Article

Social Factors Related to the Follow-Up Status of Opioid Addicts

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Abstract

The present findings concerning social and environmental factors that might affect follow-up outcomes offer tentative support for several major theoretical themes. These findings may be interpreted in terms of their practical implications for treatment and other intervention strategies for opioid addicts (such as emphasizing compensatory experiences, appropriate reference group identifications and social readjustment of clients), but the results are not definitive and lack precision in causal interpretations. Hopefully, subsequent research will benefit from these preliminary findings and will develop improved procedures for identifying and measuring the important variables in these and other theoretical models for greater precision in establishing predictive relationships with outcomes.

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... Most field studies of relapse to date have focused on measuring the frequency of relapse or its timing (e.g., O'Donnell 1965;Hunt and Bespalec 1974). A much smaller number of empirical studies have sought to discover the predictors and causes of relapse (e.g., Alksne 1955;Ball and Snarr 1969;Brill et al. 1972;Brown et al. 1971;Joe and Simpson 1983;Jorques 1983;McAuliffe 1982;Stephens and Cottrell 1972;Vaillant 1969;Waldorf 1973Waldorf . 1979Wikler and Pescor 1967;Willie 1983;Winick 1962Winick , 1964. ...
... Other statistical studies of relapse have used multivariate methods but have often employed exploratory or predictionoriented model specification methods, such as step-wise regression, that select variables solely on statistical rather than theoretical for testing theoretical models. The recent study by Jose and Simpson (1983) represents an important early attempt to investigate relapse using multivariate statistical models specified theoretically, although the authors apparently had to rely on existing measures as indicators rather than on measures specifically designed for this purpose. ...
... Most field studies of relapse to date have focused on measuring the frequency of relapse or its timing (e.g., O'Donnell 1965;Hunt and Bespalec 1974). A much smaller number of empirical studies have sought to discover the predictors and causes of relapse (e.g., Alksne 1955;Ball and Snarr 1969;Brill et al. 1972;Brown et al. 1971;Joe and Simpson 1983;Jorques 1983;McAuliffe 1982;Stephens and Cottrell 1972;Vaillant 1969;Waldorf 1973Waldorf . 1979Wikler and Pescor 1967;Willie 1983;Winick 1962Winick , 1964. ...
... Other statistical studies of relapse have used multivariate methods but have often employed exploratory or predictionoriented model specification methods, such as step-wise regression, that select variables solely on statistical rather than theoretical for testing theoretical models. The recent study by Jose and Simpson (1983) represents an important early attempt to investigate relapse using multivariate statistical models specified theoretically, although the authors apparently had to rely on existing measures as indicators rather than on measures specifically designed for this purpose. ...
... Within the substance abuse treatment literature, much attention has been paid to contact with substance using network members and to which people in the network also use substances. For example, a number of studies have focused on the adverse effects of network member drug use on recovery (Davis & O'Neil, in press;Harris, Fallot, & Berley, in press;Hawkins & Fraser, 1987;Rhoads, 1983;Joe & Simpson, 1983;Ellis, Bernichon, Roberts, & Herrell, 2004) and involvement in crime (Best, Hernado, Gossop, Sidwell, & Strang, 2003). Likewise, the importance of non-using social network ties has been stressed in maintenance of sobriety (Gordon & Zrull, 1991;Harris, Fallot, & Berkley, in press), treatment adherence (Hawkins & Fraser, 1983;Galanter, 1999) and relapse prevention (Daley & Marlatt, 1992). ...
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