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Moderating effect of social support on the stress-burnout relationship

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Abstract

Assessed the extent of life and work stresses, the availability of social support, and experience of burnout through a self-report questionnaire administered to 357 female (mean age 32 yrs) and 273 male (mean age 39 yrs) Israeli managers and human service professionals. Analysis showed that female Ss experienced more burnout and stress in life than did male Ss; no difference was found between the sexes for stress in work. Burnout was positively correlated with stress and negatively correlated with social support in both life and work. Further analysis revealed different patterns of moderating effects of social support on the relationship between stress and burnout for males and females: The relationship between work stress and burnout was moderated by support in life for females and by support in work for males. It is concluded that special attention should be paid to cultural, occupational, and sex differences in social support research and the exploration of its buffering effect. (47 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... Despite the fact that the researchers give different definitions of social support (Cobb, 1976;Kaplan, Cassel, & Gore, 1977;Barrera, 1981;House, 1981;Thoits, 1982;Turner, Frankel & Levin, 1983;Etzion, 1984;Berkman, 1984;Gottlieb, 1985;Albert & Adelman, 1987;Sarason, Shearin, Pierce, & Sarason, 1987;Bloom, 1990;Ducharme, Stevens, & Rowat, 1994;Hupcey, 1998;Rodriguez & Cohen, 1998;Shanock & Eisenberger, 2006), there is an agreement regarding the multidimensional nature of the social support phenomenon. Researchers traditionally base themselves on House"s (1981) works who distinguished four types of social support: emotional support, instrumental or material support, informational support and appraisal support. ...
... Along with the other dimensions social support involves practical and emotional support (Etzion;Brough & Pears, 2004;Lingard & Francis, 2006). These dimensions also fall within the scope of researchers" interest (Etzion;Brough & Pears, 2004). ...
... Along with the other dimensions social support involves practical and emotional support (Etzion;Brough & Pears, 2004;Lingard & Francis, 2006). These dimensions also fall within the scope of researchers" interest (Etzion;Brough & Pears, 2004). In the context of given research practical support implies the support provided to an employee by supervisor(s) and co-workers, which involves assistance in performing work tasks, consultancy and sharing professional experience. ...
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The present study explores the cause and effect relationship between organizational justice and occupational stress and applies the moderation and mediation analysis to this relationship. An attempt is made to identify the best predictor of occupational stress among the forms of organizational justice. Furthermore, indirect relationships (moderation, mediation and moderated mediation effects) are explored by introducing intermediary variables (moderators – social support, neuroticism and extraversion; mediator – organizational environment). The study also focuses on the direct and indirect relationships between organizational justice, occupational stress and job satisfaction. Organizational justice and occupational stress: The study results show that among the forms of organizational justice distributive justice is the only predictor of occupational stress. Interactional justice mainly predicts personal strain, and procedural justice – personal resources (rational coping with stressful situation, readiness for recreational activities, etc.) A moderated mediation effect has been demonstrated in the relationship between organizational justice and occupational stress. This relationship is fully mediated by organizational environment and moderated by neuroticism. Social support, organizational justice and occupational stress: It has been proved that social support (in particular, supervisor emotional support) is a reliable predictor of stress. Emotional support makes a significant contribution to the explanation of the variance in organizational justice. Another reliable predictor of organizational justice is practical support. A moderated mediation effect has been demonstrated in the relationship between social support and occupational stress. In particular, this relationship is fully mediated by organizational justice and moderated by extraversion.
... First, although previous research found that RSS (Etzion, 1984;Rhodes & Woods, 1995) could moderate the stressorstress relationship such that this relationship was weak when individuals reported a high level of RSS, these studies operationalized RSS as the support that recipients found satisfactory (Etzion, 1984;Rhodes & Woods, 1995). Given the boomerang effect of RSS on stress buffering (Bolger et al., 2000;Gleason et al., 2003;Lindorff, 2000;Norris & Kaniasty, 1996;Wethington & Kessler, 1986;Zhou & Yao, 2020), it is critical to retest whether RSS moderates the effect of stressor on stress. ...
... First, although previous research found that RSS (Etzion, 1984;Rhodes & Woods, 1995) could moderate the stressorstress relationship such that this relationship was weak when individuals reported a high level of RSS, these studies operationalized RSS as the support that recipients found satisfactory (Etzion, 1984;Rhodes & Woods, 1995). Given the boomerang effect of RSS on stress buffering (Bolger et al., 2000;Gleason et al., 2003;Lindorff, 2000;Norris & Kaniasty, 1996;Wethington & Kessler, 1986;Zhou & Yao, 2020), it is critical to retest whether RSS moderates the effect of stressor on stress. ...
