A hominine hip bone, KNM-ER 3228, from east Lake Turkana, Kenya

Article · April 1984with39 Reads
DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.1330630404 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
A male hominine partial hip bone, KNM -ER 3228, from East Lake Turkana , Kenya is described. In most of its features this specimen resembles modern human male hip bones. This is especially true for functional features related to weight transfer from the trunk to the pelvis and within the pelvis, and to the effective action of musculature arising from the pelvis during the performance of the modern human type of bipedalism . KNM -ER 3228 is very similar to the Olduvai Hominid 28 and the Arago XLIV hip bones, both attributed to Homo erectus .
    • (e.g., Rak and Arensburg, 1987;Rak, 1990;Arsuaga et al., 1999;Rosenberg et al., 2006). We emphasize caution in this interpretation, however, as the portion of the pelvis that is most flaring in these fossil hominins is the region just anterior to the iliac pillar ( Rose, 1984;Ruff, 1995), which is not preserved in Omo I. However, if Omo I was not particularly wide across the pelvis, this would be consistent with modern sub-Saharan Africans today ( Ruff, 1990Ruff, , 1991Ruff, , 2002Nuger, 2008;Middleton, 2015) and consistent with work showing that even European Upper Paleolithic peoples (~50e10 ka) had body shapes closest to modern sub-Saharan Africans ( Holliday, 1997).
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Omo-Kibish I (Omo I) from southern Ethiopia is the oldest anatomically modern Homo sapiens skeleton currently known (196 ± 5 ka). A partial hipbone (os coxae) of Omo I was recovered more than 30 years after the first portion of the skeleton was recovered, a find which is significant because human pelves can be informative about an individual's sex, age-at-death, body size, obstetrics and parturition, and trunk morphology. Recent human pelves are distinct from earlier Pleistocene Homo spp. pelves because they are mediolaterally narrower in bispinous breadth, have more vertically oriented ilia, lack a well-developed iliac pillar, and have distinct pubic morphology. The pelvis of Omo I provides an opportunity to test whether the earliest modern humans had the pelvic morphology characteristic of modern humans today and to shed light onto the paleobiology of the earliest humans. Here, we formally describe the preservation and morphology of the Omo I hipbone, and quantitatively and qualitatively compare the hipbone to recent humans and relevant fossil Homo. The Omo I hipbone is modern human in appearance, displaying a moderate iliac tubercle (suggesting a reduced iliac pillar) and an ilium that is not as laterally flaring as earlier Homo. Among those examined in this study, the Omo I ischium is most similar in shape to (but substantially larger than) that of recent Sudanese people. Omo I has features that suggest this skeleton belonged to a female. The stature estimates in this study were derived from multiple bones from the upper and lower part of the body, and suggest that there may be differences in the upper and lower limb proportions of the earliest modern humans compared to recent humans. The large size and robusticity of the Omo I pelvis is in agreement with other studies that have found that modern human reduction in postcranial robusticity occurred later in our evolutionary history.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2017
    • habilis/rudolfensis) and H. ergaster, and the archaeological inventory includes both Oldowan as well as the earliest known Acheulean material (Lepre et al. 2011;Roche et al. 2003). The critical interval covered by the Kaitio core also includes the period when hominins first displayed fully terrestrial adaptations similar to modern humans as well as when they expanded their range outside of Africa, an expansion of East African grassland habitats, and an episode of major faunal turnover in the region (Antón 2003; Bobe and Behrensmeyer 2004; Bobe and Leakey 2009;Levin et al. 2011;Rose 1984). The West Turkana datasets will allow us to test several key hypotheses relating major events in hominin and other faunal evolution shortly after 2 Ma to environmental change.
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The possibility of a causal relationship between Earth history processes and hominin evolution in Africa has been the subject of intensive paleoanthropological research for the last 25 years. One fundamental question is: can any geohistorical processes, in particular, climatic ones, be characterized with su cient precision to enable temporal correlation with events in hominin evolution and provide support for a possible causal mechanism for evolutionary changes? Previous a empts to link paleoclimate and hominin evolution have centered on evidence from the outcrops where the hominin fossils are found, as understanding whether and how hominin populations responded to habitat change must be examined at the local basinal scale. However, these outcrop records typically provide incomplete, low-resolution climate and environmental histories, and surface weathering often precludes the application of highly sensitive, state-of-the-art paleoenvironmental methods. Continuous and well-preserved deep-sea drill core records have provided an alternative approach to reconstructing the context of hominin evolu- tion, but have been collected at great distances from hominin sites and typically integrate information over vast spatial scales. The goal of the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) is to analyze climate and other Earth system dynamics using detailed paleoenvironmental data acquired through scienti c drilling of la- custrine depocenters at or near six key paleoanthropological sites in Kenya and Ethiopia. This review provides an overview of a unique collaboration of paleoanthropologists and earth scientists who have joined together to ex- plicitly explore key hypotheses linking environmental history and mammalian (including hominin) evolution and potentially develop new testable hypotheses. With a focus on continuous, high-resolution proxies at timescales relevant to both biological and cultural evolution, the HSPDP aims to dramatically expand our understanding of the environmental history of eastern Africa during a signi cant portion of the Late Neogene and Quaternary, and to generate useful models of long-term environmental dynamics in the region.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2017 · Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences
    • The combination of features evident in SKX 16699, albeit in the pedal context of an australopith or early Homo tarsometatarsal and hallucal skeleton, could provide the earliest evidence for the distinctly human pattern of lateral forefoot function, one related to increasing substrate traction (Stott et al., 1973), running performance (Rolian et al., 2009), and tightening the plantar aponeurosis in a foot with pedal arches (Hicks, 1954). If so, it is at about the same time as the relatively short intermediate phalanges of KNM-ER 803, as well as the oldest evidence for a functional pattern in the more proximal lower limb similar to those of Middle and Late Pleistocene archaic Homo (Day and Leakey, 1974; Pontzer et al., 2010; Rose, 1984; Trinkaus, 1984). Confirmation of this hypothesis will require at least an articulated set of metatarsals and phalanges, but the derived " human " features of this isolated phalanx are difficult to understand otherwise.
