrest-releasing activity of the SRP receptor can be inactivated by alkylation of K-RM with N-ethylmaleimide.
Article
Yeast cells secrete a variety of glycosylated proteins. At least two of these proteins, invertase and acid phosphatase, fail to be secreted in a new class of mutants that are temperature-sensitive for growth. Unlike the yeast secretory mutants previously described (class A sec mutants; Novick, P., C. Field, and R. Schekman, 1980, Cell., 21:205-420), class B sec mutants (sec 53, sec 59) fail to produce active secretory enzymes at the restrictive temperature (37 degrees C). sec 53 and sec 59 appear to be defective in reactions associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. Although protein synthesis continues at a nearly normal rate for 2 h at 37 degrees C, incorporation of [3H]mannose into glycoprotein is reduced. Immunoreactive polypeptide forms of invertase accumulate within the cell which have mobilities on SDS PAGE consistent with incomplete glycosylation: sec 53 produces little or no glycosylated invertase, and sec 59 accumulates forms containing 0-3 of the 9-10 N-linked oligosaccharide chains that are normally added to the protein. In addition to secreted enzymes, maturation of the vacuolar glycoprotein carboxypeptidase Y, incorporation of the plasma membrane sulfate permease activity, and secretion of the major cell wall proteins are blocked at 37 degrees C.
Article
The site of the nascent polypeptide chain as it leaves the ribosome has been localized on the "exit domain" of the Escherichia coli ribosome by using IgG antibodies directed against the enzyme beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23). Thus, a functional site has been mapped on intact 70S ribosomes. The exit site is on the large subunit, approximately 70 A from the interface between subunits and nearly 150 A from the central protuberance, the likely site of peptide transfer. It is adjacent to the region corresponding to the rough endoplasmic membrane binding region of the eukaryotic ribosome but distant from ribosomal components participating in mRNA recognition and polypeptide elongation (i.e., distant from the "translational domain"). These results, together with the protease protection experiments of others, provide evidence that the nascent protein chain probably passes through the ribosome in an unfolded, fully extended conformation.
Article
The capacity of microsomal membranes to translocate nascent presecretory proteins across their lipid bilayer can be largely abolished by extracting them with high ionic strength buffers. It can be reconstituted by adding the salt extract back to the depleted membranes [Warren, G. & Doberstein, B. (1978) Nature (London) 273, 569-571]. Utilizing hydrophobic chromatography, we purified to homogeneity a protein component of the salt extract that reconstitutes the translocation activity of the extracted membranes. This component behaves as a homogeneous species upon gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, adsorption chromatography, and sucrose-gradient centrifugation. When examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in NaDodSO4, six polypeptides with apparent Mr of 72,000, 68,000, 54,000, 19,000, 14,000, and 9000 are observed in about equal and constant stoichiometry, suggesting that they are subunits of a complex. The sedimentation coefficient of 11S is in good agreement with the sum of the Mr of the subunits. The Mr 68,000 and 9000 subunits label intensely with N-[3H]ethylmaleimide. Thus, the reported sulfhydryl group requirement of the translocation activity in the unfractionated extract [Jackson, R. C., Walter, P. & Blobel, G. (1980) Nature (London), 286, 174-176] may be localized to either or both the Mr 68,000 and 9000 subunits of the purified complex.
Article
The previously observed (Walter, et al. 1981 J. Cell Biol. 91:545-550) inhibitory effect of SRP selectively on the cell-free translation of mRNA for secretory protein (preprolactin) was shown here to be caused by a signal sequence-induced and site-specific arrest in polypeptide chain elongation. The Mr of the SRP-arrested nascent preprolactin chain was estimated to be 8,000 corresponding to approximately 70 amino acid residues. Because the signal sequence of preprolactin comprises 30 residues and because approximately 40 residues of the nascent chain are buried (protected from protease) in the large ribosomal subunit, we conclude that it is the interaction of SRP with the amino-terminal signal peptide of the nascent chain (emerged from the large ribosomal subunit) that modulates translation and thereby causes an arrest in chain elongation. This arrest is released upon SRP-mediated binding of the elongation-arrested ribosomes to the microsomal membrane, resulting in chain completion and translocation into the microsomal vesicle.