... No matter whether social support is perceived (i.e., PSS) or enacted (i.e., RSS, Helgeson, 1993), previous research has provided empirical evidence showing that both types of social support can weaken the effect of stressor on stress (Davidson & Demaray, 2007;Etzion, 1984;Mitchell et al., 2014;Rhodes & Woods, 1995;Smith et al., 2013;Wethington & Kessler, 1986). With specific regard to the stress buffering function of RSS, Rhodes and Woods (1995) found that received cognitive guidance moderated the effect of social strain on depression such that social strain exhibited a weaker effect on depression when individuals reported to receive a high level of social support. ...
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Drawing upon the stress buffering model of social support, this study investigated how perceived social support (PSS), defined as the amount of support individuals think they can mobilize from their network, and received social support (RSS), defined as the level of support individuals have received, moderated the direct and indirect relationships between COVID-19 news exposure (i.e., stressor) and stress via social trust. An online survey from six major cities in China (N = 636) revealed that PSS rather than RSS moderated the direct relationship between COVID-19 news exposure and stress such that this relationship was stronger at a low level of PSS than a high level. Additionally, RSS rather than PSS moderated the relationship between COVID-19 news exposure and social trust such that this relationship was stronger at a low level of RSS than a high level. These findings reveal the differential mechanisms by which PSS and RSS function to buffer against stress.
... სხვები სოციალურ მხარდაჭერას განიხილავენ, როგორც კეთილდღეობის ხელშემწყობი რესურსების გაცვლას (Shumaker & Brownell, 1984). სოციალური მხრდაჭერა ასევე შესაძლოა ასოცირებული იყოს ინტერპერსონალურ დაძლევასთან (interpersonal coping) (Thoits, 1986;Greenglass, 1993), განიხილებოდეს, როგორც დაძლევის რესურსი (Endler & Parker, 1990 Kaplan, Cassel, & Gore, 1977;Barrera, 1981;House, 1981;Thoits, 1982;Turner, Frankel, & Levin, 1983;Etzion, 1984;Berkman, 1984;Gottlieb, 1985;Albert & Adelman, 1987;Sarason, Shearin, Pierce, & Sarason, 1987;Bloom, 1990;Ducharme, Stevens, & Rowat, 1994;Hupcey, 1998;Rodriguez & Cohen, 1998;Shanock & Eisenberger, 2006 . სხვები (Thoits, 1982a(Thoits, , 1983c Aneshensel & Frerichs, 1982;Lin, Simeone, Ensel, & Kuo, 1979;Thoits, 1984;Turner, 1981;Williams, Ware, & Donald, 1981). ...
... მსგავსი შედეგები აქვს სამუშაო სტრესის კვლევებსაც (Hart et al., 1995;cf. George, 1996 Kaplan, Cassel, & Gore, 1977;Barrera, 1981;House, 1981;Thoits, 1982;Turner, Frankel, & Levin, 1983;Etzion, 1984;Berkman, 1984;Gottlieb, 1985;Albert & Adelman, 1987;Sarason et al., 1987;Bloom, 1990 (Cohen & Wills, 1985;Buunk et al., 1989;Nelson & Quick, 1991;Terry, Nielsen, & Perchard, 1993;Carayon, 1994a;Viswesvaran, Sanchez, & Fisher, 1999 (Lambert, Hogan, & Griffin, 2007;Taxman & Gordon, 2009;Rousseau et al., 2009;Lambert & Hogan, 2011;Sert et al., 2014). ლამბერტისა და ჰოგანის კვლევის (Lambert & Hogan, 2011 (Zellars & Perrewe, 2001;Burleson, 2003;Lingard & Francis, 2006 (Terry, Nielsen, & Perchard, 1993;Decker & Borgen, 1993;Fogarty et al., 1999;Zangaro & Soeken, 2007 ...
