A case-control interview study involving 227 women in North Carolina with oral cavity or pharyngeal cancer and 405 matched controls showed a protective effect of a usual adult diet high in fruits and vegetables. The relative risks of 0.65 for moderate and 0.52 for high (relative to 1.0 for infrequent) consumption of fruits and vegetables were statistically significant and remained after controlling for demographic characteristics, tobacco and alcohol use, relative weight, and intake of other food groups. Risks were lower with higher bread and cereal intake but higher for those women with the lightest weights, adjusted for height. The inverse associations between oral and pharyngeal cancer and intake of fruits and vegetables and intake of breads and cereals could not be attributed to an association with general nutritional status, since meat and fish consumption was related to an increased risk of oral and pharynx cancer. Moreover, dairy and egg consumption was generally unrelated to cancer risk. The reduction in risk with greater fruit and vegetable consumption is consistent with the hypothesis that vitamin C and/or beta-carotene intake is associated with a reduced risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer.
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"tract cancers. Multiple case-control studies showed an inverse correlation between fruit and vegetable intake and the risk for cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx    . Peto et al. also hypothesized in 1981 that β-carotene might reduce the incidence of all cancers, especially lung cancer . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite clear results of observational studies linking a diet rich in fruits and vegetables to a decreased cancer risk, large interventional trials evaluating the impact of dietary micronutrient supplementation, mostly vitamins, could not show any beneficial effects. Today it has become clear that a single micronutrient, given in supernutritional doses, cannot match cancer preventive effects of whole fruits and vegetables. In this regard polyphenols came into focus, not only because of their antioxidant potential but also because of their ability to interact with molecular targets within the cells. Because polyphenols occur in many foods and beverages in high concentration and evidence for their anticancer activity is best for tissues they can come into direct contact with, field cancerization predestines upper aerodigestive tract epithelium for cancer chemoprevention by polyphenols. In this paper, we summarize cancer chemopreventive attempts with emphasis on head and neck carcinogenesis and discuss some methodological issues. We present data regarding antimutagenic effects of curcumin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human oropharyngeal mucosa cultures exposed to cigarette smoke condensate.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
"Increased cancer risks also are attributable to dietary factors, notably low intake of fruits and vegetables (Winn et al., 1984; Winn, 1995). Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables were said to be protective against oral cancer when controlled for demographic characteristics, tobacco and alcohol use, relative weight, and the intake of other food items (Winn et al., 1984). The reduction of risk is seen to be consistent with the hypothesis that Vitamin C and/or Vitamin A and ß-carotene intake is associated with a reduced risk of oral and pharyngeal cancers (Ibrahim, Jafarey and Zuberi, 1977). "
"This study showed that while smoking and drinking are highly associated with increased risk of oral cancer, frequent intake of raw vegetables and fruit is inversely associated with risks of oral cancer after adjustments for variables including smoking and drinking alcohol . This ®nding is in keeping with studies from India , China  and Western countries and USA  where protective eects of fruits, vegetables and dietary ®bres against oral cancer and precancer was observed after adjusting for tobacco and alcohol. In Malaysia, a populationbased case-control study comparing the cultural habits, serum micronutrients and oral leukoplakia in two ethnic groups was conducted. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is an update on cultural and dietary risk factors for oral precancer and cancer. It is an overview on ethnic differences (where possible) and socio-cultural risk factors (tobacco/areca nut/betel quid, alcohol use and dietary factors) in relation to oral precancer and cancer. While studies were from Western countries, India and China, this update also attempts to include and highlight some studies conducted in the Asia-Pacific region.