Osseointegration and Its Experimental Background
Available from: Declan J. Curran
- "The proposed compositions in this work are expected to provide superior performance as they are expected to inhibit bacterial growth due to the addition of zinc, while the absence of aluminum minimizes the possibility of the coating causing toxicity in surrounding tissues. Furthermore, incorporating titanium in the glass compositions is expected enhance osseointegration   . "
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ABSTRACT: Bioactive glasses have found applications in diverse fields, including orthopedics and dentistry, where they have been utilized for the fixation of bone and teeth and as scaffolds for drug delivery. The present work outlines the characterization of two novel titanium-containing glass series, one silica-based and one borate-based. For the silica-based series, titanium is added at the expense of silicon dioxide whereas for the borate-based series, it is added at the expense of boron oxide as confirmed by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. Amorphous structures are obtained for silica-based glass at 15mol% TiO2 and for borate-based glasses at 0mol% and 5mol%, with low crystal peak intensities exhibited within the remaining glasses. MAS-NMR proves the role of P2O5 as a network modifier for both glass series by evidencing only Q0 structures (and Q1 structures for the silica-based glasses with crystal structures), whereas FTIR proves that Ti acted as a network modifier in the glass as there was an absence of peaks assignable to titanium bonding. This implies that the two glass series will degrade in-situ and release ions at the site of implantation. Additionally, thermal data sourced from these glasses indicate processing windows which make them suitable for enameling onto implants, with the borate-based series exhibiting greater processing windows over the silica-based series, hence making the borate glasses more suitable for coating metallic implants compared to their silica-based counterparts.
Available from: María Carmen De Andrés
- "Typically, the approach is to harness the therapeutic potential of stem cells together with an appropriate biomaterial  . Ti has long been the gold standard for orthopaedic given the excellent biocompatibility, low corrosion, wear resistance and to promote osseointegration at the boneimplant interface . For the development of osseointegration the recruitment of cells with osteogenic potential is essential. "
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To evaluate the osteo-regenerative potential of Titanium (Ti) modified by Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) beam (Yb-YAG) upon culture with human Skeletal Stem Cells (hSSCs(1)).
Human skeletal cell populations were isolated from the bone marrow of haematologically normal patients undergoing primary total hip replacement following appropriate consent. STRO-1(+) hSSC(1) function was examined for 10 days across four groups using discs: i) machined Ti surface group in basal media (Mb(2)), ii) machined Ti surface group in osteogenic media (Mo(3)), iii) LASER-modified Ti group in basal media (Lb(4)) and, iv) LASER-modified Ti group in osteogenic media (Lo(5)). Molecular analysis and qRT-PCR as well as functional analysis including biochemistry (DNA, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP(6)) specific activity), live/dead immunostaining (Cell Tracker Green(CTG(7))/Ethidium Homodimer-1(EH-1(8))), and fluorescence staining (for vinculin and phalloidin) were undertaken. Inverted, confocal and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) approaches were used to characterise cell adherence, proliferation, and phenotype.
Enhanced cell spreading and morphological rearrangement, including focal adhesions were observed following culture of hSSCs(1) on LASER surfaces in both basal and osteogenic conditions. Biochemical analysis demonstrated enhanced ALP(6) specific activity on the hSSCs(1)-seeded on LASER-modified surface in basal culture media. Molecular analysis demonstrated enhanced ALP(6) and osteopontin expression on titanium LASER treated surfaces in basal conditions. SEM, inverted microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed extensive proliferation and migration of human bone marrow stromal cells on all surfaces evaluated.
LASER-modified Ti surfaces modify the behaviour of hSSCs(1). In particular, SSC(1) adhesion, osteogenic gene expression, cell morphology and cytoskeleton structure were affected. The current studies show Ti LASER modification can enhance the osseointegration between Ti and skeletal cells, with important implications for orthopaedic application.
Available from: Purnima S Kumar
- "Root-form or endosseous implants are screwshaped devices made of titanium alloy that replace the root of a tooth. Stability is achieved through a process of osseointegration, which is defined as intimate structural and functional contact between the implant and surrounding bone (Branemark, 1983). Osseointegrated implants are connected to ceramic or metal crowns by structures called abutments, and are said to be " functionally loaded " when occlusal contact is established following crown placement. "
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ABSTRACT: Peri-implant diseases (peri-implantitis and peri-implant mucositis) are bacterially driven infections. Peri-implantitis leads to aggressive bone resorption and eventual loss of the implant. Traditionally, peri-implantitis was regarded as microbially similar to periodontitis, and translocation of periodontal pathogens into the peri-implant crevice was considered as a critical factor in disease causation. However, evidence is emerging to suggest that the peri-implant and periodontal ecosystems differ in many important ways. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence supporting microbial congruence and discordance in these two communities. Current evidence suggests that osseointegrated implants truly create unique microenvironments that force microbial adaptation and selection. Further studies that revisit the 'microbial reservoir' hypothesis and identify species that play an etiologic role in peri-implant disease and examine their transmission from teeth are needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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