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The present study explores the cause and effect relationship between organizational justice and occupational stress and applies the moderation and mediation analysis to this relationship. An attempt is made to identify the best predictor of occupational stress among the forms of organizational justice. Furthermore, indirect relationships (moderation, mediation and moderated mediation effects) are explored by introducing intermediary variables (moderators – social support, neuroticism and extraversion; mediator – organizational environment). The study also focuses on the direct and indirect relationships between organizational justice, occupational stress and job satisfaction. Organizational justice and occupational stress: The study results show that among the forms of organizational justice distributive justice is the only predictor of occupational stress. Interactional justice mainly predicts personal strain, and procedural justice – personal resources (rational coping with stressful situation, readiness for recreational activities, etc.) A moderated mediation effect has been demonstrated in the relationship between organizational justice and occupational stress. This relationship is fully mediated by organizational environment and moderated by neuroticism. Social support, organizational justice and occupational stress: It has been proved that social support (in particular, supervisor emotional support) is a reliable predictor of stress. Another reliable predictor of organizational justice is practical support. A moderated mediation effect has been demonstrated in the relationship between social support and occupational stress. In particular, this relationship is fully mediated by organizational justice and moderated by extraversion. Organizational justice, occupational stress and job satisfaction: The study shows that out of the forms of organization justice, only distributive and interactional justices are reliable predictors of job satisfaction. Among the dimensions of occupational stress only occupational role stress and personal strain are the predictors of job satisfaction. It has been also proved that occupational stress is a partial mediator of the relationship between organizational justice and job satisfaction.
... Resilience however can be context-dependent [77], and WPC clearly involves the context of one's family and workplace. Therefore, other protective resilience factors like family resilience [78] or social support provided by supervisors, colleagues, spouses, or family [79,80] might be more crucial in this context than individual resilience. Third, there are different conceptual models of resilience, elaborating the way resilience might affect mental health and well-being [81]. ...
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Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic has confronted working parents with an accumulation of stressors regarding changes in work, family, and social life, putting their mental health at risk. Stressors include altered working conditions such as working from home or changes in working hours as well as the difficulty to reconcile work and childcare due to the closure of childcare facilities. The present study examined the relationship of psychosocial work stress (i.e., work-privacy conflict and effort-reward imbalance at work) and depressive symptoms in working parents and whether this association was moderated by individual resilience. Methods Data of the present study (n = 452) were collected in Germany between May and June 2020 as part of the DREAMCORONA study. A subsample of working mothers (n = 191) and fathers (n = 261) completed the subscale for work-privacy conflict (WPC) of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Multiple linear regression analyses including moderation were performed, controlling for gender, working hours per week, and a lifetime history of depression as potential confounders. Results Both WPC (β = 0.336, p
... Thus, the appreciative nature of gratitude should help people approach work demands from more appreciative, positive lens. Second, the interpersonal strengths that gratitude provides (e.g., appreciation of others and gratitude towards others) may help highly grateful people have stronger social support systems, which buffers against burnout (Etzion, 1984). ...
Article
The limited organizational scholarship on past adversity has characterized it as something to cope with, positing that how past adversity is perceived is key to employees’ coping effectiveness (Nurmohamed et al., 2021; Stephens et al., 2015; Vogel & Bolino, 2020). Conversely, lay theory suggests that “what does not kill you makes you stronger.” Through this dissertation, I aim to provide empirical evidence for this claim in an organizational setting. To do so, I draw on positive identity growth theorizing (Maitlis, 2009; 2020) to empirically examine the organizational benefits of identity growth after experiences of overcoming adversity. In doing so, I introduce a new concept to the organizational behavior literature, an “overcoming adversity identity,” which is when an experience of hardship, whether singular or continuous, has been redeemed in the eyes of the person with that experience, thereby becoming a positive part of that person’s identity. Through two longitudinal studies and one randomized experimental intervention, I find promising evidence that having a stronger overcoming adversity identity is associated with interpersonal, intrapersonal, and intellectual character enrichment (the tripartite model of character; Park et al., 2017). I also find some evidence that suggests that this character enrichment, in turn, is positively related to extra-role performance and in-role performance, and negatively related to burnout. Implications and future directions are discussed. In conclusion, this dissertation provides preliminary empirical evidence to suggest that indeed, what does not kill you can make you stronger.
... Much research has focused on the "buffering hypothesis," which posits that interpersonal relationships and social support function as protective factors against stress (Cohen & Willis, 1985). Generally speaking, this body of work suggests social support lowers both work-related stress and burnout (Ganster et al., 1986), including the possibility that social support may weaken the relationship between stress and burnout (e.g., Etzion, 1984). Among educators specifically, a general sense of collegial support is associated with reduced teacher stress and burnout (Bottiani et al., 2019;Kinman et al., 2011;Punch & Tuetteman, 1996;Russell et al., 1987), even after taking into account personal coping strategies (e.g., disengagement; Griffith et al., 1999). ...
