Nutritional Concerns During Adolescence

ArticleinPediatric Clinics of North America 27(1):125-39 · March 1980with16 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/S0031-3955(16)33824-X · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Adolescence is a period of dramatic growth and development. As a child evolves into an adult, a complex myriad of physiologic as well as psychologic alterations takes place. These changes create special nutrition needs, and in the following pages we shall review selected aspects of adolescent nutrition. Adolescent nutrient requirements and food habits as well as the special nutrition needs of obese, athletic, or pregnant teenagers will be presented. We also discuss the nutritional implications of alcohol abuse, use of oral contraceptive agents, and acne during the adolescent period. The critical role of nutrition in pubertal growth and development actually begins before adolescence, during childhood. This fact is supported by the observation that taller, heavier children enter puberty earlier than shorter, lighter children. Nonetheless, total nutrient needs are higher during adolescence than at any other time in the life cycle. Failure to consume an adequate diet at this time can potentially retard growth and delay sexual maturity.
    • "It was observed that the elevated frequency of erythrocyte deficiency, in the adolescents assessed, was probably caused by difficulties related to impaired erythrocyte zinc uptake, which occurs as a result of some nutritional deficiencies [6]. Median concentration of copper was greater, in all groups, than the adopted reference value (70 ?g/dL); however , literature reports diverse cutoff points [2, 19, 29, 30] which hinder the comparison of results. Other studies describe copper concentrations in serum or plasma in adolescents; however, they do not consider puberty stages, grouping the samples according to chronological age [31][32][33], or assessing a broad age range [34, 35] , which also impedes the comparison of results. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Considering that modification in body composition and growth velocity leads to alterations in zinc and copper nutritional status, the purpose of the study was to assess erythrocyte zinc and serum copper in adolescents of both genders, according to the stage of sexual maturity at different growth phases. Methods Two hundred and eighty-six adolescents were assessed, 157 were female, with body mass index Z-score between −2 and +2. Clinical biochemical measurements were assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Student’s t, Kruskal-Wallis, and Bonferroni tests were used. Results Median serum copper was superior, and zinc was inferior to respective reference values in all groups. Serum copper presented significant reduction in the final stages of pubertal development in males; in turn, erythrocyte zinc values increased linearly with the evolution of puberty stages in both genders. Comparison between genders in each stage of growth showed significant difference in peak acceleration and in deceleration for erythrocyte zinc and serum copper, with both being higher in females. Conclusions Serum copper is inversely influenced by modifications that occur with the evolution of puberty in males, whereas erythrocyte zinc is directly influenced in both genders, although always with deficient deposition. At peak acceleration and deceleration of growth, there is greater mobilization of erythrocyte zinc and serum copper in males, when compared with females, which does not occur at the onset of the acceleration of growth.
    Article · Dec 2016
    • "Environmental ozone is negatively correlated with sperm counts in men (Sokol et al, 2006), and antioxidant supplementation is associated with increased sperm concentration and motility (Eskenazi et al, 2005). Undernutrition delays sexual maturation (Marino and King, 1980), and overnutrition is associated with reduced fertility in overweight men (Sallmen et al, 2006). Experiments in pigs indicate that nutrients are transferred from blood into semen with varying efficiencies that may or may not be associated with changes in sperm function (Audet et al, 2004). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selenium (Se) is essential for sperm function and male fertility, but high Se intake has been associated with impaired semen quality. We reported previously a decrease in sperm motility in men fed high-Se foods, but we could not rule out the influence of other environmental and dietary factors. We now report on a randomized, controlled study on the potential adverse effects of Se supplementation on semen quality in 42 free-living men administered Se (300 microg/d) as high-Se yeast for 48 weeks. Semen analysis was performed 4 times before treatment began, then twice each week during treatment at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks, and then after treatment at 72 and 96 weeks. Blood samples were collected 3 times before treatment and at each subsequent visit. Se concentration increased 61% in blood plasma and 49% in seminal plasma. However, Se supplementation had no effect on sperm Se, serum androgen concentrations, or sperm count, motility, progressive velocity, or morphology. We observed progressive decreases in serum luteinizing hormone, semen volume, and sperm Se in both the high-Se and placebo groups. Moreover, sperm straight-line velocity and percent normal morphology increased in Se-treated and placebo-treated participants. The lack of an increase in sperm Se suggests that testicular Se stores were unaffected, even though the participants' dietary Se intake was tripled and their total body Se approximately doubled by supplementation. These results are consistent with animal studies showing the Se status of testes to be unresponsive to dietary Se intake.
    Full-text · Article · May 2009
    • "The importance of personal appearance to adolescents (Cash, Winstead, & Janda, 1986) highlights the need to explore adolescent girls' body-related interactions with their mothers. Furthermore, girls in early to middle adolescence and women in middle age both experience marked physical changes (Ashwell, Chinn, Stalley, & Garrow, 1978; Berkun, 1983; Garner, 1997; Marino & King, 1980). With the sexual maturation of adolescence, young women experience an increase in skin-fold thickness and changes in the distribution of body fat, with an increased fat distribution or deposition in the lower trunk (i.e., the hip and thigh regions) (Lucas & Huse, 1988; Young, Sipin, & Roe, 1968). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interpretive study reported in this article focused on the process by which mothers and daughters interact about body and dieting. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 mothers and their adolescent daughters. Constant comparison analysis of data revealed four patterns of mother-daughter interaction about body and dieting: (a) the direct verbal approach, including encouragement/facilitation, dissuasion, and fault-finding messages; (b) the avoidance/guardedness approach; (c) the modeling approach; and (d) the laissez-faire approach. These four patterns of communication varied in terms of content and were used in different contexts and combinations. These mother-daughter interactions (a) were shaped by mothers’ and daughters’ thoughts about the self, the other, and the mother-daughter relationship; (b) were used by mothers and daughters to plan future interactions with one another; and (c) served to guide lines of personal action with respect to dieting, especially in the case of daughters.
    Full-text · Article · May 2003
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