Effects of Obesity on Respiratory Function 1– 3
Obesity, because it alters the relationship between the lungs, chest wall, and diaphragm, has been expected to alter respiratory function. We studied 43 massively obese but otherwise normal, nonsmoking, young adults with spirometry, lung volume measurement by nitrogen washout, and single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Changes in respiratory function were of two types, those that changed in proportion to degree of obesity--expiratory reserve volume (ERV) and DLCO--and those that changed only with extreme obesity--vital capacity, total lung capacity, and maximal voluntary ventilation. When compared with commonly used predicting equations, we found that mean values of subjects grouped by degree of obesity were very close to predicted values, except in those with extreme obesity in whom weight (kg)/height (cm) exceeded 1.0. In 29 subjects who lost a mean of 56 kg, significant increases in vital capacity, ERV, and maximal voluntary ventilation were found, along with a significant decrease in DLCO. Because most subjects fell within the generally accepted 95% confidence limits for the predicted values, we concluded that obesity does not usually preclude use of usual predictors. An abnormal pulmonary function test value should be considered as caused by intrinsic lung disease and not by obesity, except in those with extreme obesity.
Available from: Carla Hilario da Cunha Daltro
- "Although obesity-related lung function changes have been described in adults, there is a
lack of data on such changes in children.(
) The increase in childhood obesity is an emerging problem worldwide and
directly contributes to obesity in adulthood; as a result, there is an increase in the
incidence of fatal diseases such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome,
dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, and even respiratory
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ABSTRACT: To describe lung function findings in overweight children and adolescents without respiratory disease.
This was a cross-sectional study involving male and female overweight children and adolescents in the 8-18 year age bracket, without respiratory disease. All of the participants underwent anthropometric assessment, chest X-ray, pulse oximetry, spirometry, and lung volume measurements. Individuals with respiratory disease were excluded, as were those who were smokers, those with abnormal chest X-rays, and those with an SpO2 = 92%. Waist circumference was measured in centimeters. The body mass index-for-age Z score for boys and girls was used in order to classify the individuals as overweight, obese, or severely obese. Lung function variables were expressed in percentage of the predicted value and were correlated with the anthropometric indices.
We included 59 individuals (30 males and 29 females). The mean age was 11.7 ± 2.7 years. Lung function was normal in 21 individuals (35.6%). Of the 38 remaining individuals, 19 (32.2%), 15 (25.4%), and 4 (6.7%) presented with obstructive, restrictive, and mixed ventilatory disorder, respectively. The bronchodilator response was positive in 15 individuals (25.4%), and TLC measurements revealed that all of the individuals with reduced VC had restrictive ventilatory disorder. There were significant negative correlations between the anthropometric indices and the Tiffeneau index in the individuals with mixed ventilatory disorder.
Lung function was abnormal in approximately 65% of the individuals evaluated here, all of whom were overweight. Obstructive ventilatory disorder and positive bronchodilator response predominated.