Article
Translocation-competent microsomal membrane vesicles of dog pancreas were shown to selectively bind nascent, in vitro assembled polysomes synthesizing secretory protein (bovine prolactin) but not those synthesizing cytoplasmic protein (alpha and beta chain of rabbit globin). This selective polysome binding capacity was abolished when the microsomal vesicles were salt-extracted but was restored by an 11S protein (SRP, Signal Recognition Protein) previously purified from the salt-extract of microsomal vesicles (Walter and Blobel, 1980. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 77:7112-7116). SRP-dependent polysome recognition and binding to the microsomal membrane was shown to be a prerequisite for chain translocation. Modification of SRP by N-ethyl maleimide abolished its ability to mediate nascent polysome binding to the microsomal vesicles. Likewise, polysome binding to the microsomal membrane was largely abolished when beta-hydroxy leucine, a Leu analogue, was incorporated into nascent secretory polypeptides. The data in this and the preceding paper provide conclusive experimental evidence that chain translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane is a receptor-mediated event and thus rule out proposals that chain translocation occurs spontaneously and without the mediation by proteins. Moreover, our data here demonstrate conclusively that the initial events that lead to translocation and provide for its specificity are protein-protein (signal sequence plus ribosome with SRP) and not protein-lipid (signal sequence with lipid bilayer) interactions.
Article
An 11S protein composed of six polypeptide chains was previously purified from a salt extract of dog pancreas microsomal membranes and shown to be required for translocation of nascent secretory protein across the microsomal membrane (Wistar and Blobel 1980 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 77:7112-7116). This 11S protein, termed signal recognition protein (SRP), has been shown here (a) to inhibit translation in the wheat germ cell-free system selectively of mRNA for secretory protein (bovine preprolactin) but not of mRNA for cytoplasmic protein (alpha and beta chain of rabbit globin); (b) to bind with relatively low affinity (apparent KD less than 5 x 10(-5)) to monomeric wheat germ ribosomes; and (c) to bind selectively and with 6,000-fold higher affinity (apparent KD less than 8 x 10(-9)) to wheat germ ribosomes engaged in the synthesis of secretory protein but not to those engaged in the synthesis of cytoplasmic protein. Low- and high-affinity binding as well as the selective translation-inhibitory effect were abolished after modification of SRP by N-ethyl maleimide. High-affinity binding and the selective translation-inhibitory effect of SRP were largely abolished when the leucine (Leu) analogue beta-hydroxy leucine was incorporated into the nascent secretory polypeptide.
Article
We propose that the initial event in the secretion of proteins across membranes and their insertion into membranes is the spontaneous penetration of the hydrophobic portion of the bilayer by a helical hairpin. Energetic considerations of polypeptide structures in a nonpolar, lipid environment compared with an aqueous environment suggest that only alpha and 3(10) helices will be observed in the hydrophobic interior of membranes. Insertion of a polypeptide is accomplished by a hairpin structure composed of two helices, which will partition into membranes if the free energy arising from burying hydrophobic helical surfaces exceeds the free energy "cost" of burying potentially charged and hydrogen-bonding groups. We suggest, for example, that the hydrophobic leader peptide found in secreted proteins and in many membrane proteins forms one of these helices and is oriented in the membrane with its N terminus inside. In secreted proteins, the leader functions by pulling polar portions of a protein into the membrane as the second helix of the hairpin. The occurrence of all categories of membrane proteins can be rationalized by the hydrophobic or hydrophilic character of the two helices of the inserted hairpin and, for some integral membrane proteins, by events in which a single terminal helix is inserted. We propose that, because of the distribution of polar and nonpolar sequences in the polypeptide sequence, secretion and the insertion of membrane proteins are spontaneous processes that do not require the participation of additional specific membrane receptors or transport proteins.
7SL small cytoplasmic RNA is an integral component of the signal recognition particle
  • Walter