Increased rate of E-rosette formation by T lymphocytes of pregnant women who drink ethanol

ArticleinClinical Immunology and Immunopathology 33(1):67-79 · November 1984with4 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/0090-1229(84)90293-9 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Ethanol use by pregnant women increased, in a dose-dependent manner, the rate of sheep erythrocyte rosette (E-rosette) formation with T lymphocytes. The time curve for E-rosette formation by T cells from nondrinking subjects was biphasic, with a rapid formation of half the E-rosettes within the first 16 min, followed by a much slower rate for E-rosette formation until the maximal T-cell percentage was reached overnight. For pregnant drinkers, greater than 85% of the E-rosettes formed during the initial rate period, with a concomitant smaller number forming during the overnight incubation. Despite the faster initial rate of E-rosette formation in the drinking subjects, the total percentage T cells was the same for both groups. Other demographic factors, like tobacco or marijuana use, or trimester, did not significantly contribute to the observed differences. An increase in the rate of E rosetting was also obtained by incubating lymphocytes from nondrinkers overnight in physiologically attainable concentrations of ethanol (less than or equal to 0.1%). These results demonstrate that drinking by pregnant women, even at relatively moderate levels (2 oz/week absolute ethanol), causes alterations in their cellular immune systems. With the ability of ethanol to cross the placental barrier and persist in utero, it is apparent that these levels of ethanol have the potential to affect the developing fetal immune system.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homeostasis has been defined as a state of metastable equilibrium wherein the constancy of the internal milieu is forever being challenged 1,2 Using this definition, any antihomestatic stimulus may be regarded as a stressor2. As reviewed eleswhere 3,4, the neural and immune systems share many basic physiologic processes in response to environmental stressors. The ultimate purpose of the neuroimmune system is maintenance of homeostasis. Neurons and lymphocytes are pluripotent sensory cells5 capable of eliciting and responding to various hormone and hormonelike peptides that have systemic and local effects characteristic of endocrine, exocrine, and paracrine functions. The primary physiologic basis for the adaptability of the neuroimmue system resides in a complex network of receptor-response systems. This review focuses on the means by which opiates and other behaviorally active substances, as examples of environmental stressors of known behavioral modifying capacity, can modulate receptor activity on T-cell lymphocytes. This capacity for receptor modulation appears to be a primary means by which opiates and like factors evoke both neurobiological and immunobiological changes in host physiology and responsive behavior.
    Chapter · Jan 1986 · Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most people who are exposed to AIDS do not get the syndrome. It seems clear that there must be cofactors. Most people with AIDS have a history of alcohol or other drug use, and many of the drugs used have been shown to suppress the immune system. The correlation between drug use and development of AIDS in several populations is striking, and it is suggested that definitive research into this possible cofactor be urgently initiated. The elimination of cofactors may present an immediate way to control this epidemic. Suggestions are made as to how and why alcohol and drug treatment professionals should become a part of this effort.
    Article · Feb 1986
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simultaneous and independent use of cocaine and alcohol by heroin addicts was shown to variably modulate the ability of their T cells to form E-rosettes with sheep erythrocytes (E). As reported previously, the percentages of E-rosette-forming T cells of both active and total types were depressed in association with heroin addiction. We show here that the kinetic curve of the rate of E-rosette formation is also depressed by heroin use and that the use of cocaine but not alcohol by heroin addicts reverses depression of E-rosette formation by heroin. The percentages of E-rosette-forming T cells from the bloods of heroin addicts who used both alcohol and cocaine, as well as the kinetic rate curves of E-rosette formation, were intermediate between the essentially normal levels found for heroin addicts who used cocaine and the severely depressed levels evident for users of heroin alone or heroin plus alcohol. Modulation of the levels of E-rosette formation by alcohol used in conjunction with cocaine and/or heroin was variably dose dependent. Polydrug effects evident by analyses of E-rosette formation were not seen when the percentages of lymphocytes reactive with LYT-3 (anti-E-receptor, 9.6 epitope) and OKT-3 (anti-total T cell) monoclonal antibodies were assessed cytofluorometrically, although the data suggested that subnormal percentages of LYT-3+ T cells were present when heroin addicts also used cocaine. These findings are relevant to basic understanding of T-cell physiology from a neuroimmunological perspective and also suggest ways that addictive drugs may modulate the immunocompetence of drug addicts.
    Article · Dec 1986
Show more