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School mental health practitioners and researchers are increasingly concerned about educator job-related stress and its implications for teacher burnout, teaching efficacy, turnover, and student outcomes. Educators’ collegial networks in their schools are natural resources for stress support, yet little is known about the extent to which educators seek support from their colleagues in managing their stress and whether these relationships promote their emotional wellbeing. Utilizing peer nomination and self-report data from 370 educators in 17 elementary and middle schools, we found patterns in whom educators nominated as a source of stress support. Specifically, educators more often nominated colleagues who worked in the same role, grade, and/or subject, and those similar in age and who had similar or more experience. Furthermore, men and educators of color more often nominated same-gender and same-race colleagues, respectively, whereas these trends were not observed for women or White educators. However, the prevalence of these characteristics among colleagues nominated as a source of stress support was not often significantly associated with educators’ stress and burnout. Rather, educators’ level of burnout was positively related to the burnout among those in their stress support networks. In addition, educators’ stress and burnout were positively related to the stress and burnout of their colleagues with whom they spent the most time. These findings highlight how educators’ perceptions of stress and burnout may be shared within their collegial networks and have implications for a role for colleagues in teacher stress-reduction and wellbeing-focused interventions.
... Prosocial behaviour is thereby understood as the usage of one's own resources for the gain of others [8]. There are indications of negative associations between burnout symptoms and the provision of social support [9][10][11], as well as empathic abilities and social skills [12][13][14][15][16][17]. Yet, other research failed to find significant associations between burnout symptoms and prosocial behaviour [18]. ...
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Background The study aimed to investigate the link between burnout symptoms and prosocial behaviour, as well as the role of acute stress and vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) on this association. Methods Seventy men were randomly assigned to either the stress or the control condition of the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G). Prosocial behaviour was assessed via a social decision-making paradigm during the respective TSST-G condition. Results Correlation analyses revealed negative correlations between prosocial behaviour and burnout symptoms. Acute stress was also associated with reduced prosocial behaviour, whereas no interaction effects with burnout symptoms could be revealed. Exploratory analyses showed that vmHRV was negatively correlated with burnout symptoms during the social decision-making paradigm but did not mediate the link between burnout and prosocial behaviour. Conclusion In conclusion, we report first experimental evidence that burnout symptoms are negatively associated with prosocial behaviour. Further studies are needed to explore the causal relations.
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Job burnout is an important aspect of organisational behaviour that has negative impact on librarians and organisational outcome. Despite the efforts made by library management to prevent job burnout among librarians, high level of emotional exhaustion, cynicism and inefficacy remain a major challenge. Poor response to job burnout by librarians’ may be attributed to lack of understanding of job characteristics, low level of work engagement and inability to exhibit citizenship behaviour in the library. The study investigated the influence of job characteristics, work engagement and organisational citizenship behaviour on job burnout among librarians in university libraries in Southern Nigeria. The study employed survey research design. The population of the study consisted of 624 librarians from 38 public universities in Southern Nigeria. Total enumeration was used. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data. The Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficients for the constructs ranged from 0.72 to 0.95. The response rate was 80.4%. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential (simple and multiple regression) statistics. The findings revealed that the combined influence of job characteristics, work engagement and organisational citizenship behaviour on job burnout of librarians in university libraries in Southern Nigeria was significant (F(3,498) = 13.354, Adj. R2 = .069, p < .05). Job characteristics significantly influenced job burnout of librarians in university libraries in Southern Nigeria (β = .126, t(498) = 2.838, R2 = .016, p < .05); likewise work engagement significantly influenced job burnout of librarians in university libraries in Southern Nigeria (β = .184, t(498) = 4.191, R2 = .034, p < .05) and organisational citizenship behaviour also significantly influenced job burnout of librarians in university libraries in Southern Nigeria (β = .252, t(498) = 5.815, R2 = .063, p < .05). There was a low level of job burnout among librarians (M = 2.20, SD = 1.33 on a scale of six). The librarians had much understanding of their job characteristics (M = 2.50, SD = 0.61 on a scale of three). There was a very high level of work engagement among librarians (M = 4.67, SD = 1.27 on a scale of six) and librarians exhibited organisational citizenship behaviour to a certain degree (M = 2.95, SD = 1.00 on a scale of five). The study concluded that factors such as job characteristics, work engagement and organisational citizenship behaviour contribute to low level of job burnout among librarians in universities in Southern Nigeria. The study recommended that in order for librarians to continue to perform optimally, library management should maintain the current work atmosphere together with ensuring improvement to sustain the low level of job burnout among librarians. Library authorities should train librarians on organisational citizenship behaviour, job characteristics and on maintaining good work ethics to prevent job burnout.
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