Available from: Giovanni Barisione
- "Various authors report important % increase of ERV from the baseline, but these data are significant particularly following important weight reduction. (ERV +157 % from the baseline after BMI decrease from 49 to 33,7; ERV: +65 % after BMI decrease from 42.1 to 30.9 and ERV +48 % after BMI decrease from 56.7 to 37.4) [36–38]. "
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ABSTRACT: Anecdotal data in the last few years suggest that protein-sparing modified diet (PSMF) delivered by naso-gastric tube enteral (with continuous feeding) could attain an significant weight loss and control of appetite oral feeding, but no phase II studies on safety and efficacy have been done up to now. To verify the safety and efficacy of a protein-sparing modified fast administered by naso-gastric tube (ProMoFasT) for 10 days followed by 20 days of a low-calorie diet, in patients with morbid obesity (appetite control, fat free mass maintenance, pulmonary function tests and metabolic pattern, side effects), 26 patients with a BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) have been selected. The patients had to follow a protein-sparing fast by enteral nutrition (ProMoFasT) for 24 h/day, for 10 days followed by 20 days of low-calorie diet (LCD). The endpoint was represented by body weight, BMI, abdominal circumference, Haber's appetite test, body composition by body impedance assessment (BIA), handgrip strength test, metabolic pattern, pulmonary function test. Safety was assessed by evaluation of complications and side effects of PSMF and/or enteral nutrition. In this report the results on safety and efficacy are described after 10 and 30 days of treatment. After the recruiting phase, a total of 22 patients out of 26 enrolled [14 (63.6 %) females] were evaluated in this study. Globally almost all clinical parameters changed significantly during first 10 days. Total body weight significantly decreased after 10 days (∆-6.1 ± 2; p < 0.001) and this decrease is maintained in the following 20 days of LCD (∆ = -5.88 ± 1.79; p < 0.001). Also the abdominal circumference significantly decreased after 10 days [median (range): -4.5 (-30 to 0); p < 0.001] maintained then in the following 20 days of LCD [median (range) = -7 (-23.5 to -2); p < 0.001]. All BIA parameters significantly changed after 10 and 30 days from baseline. All parameters except BF had a significant change after 10 days of treatment while the difference at 30 days was lower than at 10 days for TBW, FFM and MM with no significant differences from baseline for the last two characteristics. For VAS appetite the difference was significant after 10 days and the decrease in appetite was maintained at 30 days with no significant difference (p = 0.83) between 10 and 30 days. No significant differences in the first 30 days were detected for PA and for both left and right hand grip strength. Particularly, a significant reduction of 1.82 kg in FFM after 10 days was detected, but not after 30 days. In contrast, a decrease of 3.8 kg of BF is observed after 30 days. As far as the respiratory functional tests (RFT) are concerned, a significant difference at 10 days was globally observed for functional residual capacity (p = 0.012) and expiratory reserve volume (p = 0.025). There are no reported major complications and side effects resulting from the enteral nutrition or PSMF. In particular, cardiac arrhythmias have not been reported. From the clinical point of view the PSMF with naso-gastric tube (ProMoFasT) method appears safe, it is associated with a significant weight loss related to decrease of FM and not to loss of FFM and appetite decreases. It is relevant that the RFT are significantly improved after only 10 days suggesting the efficacy of this regime in short period, too. These preliminary data underline the necessity to increase the number of RCT for this method, which could represent a possible alternative to other methodologies, such as the intragastric balloon, in particular when it is recommended to improve RFT before bariatric, gynecological, orthopedic and lymphatic surgery.
Available from: Jordan A. Guenette
- "RV/TLC may be increased in obesity reflecting air trapping secondary to increased volume-dependent airway closure   , although Jones and Nzekwu found no significant difference in this ratio between BMI groups . Vital capacity (VC) may decline as BMI increases but generally into the lower normal range    . However, the inspiratory capacity (IC) and the IC/TLC ratio increase with increasing the BMI reflecting the relative preservation of TLC in the presence of decreased EELV  . "
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ABSTRACT: In many parts of the world, the prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate. The association between obesity, multiple comorbidities, and increased mortality is now firmly established in many epidemiological studies. However, the link between obesity and exercise intolerance is less well studied and is the focus of this paper. Although exercise limitation is likely to be multifactorial in obesity, it is widely believed that the respiratory mechanical constraints and the attendant dyspnea are important contributors. In this paper, we examined the evidence that critical ventilatory constraint is a proximate source of exercise limitation in individuals with mild-to-moderate obesity. We first reviewed existing information on exercise performance, including ventilatory and perceptual response patterns, in obese individuals who are otherwise healthy. We then considered the impact of obesity in patients with preexisting respiratory mechanical abnormalities due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with particular reference to the effect on dyspnea and exercise performance. Our main conclusion, based on the existing and rather sparse literature on the subject, is that abnormalities of dynamic respiratory mechanics are not likely to be the dominant source of dyspnea and exercise intolerance in otherwise healthy individuals or in patients with COPD with mild-to-moderate obesity.
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