Article

Abdominal adipose tissue distribution, obesity, and risk of cardiovascular disease and death: 13 year follow up of participants in the study of men born in 1913. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed)

British medical journal (Clinical research ed.) 06/1984; 288(6428):1401-4. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.288.6428.1401
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

In a prospective study of risk factors for ischaemic heart disease 792 54 year old men selected by year of birth (1913) and residence in Gothenburg agreed to attend for questioning and a battery of anthropometric and other measurements in 1967. Thirteen years later these baseline findings were reviewed in relation to the numbers of men who had subsequently suffered a stroke, ischaemic heart disease, or death from all causes. Neither quintiles nor deciles of initial indices of obesity (body mass index, sum of three skinfold thickness measurements, waist or hip circumference) showed a significant correlation with any of the three end points studied. Statistically significant associations were, however, found between the waist to hip circumference ratio and the occurrence of stroke (p = 0.002) and ischaemic heart disease (p = 0.04). When the confounding effect of body mass index or the sum of three skinfold thicknesses was accounted for the waist to hip circumference ratio was significantly associated with all three end points. This ratio, however, was not an independent long term predictor of these end points when smoking, systolic blood pressure, and serum cholesterol concentration were taken into account. These results indicate that in middle aged men the distribution of fat deposits may be a better predictor of cardiovascular disease and death than the degree of adiposity.

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    • "The distribution of body fat, especially when located centrally around the abdomen, is widely recognized as an important predictor of cardiovascular and metabolic risk [8]. Truncal obesity is a strong independent risk factor contributing to coronary heart disease [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Over the years, physical activity and exercise have been used to positively impact the health and quality of life of persons infected with HIV and, more recently, has been associated with a spectrum of body composition changes. The aim of this review was to examine the effects of various exercise interventions on body composition in HIV positive adults, using a search strategy of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic review was performed by five independent reviewers using a predetermined protocol adapted from previous research for assessing the articles for inclusion, the extracted data, and methodological quality. Eight RCTs involving 430 (26% female) HIV positive adults performing exercise a minimum of thrice weekly for at least six weeks were finally selected: Four were progressive resistance training (PRT) studies, three were aerobic training (AT) studies, and one involved yoga. In the PRT studies, there were significant increases in three anthropometric measures, namely, body mass, sum of skinfolds and sum of limb girths. In the AT studies, significant decreases were found in seven anthropometric measures, namely, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body mass, triceps skinfold, waist circumference and sum of skinfolds. With yoga, the changes were non-significant. Exercise contributes to improved body composition and, when applied safely, appears to be beneficial for adults living with HIV/AIDS. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously due to the relatively few RCTs published to date. Future studies would benefit from increased attention to sample size, female participants, participant follow-up, complete statistical analysis and intention-to-treat analysis.
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    • "The increasing prevalence of hypertension or high blood pressure is attributed to population growth, aging and behavioral risk factors such as unhealthy diet, uses of alcohol, Lack of physical activity, excess weight or obesity, exposure to persistent stress, socioeconomic condition and demographical variables etc. High blood pressure was found as greater with high BMI ≥27kgm -2 (Obesity) among male (35%) and female (27%) (Bruce, 1992). Increased risk of cardiovascular disease has been found in individuals have high blood pressure with contribution of excess fat in the abdominal region (Larsson 1984; and Lapidus 1984). The problem is widely addressed by various scholar and scientist namely Dobbelsteyn et al.(2001); Mohan et al. (2007); Mbouemboue et al. (2012); Bruce et al. (1992); JNC VII (2003), and others. "

    Full-text · Dataset · May 2015
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    • "The increasing prevalence of hypertension or high blood pressure is attributed to population growth, aging and behavioral risk factors such as unhealthy diet, uses of alcohol, Lack of physical activity, excess weight or obesity, exposure to persistent stress, socioeconomic condition and demographical variables etc. High blood pressure was found as greater with high BMI ≥27kgm -2 (Obesity) among male (35%) and female (27%) (Bruce, 1992). Increased risk of cardiovascular disease has been found in individuals have high blood pressure with contribution of excess fat in the abdominal region (Larsson 1984; and Lapidus 1984). The problem is widely addressed by various scholar and scientist namely Dobbelsteyn et al.(2001); Mohan et al. (2007); Mbouemboue et al. (2012); Bruce et al. (1992); JNC VII (2003), and others. "
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