    File · Data · Oct 2016 · Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences
    • A pronounced acetabulosacral buttress is associated with weight-bearing because this thickened region of bone, from the superior portion of the acetabulum vertically to the auricular surface, corresponds to the route of weight transfer between the hip and sacroiliac joints. The australopith acetabulosacral buttress (e.g., A.L. 288-1, Sts 14, SK 3155b, SK 50) is both relatively thinner and less robust compared to Pleistocene Homo (e.g., OH 28, KNM-ER 3228, KNM-ER 1808, UA-173/405, Broken Hill E.719; Day, 1971; Robinson, 1972; Rose, 1984; Stringer, 1986; Macchiarelli et al., 2004 ). The difference in robusticity of the acetabulosacral buttress is most noticeable closer to the hip joint and can be easily appreciated by viewing the greater sciatic notch inferiorly.
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Characterizing australopith pelvic morphology has been difficult in part because of limited fossilized pelvic material. Here, we reassess the morphology of an under-studied adult right ilium and pubis (Sts 65) from Member 4 of Sterkfontein, South Africa, and provide a hypothetical digital reconstruction of its overall pelvic morphology. The small size of the pelvis, presence of a preauricular sulcus, and shape of the sciatic notch allow us to agree with past interpretations that Sts 65 likely belonged to a female. The morphology of the iliac pillar, while not as substantial as in Homo, is more robust than in A.L. 288-1 and Sts 14. We created a reconstruction of the pelvis by digitally articulating the Sts 65 right ilium and a mirrored copy of the left ilium with the Sts 14 sacrum in Autodesk Maya. Points along the arcuate line were used to orient the ilia to the sacrum. This reconstruction of the Sts 65 pelvis looks much like a “classic” australopith pelvis, with laterally flared ilia and an inferiorly deflected pubis. An analysis of the obstetric dimensions from our reconstruction shows similarity to other australopiths, a likely transverse or oblique entrance of the neonatal cranium into the pelvic inlet, and a cephalopelvic ratio similar to that found in humans today.
    Article · Oct 2016
    • The combination of features evident in SKX 16699, albeit in the pedal context of an australopith or early Homo tarsometatarsal and hallucal skeleton, could provide the earliest evidence for the distinctly human pattern of lateral forefoot function, one related to increasing substrate traction (Stott et al., 1973), running performance (Rolian et al., 2009), and tightening the plantar aponeurosis in a foot with pedal arches (Hicks, 1954). If so, it is at about the same time as the relatively short intermediate phalanges of KNM-ER 803, as well as the oldest evidence for a functional pattern in the more proximal lower limb similar to those of Middle and Late Pleistocene archaic Homo (Day and Leakey, 1974; Pontzer et al., 2010; Rose, 1984; Trinkaus, 1984). Confirmation of this hypothesis will require at least an articulated set of metatarsals and phalanges, but the derived " human " features of this isolated phalanx are difficult to understand otherwise.
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to assess the antiquity of derived human lateral (lesser) toe morphology, the SKX 16699 Early Pleistocene pedal proximal phalanx from Swartkrans (South Africa) was compared to samples of pedal phalanges attributed to Pliocene/Pleistocene australopithecines, Homo naledi and Late Pleistocene Homo. In contrast to australopith lateral phalanges, the SKX 16699 phalanx exhibits an absolutely (and probably relatively) short length, limited plantar diaphyseal curvature, proximal-to-midshaft and mid-dorsoplantar flexor sheath insertions, and a marked proximodorsal orientation of the metatarsal facet. SKX 16699 is intermediate between the australopith phalanges and later Homo ones in its modest dorsal diaphyseal curvature and mid-dorsoplantar metatarsophalangeal collateral ligament insertion areas. Its diaphyseal robustness is similar to that of Homo phalanges, but overlaps the range of later australopith ones. This combination of features and the close morphological affinities of SKX 16699 to later Homo proximal pedal phalanges suggest the emergence of a distinctly human lateral forefoot by the initial Early Pleistocene.
    Article · Sep 2016
    • sample) and by the use of a projected adult body mass for the juvenile KNM-WT 15000. The KNM-ER 3228 pelvis may [43] or may not [16] belong to H. erectus, and the same taxonomic ambiguity is attached to KNM-ER 1481 and KNM-ER 1472 as noted above. We have also included the Gona pelvis in our African H. erectus sample [44,45], but this attribution has also been questioned [46] .
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body size is a fundamental biological property of organisms, and documenting body size variation in hominin evolution is an important goal of palaeoanthropology. Estimating body mass appears deceptively simple but is laden with theoretical and pragmatic assumptions about best predictors and the most appropriate reference samples. Modern human training samples with known masses are arguably the ‘best’ for estimating size in early bipedal hominins such as the australopiths and all members of the genus Homo, but it is not clear if they are the most appropriate priors for reconstructing the size of the earliest putative hominins such as Orrorin and Ardipithecus. The trajectory of body size evolution in the early part of the human career is reviewed here and found to be complex and nonlinear. Australopith body size varies enormously across both space and time. The pre-erectus early Homo fossil record from Africa is poor and dominated by relatively small-bodied individuals, implying that the emergence of the genus Homo is probably not linked to an increase in body size or unprecedented increases in size variation. Body size differences alone cannot explain the observed variation in hominin body shape, especially when examined in the context of small fossil hominins and pygmy modern humans. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2016
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